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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434881/muramyl-dipeptide-based-postbiotics-mitigate-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-via-irf4
#1
Joseph F Cavallari, Morgan D Fullerton, Brittany M Duggan, Kevin P Foley, Emmanuel Denou, Brennan K Smith, Eric M Desjardins, Brandyn D Henriksbo, Kalvin J Kim, Brian R Tuinema, Jennifer C Stearns, David Prescott, Philip Rosenstiel, Brian K Coombes, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan D Schertzer
Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but intervening with antibiotics, prebiotics, or probiotics can be limited by specificity or sustained changes in microbial composition. Postbiotics include bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, which have been shown to promote insulin resistance during metabolic endotoxemia. We found that bacterial cell wall-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is an insulin-sensitizing postbiotic that requires NOD2. Injecting MDP lowered adipose inflammation and reduced glucose intolerance in obese mice without causing weight loss or altering the composition of the microbiome...
April 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432285/nod1-modulates-il-10-signalling-in-human-dendritic-cells
#2
Theresa Neuper, Kornelia Ellwanger, Harald Schwarz, Thomas A Kufer, Albert Duschl, Jutta Horejs-Hoeck
NOD1 belongs to the family of NOD-like receptors, which is a group of well-characterised, cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors. The best-studied function of NOD-like receptors is their role in generating immediate pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial responses by detecting specific bacterial peptidoglycans or by responding to cellular stress and danger-associated molecules. The present study describes a regulatory, peptidoglycan-independent function of NOD1 in anti-inflammatory immune responses. We report that, in human dendritic cells, NOD1 balances IL-10-induced STAT1 and STAT3 activation by a SOCS2-dependent mechanism, thereby suppressing the tolerogenic dendritic cell phenotype...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432035/expression-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-activation-of-the-non-canonical-inflammasome-pathway-in-brain-pericytes
#3
Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Mihály Kozma, Péter Nagyőszi, Krisztina Nagy, Csilla Fazakas, János Haskó, Kinga Molnár, Attila E Farkas, Attila G Végh, György Váró, Péter Galajda, Imola Wilhelm, István A Krizbai
Cerebral pericytes are mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries. Increasing evidence suggests that they play important role in controlling neurovascular functions, i.e. cerebral blood flow, angiogenesis and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These cells can also influence neuroinflammation which is highly regulated by the innate immune system. Therefore, we systematically tested the pattern recognition receptor expression of brain pericytes. We detected expression of NOD1, NOD2, NLRC5, NLRP1-3, NLRP5, NLRP9, NLRP10 and NLRX mRNA in non-treated cells...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431894/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-duck-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-1-nod1
#4
Huilin Li, Hui Jin, Yaqian Li, Dejian Liu, Mohamed Frahat Foda, Yunbo Jiang, Rui Luo
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an imperative cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and considered as a key member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family which plays a critical role in innate immunity through sensing microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycan. In the current study, the full-length of duck NOD1 (duNOD1) cDNA from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) was cloned. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that duNOD1 exhibited a strong evolutionary relationship with chicken and rock pigeon NOD1...
April 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369745/inflammasome-gene-profile-is-modulated-in-septic-patients-with-a-greater-magnitude-in-non-survivors
#5
K F Esquerdo, N K Sharma, M K C Brunialti, G L Baggio-Zappia, M Assunção, L C P Azevedo, A T Bafi, R Salomao
Inflammasome signalling induces the processing and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 which, coupled with pyroptosis, activate further the inflammatory response. In the present study we evaluated the expression of genes involved in inflammasome signalling pathways in septic patients, their interaction networks and the predicted functions modulated in survivors and non-survivors. Twenty-seven patients with sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia admitted to intensive care units from three general hospitals in São Paulo were included into the study...
