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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123157/the-nod2-receptor-is-crucial-for-immune-responses-towards-new-world-leishmania-species
#1
Jéssica Cristina Dos Santos, Michelle S M A Damen, Marije Oosting, Dirk J de Jong, Bas Heinhuis, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Carla Santos Araújo, Mihai G Netea, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias, Leo A B Joosten
American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is a chronic infection caused by Leishmania protozoan. It is not known whether genetic variances in NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members influence the immune response towards Leishmania parasites and modulate intracellular killing. Using functional genomics, we investigated whether genetic variants in NOD1 or NOD2 influence the production of cytokines by human PBMCs exposed to Leishmania. In addition, we examined whether recognition of Leishmania by NOD2 contributes to intracellular killing...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103703/anti-inflammatory-capacity-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-in-monophasic-variant-salmonella-infected-piglets-is-correlated-with-impeding-nlrp6-mediated-host-inflammatory-responses
#2
Jiao Yu, Yao-Hong Zhu, Gui-Yan Yang, Wei Zhang, Dong Zhou, Jin-Hui Su, Jiu-Feng Wang
In this study, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) in ameliorating enteritis in newly weaned pigs following challenge with a monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serotyped as 4,[5],12:i:-), which has been linked to disease in humans and livestocks over the past 10 years. In weaned pigs, S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- induced the mRNA expression of toll like receptor (TLR) 5 and TLR4, while increasing interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 mRNA expression in the jejunum...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097236/haemophilus-parasuis-infection-activates-nod1-2-rip2-signaling-pathway-in-pk-15%C3%A2-cells
#3
Bin Ma, Kexin Hua, Shanshan Zhou, Hufeng Zhou, Yushan Chen, Rui Luo, Dingren Bi, Rui Zhou, Qigai He, Hui Jin
Haemophilus parasuis, an important swine pathogen, was recently proven able to invade into endothelial or epithelial cell in vitro. NOD1/2 are specialized NLRs that participate in the recognition of pathogens able to invade intracellularly and therefore, we assessed that the contribution of NOD1/2 to inflammation responses during H. parasuis infection. We observed that H. parasuis infection enhanced NOD2 expression and RIP2 phosphorylation in porcine kidney 15 cells. Our results also showed that knock down of NOD1/2 or RIP2 expression respectively significantly decreased H...
October 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067026/characterization-of-rabbit-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-1-nod1-and-the-role-of-nod1-signaling-pathway-during-bacterial-infection
#4
Mengjiao Guo, Fahao Wu, Zhongfang Zhang, Guangen Hao, Rong Li, Ning Li, Yingli Shang, Liangmeng Wei, Tongjie Chai
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is the most prominent of all NOD-like receptors, which in the mammalian innate immune system, serve as intracellular receptors for pathogens and endogenous molecules during tissue injury. From rabbit kidney cells, we cloned rabbit NOD1 (rNOD1) and identified an N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain, a central NACHT domain, and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domains. rNOD1 was expressed in all tested tissues; infection with Escherichia coli induced significantly higher expression in the spleen, liver, and kidney compared to other tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042497/a-single-dual-function-enzyme-controls-the-production-of-inflammatory-nod-agonist-peptidoglycan-fragments-by-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#5
Jonathan D Lenz, Kathleen T Hackett, Joseph P Dillard
Neisseria gonorrhoeae gonococcus (GC) is a Gram-negative betaproteobacterium and causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. During growth, GC releases lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments, which contribute significantly to the inflammatory damage observed during human infection. In ascending infection of human Fallopian tubes, inflammation leads to increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and sterility. Of the PG fragments released by GC, most are disaccharide peptide monomers, and of those, 80% have tripeptide stems despite the observation that tetrapeptide stems make up 80% of the assembled cell wall...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030987/nod1-downregulates-intestinal-serotonin-transporter-and-interacts-with-other-pattern-recognition-receptors
#6
Elena Layunta, Eva Latorre, Raquel Forcén, Laura Grasa, Miguel Ángel Plaza, Maykel Arias, Ana I Alcalde, José E Mesonero
Serotonin (5-HT) is an essential gastrointestinal modulator whose effects regulate the intestinal physiology. 5-HT effects depend on extracellular 5-HT bioavailability, which is controlled by the serotonin transporter (SERT) expressed in both the apical and basolateral membranes of enterocytes. SERT is a critical target for regulating 5-HT levels and consequently, modulating the intestinal physiology. The deregulation of innate immune receptors has been extensively studied in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), where an exacerbated defense response to commensal microbiota is observed...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021509/nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-1-and-gastrointestinal-disorders
#7
Tomohiro Watanabe, Naoki Asano, Masatoshi Kudo, Warren Strober
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an intracellular sensor that detects small peptides derived from the cell wall component of intestinal microflora. NOD1 is expressed in both non-hematopoietic cells such as epithelial cells and hematopoietic cells such as antigen-presenting cells. Detection of its ligand by NOD1 leads to innate immune responses through activation of nuclear factor kappa B and type I interferon as well as induction of autophagy. Innate immune responses through NOD1 activation play an indispensable role both in host defense against microbial infection and in the development of gastrointestinal disorders...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990073/nod-receptor-and-tlr9-modulation-in-severe-acute-pancreatitis%C3%A2-induced-intestinal-injury
#8
Yupeng Yan, Bin Lu, Pengyang Li, Ji Wang
Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has a rapid onset and may cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which has high mortality. Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD) receptor and Toll‑like receptor 9 (TLR9), a pattern recognition receptor in innate immunity, are involved in inflammation, immunity and pathogen recognition. The role and mechanism of the NOD receptor and TLR9 in early MODS of SAP‑induced intestinal injury, however, remain unclear. Wistar rats were divided into control, SAP, TLR9 inhibitor and NOD receptor activation groups...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962692/expression-and-function-of-nod-like-receptors-by-human-term-gestation-associated-tissues
#9
Aled H Bryant, Ryan J Bevan, Samantha Spencer-Harty, Louis M Scott, Ruth H Jones, Catherine A Thornton
INTRODUCTION: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors or NOD-like receptors (NLRs) have been implicated in several disease pathologies associated with inflammation. Since local and systemic inflammation is a hallmark of both term and preterm labour, a role for NLRs at the materno-fetal interface has been postulated. METHODS: Gene expression and immunolocalisation of NLR family members in human placenta, choriodecidua, and amnion were examined...