April 2, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328096/activation-of-nod-1-jnk-il-8-signal-axis-in-decidual-stromal-cells-facilitates-trophoblast-invasion
#6
Byung Jun Ryu, Jae Won Han, Ryang Hee Kim, Sohyun Yun, Tae Hyun Kim, Sung Eun Hur, Chul Jung Kim, Sung Ki Lee
Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) are known to regulate trophoblast invasion via unveiled mechanism yet. And nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) may influence on this DSC-trophoblast interaction. We investigated the mechanism underlying the DSC-mediated regulation of trophoblast invasion and the effect of NOD1 on their cross talk. Using human primary DSCs, BeWo cell invasion was measured. Cytokine secretion and MAP kinase signaling were examined in DSCs following treatment with NOD1 agonist, Tri-DAP...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300841/induction-of-intestinal-stemness-and-tumorigenicity-by-aberrant-internalization-of-commensal-non-pathogenic-e-coli
#7
Upasana Sahu, Arnab Choudhury, Suhel Parvez, Subhrajit Biswas, Sudeshna Kar
Commensal Escherichia coli has been identified as a major protagonist of microbe-induced colorectal oncogenesis. Its tumour-promoting attribute is linked to the expression of DNA-damaging genotoxins. Using a constitutively invasive variant of non-pathogenic E. coli, we demonstrate that chronic presence of internalized E. coli leads to enhanced oncogenicity in colon cancer cells. Instead of genomic damage, the tumorigenic effect is mediated through an expansion of the cancer stem cell (CSC) population, likely through dedifferentiation of lineage-committed intestinal epithelial cells...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273456/circulating-nod1-activators-and-hematopoietic-nod1-contribute-to-metabolic-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#8
Kenny L Chan, Theresa H Tam, Parastoo Boroumand, David Prescott, Sheila R Costford, Nichole K Escalante, Noah Fine, YuShan Tu, Susan J Robertson, Dilshaayee Prabaharan, Zhi Liu, Philip J Bilan, Michael W Salter, Michael Glogauer, Stephen E Girardin, Dana J Philpott, Amira Klip
Insulin resistance is a chronic inflammatory condition accompanying obesity or high fat diets that leads to type 2 diabetes. It is hypothesized that lipids and gut bacterial compounds in particular contribute to metabolic inflammation by activating the immune system; however, the receptors detecting these "instigators" of inflammation remain largely undefined. Here, we show that circulating activators of NOD1, a receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan, increase with high fat feeding in mice, suggesting that NOD1 could be a critical sensor leading to metabolic inflammation...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240593/differential-expressions-of-nod-like-receptors-and-their-associations-with-inflammatory-responses-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Hye Won Kim, Yong-Jin Kwon, Byung Wook Park, Jason Jungsik Song, Yong-Beom Park, Min Chan Park
OBJECTIVES: To determine the differential expressions of nucleotide oligomerisation domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and to investigate their association with inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). METHODS: Gene expression and protein levels of various NLRs, including NOD1, NOD2, NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, and NLRC3, were determined in FLS and synovial tissues from patients with RA and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry...
February 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202617/the-bacterial-peptidoglycan-sensing-molecules-nod1-and-nod2-promote-cd8-thymocyte-selection
#10
Marianne M Martinic, Irina Caminschi, Meredith O'Keeffe, Therese C Thinnes, Raelene Grumont, Steve Gerondakis, Dianne B McKay, David Nemazee, Amanda L Gavin
Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic innate immune receptors that recognize microbial peptidoglycans. Although studies have addressed the role of NOD proteins in innate immune responses, little attention has been given to their impact on the developing adaptive immune system. We have assessed the roles of NOD1 and NOD2 deficiency on T cell development in mice. Our results demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 promote the positive selection/maturation of CD8 single-positive thymocytes in a thymocyte-intrinsic manner...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157451/the-role-of-nod-like-receptors-in-pulmonary-infection
#11
Kristin M Wiese, Bria M Coates, Karen M Ridge
Pneumonia is caused by both viral and bacterial pathogens and is responsible for a significant health burden in the Unites States. The innate immune system is the human body's first line of defense against these pathogens. The recognition of invading pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leads to proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production followed by recruitment and activation of effector immune cells. The nonspecific inflammatory nature of the innate immune response can result in immunopathology that is detrimental to the host...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150515/characterization-of-a-murine-model-with-arteritis-induced-by-nod1-ligand-fk565-a-comparative-study-with-a-caws-induced-model
#12
Ryuji Ohashi, Ryuji Fukazawa, Makoto Watanabe, Koji Hashimoto, Nobuko Suzuki, Noriko Nagi-Miura, Naohito Ohno, Akira Shimizu, Yasuhiko Itoh
OBJECTIVE: Kawasaki disease (KD) occurs via activation of the innate immune system. Nucleotide oligomerization domain -1 (NOD1) is a pattern recognition receptor regulating the innate immunity. We characterized histopathology of arteritis induced by FK565, a ligand for NOD1, in mice, compared with Candida albicans water-soluble fraction (CAWS)-induced model. METHODS: Vasculitis was induced by injection of FK565 or CAWS into C57BL6/J mice (n = 9 and n = 11, respectively)...
February 2, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126160/role-of-nod1-in-heart-failure-progression-via-regulation-of-ca-2-handling
#13
Almudena Val-Blasco, María Jose G M Piedras, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado, Natalia Suarez, Patricia Prieto, Silvia Gonzalez-Ramos, Nieves Gómez-Hurtado, Carmen Delgado, Laetitia Pereira, Gemma Benito, Carlos Zaragoza, Nieves Domenech, María Generosa Crespo-Leiro, Daniel Vasquez-Echeverri, Gabriel Nuñez, Eduardo Lopez-Collazo, Lisardo Boscá, María Fernández-Velasco
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome associated with a maladaptive innate immune system response that leads to deleterious cardiac remodeling. However, the underlying mechanisms of this syndrome are poorly understood. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) is a newly recognized innate immune sensor involved in cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the role of NOD1 in HF progression. METHODS: NOD1 was examined in human failing myocardium and in a post-myocardial infarction (PMI) HF model evaluated in wild-type (wt-PMI) and Nod1(-/-) mice (Nod1(-/-)-PMI)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124154/dna-transfer-and-toll-like-receptor-modulation-by-helicobacter-pylori
#14
Matthew Gordon Varga, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori is the most common bacterial infection worldwide, and virtually all infected persons develop co-existing gastritis. H. pylori is able to send and receive signals from the gastric mucosa, which enables both host and microbe to engage in a dynamic equilibrium. In order to persist within the human host, H. pylori has adopted dichotomous strategies to both induce inflammation as a means of liberating nutrients while simultaneously tempering the immune response to augment its survival. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod proteins are innate immune receptors that are present in epithelial cells and represent the first line of defense against pathogens...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114344/nod1card-might-be-using-multiple-interfaces-for-rip2-mediated-card-card-interaction-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#15
Jitendra Maharana, Sukanta Kumar Pradhan, Sachinandan De
The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-containing protein 1 (NOD1) plays the pivotal role in host-pathogen interface of innate immunity and triggers immune signalling pathways for the maturation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Upon the recognition of iE-DAP, NOD1 self-oligomerizes in an ATP-dependent fashion and interacts with adaptor molecule receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2) for the propagation of innate immune signalling and initiation of pro-inflammatory immune responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105518/associations-between-hepatic-mirna-expression-liver-triacylglycerols-and-gut-microbiota-during-metabolic-adaptation-to-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#16
Vincent Blasco-Baque, Berengère Coupé, Aurelie Fabre, Sandra Handgraaf, Pierre Gourdy, Jean-François Arnal, Michael Courtney, Carole Schuster-Klein, Beatrice Guardiola, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin, Matteo Serino
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Despite the current pandemic of metabolic diseases, our understanding of the diverse nature of the development of metabolic alterations in people who eat a high-fat diet (HFD) is still poor. We recently demonstrated a cardio-metabolic adaptation in mice fed an HFD, which was characterised by a specific gut and periodontal microbiota profile. Since the severity of hepatic disease is characterised by specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures and the gut microbiota is a key driver of both hepatic disease and miRNA expression, we analysed the expression of three hepatic miRNA and studied their correlation with hepatic triacylglycerol content and gut microbiota...
January 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092699/infection-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-by-invasive-bacteria-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-increases-icam-1-expression-through-nod1
#17
Woon Geon Shin, Bum Joon Park, Sung Joong Lee, Jae Gyu Kim
Background/Aims: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is required for primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to respond to natural mucopeptides secreted by gram-negative bacteria. Infection of human IECs with invasive bacteria up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. However, the role of NOD family members in host defense has been largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a functional role for NOD1 in the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in invasive bacteria-infected IECs...
January 16, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087669/the-role-of-the-p38-mnk-eif4e-signaling-axis-in-tnf-production-downstream-of-the-nod1-receptor
#18
Mikhail V Pashenkov, Lyudmila S Balyasova, Yulia A Dagil, Boris V Pinegin
Activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2 by muropeptides triggers a complex transcriptional program in innate immune cells. However, little is known about posttranscriptional regulation of NOD1- and NOD2-dependent responses. When stimulated with a prototypic NOD1 agonist, N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (GM-triDAP), human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) produced an order of magnitude more TNF, IL-6, and pro-IL-1β than did monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), despite similar NOD1 expression, similar cytokine mRNA kinetics, and comparable responses to LPS...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079153/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-is-critical-for-bacterial-lipoprotein-tolerance-enhanced-bactericidal-activity-in-macrophages-during-microbial-infection
#19
Jinghua Liu, Jing Xiang, Xue Li, Siobhan Blankson, Shuqi Zhao, Junwei Cai, Yong Jiang, H Paul Redmond, Jiang Huai Wang
Tolerance to bacterial components represents an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-induced tolerance confers protection against microbial sepsis by attenuating inflammatory responses and augmenting antimicrobial activity in innate phagocytes. It has been well-documented that BLP tolerance-attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production is associated with suppressed TLR2 signalling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism(s) involved in BLP tolerance-enhanced antimicrobial activity is unclear...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076445/emerging-bordetella-pertussis-strains-induce-enhanced-signaling-of-human-pattern-recognition-receptors-tlr2-nod2-and-secretion-of-il-10-by-dendritic-cells
#20
Elise S Hovingh, Marjolein van Gent, Hendrik-Jan Hamstra, Marc Demkes, Frits R Mooi, Elena Pinelli
Vaccines against pertussis have been available for more than 60 years. Nonetheless, this highly contagious disease is reemerging even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Genetic changes of Bordetella pertussis over time have been suggested to contribute to the resurgence of pertussis, as these changes may favor escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Nonetheless, studies on the effects of these bacterial changes on the immune response are limited. Here, we characterize innate immune recognition and activation by a collection of genetically diverse B...
2017: PloS One
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