October 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958208/copper-zinc-loaded-montmorillonite-influences-intestinal-integrity-the-expression-of-genes-associated-with-inflammation-tlr4-myd88-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathways-in-weaned-pigs-after-lps-challenge
#10
Lefei Jiao, Chun Chun Wang, Huan Wu, Rong Gong, Fang Hui Lin, Jie Feng, Caihong Hu
This study was aimed at investigating whether dietary copper/zinc-loaded montmorillonite (Cu/Zn-Mt) could alleviate Escherichia coli LPS-induced intestinal injury through pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways (TLRs, NLRs and TGF-β1) in weaned piglets. Eighteen 21-d-old pigs were randomly divided into three groups (control, LPS and LPS + Cu/Zn-Mt). After 21 d of feeding, pigs in the LPS group and LPS + Cu/Zn-Mt group received i.p. administration of LPS, whereas pigs in the control group received saline...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955789/transcriptional-modulation-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-chronic-colitis-in-mice-is-accompanied-with-th1-and-th17-response
#11
Bin Zheng, Mary E Morgan, Hendrik J G van de Kant, Johan Garssen, Gert Folkerts, Aletta D Kraneveld
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may contribute to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) development due to their microbial-sensing ability and the unique microenvironment in the inflamed gut. In this study, the PRR mRNA expression profile together with T cell-associated factors in the colon was examined using a chronic colitis mice model. 8-12 week old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to multiple dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatments interspersed with a rest period to mimic the course of chronic colitis. The clinical features and histological data were collected...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901890/dietary-l-arginine-inhibits-intestinal-clostridium-perfringens-colonisation-and-attenuates-intestinal-mucosal-injury-in-broiler-chickens
#12
Beibei Zhang, Zengpeng Lv, Huixian Li, Shuangshuang Guo, Dan Liu, Yuming Guo
We investigated the effects of dietary l-arginine level and feeding duration on the intestinal damage of broilers induced by Clostridium perfringens (CP) in vivo, and the antimicrobial effect of its metabolite nitric oxide (NO) in vitro. The in vivo experiment was designed as a factorial arrangement of three dietary treatments×two challenge statuses. Broilers were fed a basal diet (CON) or a high-arginine diet (ARG) containing 1·87 % l-arginine, or CON for the first 8 d and ARG from days 9 to 28 (CON/ARG)...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878001/nlr-nod1-signaling-promotes-survival-of-bcr-engaged-mature-b-cells-through-up-regulated-nod1-as-a-positive-outcome
#13
Kyoko Hayakawa, Anthony M Formica, Yan Zhou, Daiju Ichikawa, Masanao Asano, Yue-Sheng Li, Susan A Shinton, Joni Brill-Dashoff, Gabriel Núñez, Richard R Hardy
Although B cell development requires expression of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), it remains unclear whether engagement of self-antigen provides a positive impact for most B cells. Here, we show that BCR engagement by self-ligand during development in vivo results in up-regulation of the Nod-like receptor member Nod1, which recognizes the products of intestinal commensal bacteria. In anti-thymocyte/Thy-1 autoreactive BCR knock-in mice lacking self-Thy-1 ligand, immunoglobulin light chain editing occurred, generating B cells with up-regulated Nod1, including follicular and marginal zone B cells with natural autoreactivity...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854748/pattern-recognition-receptor-genes-expression-profiling-in-indigenous-chickens-of-india-and-white-leghorn
#14
S Haunshi, Arun Kumar Burramsetty, T R Kannaki, K S Raja Ravindra, R N Chatterjee
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I helicase receptors, and C-type lectin receptors play a critical role in innate immunity as a first line of defense against invading pathogens through recognition of pathogen and/or damage-associated molecular patterns. Genetic makeup of birds is known to play a role in resistance or susceptibility to various infectious diseases. Therefore, the present study was carried out to elucidate the differential expression of PRR and some of the cytokine genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of indigenous chicken breeds such as Ghagus and Nicobari and an exotic chicken breed, White Leghorn (WLH)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829599/nonpyrogenic-molecular-adjuvants-based-on-norabu-muramyldipeptide-and-norabu-glucosaminyl-muramyldipeptide-synthesis-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-and-biological-activities-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Roman Effenberg, Pavlína Turánek Knötigová, Daniel Zyka, Hana Čelechovská, Josef Mašek, Eliška Bartheldyová, František Hubatka, Štěpán Koudelka, Róbert Lukáč, Anna Kovalová, David Šaman, Michal Křupka, Lucia Barkocziova, Petr Kosztyu, Marek Šebela, Ladislav Drož, Michal Hučko, Mária Kanásová, Andrew D Miller, Milan Raška, Miroslav Ledvina, Jaroslav Turánek
Fatty acyl analogues of muramyldipeptide (MDP) (abbreviated N-L18 norAbuGMDP, N-B30 norAbuGMDP, norAbuMDP-Lys(L18), norAbuMDP-Lys(B30), norAbuGMDP-Lys(L18), norAbuGMDP-Lys(B30), B30 norAbuMDP, L18 norAbuMDP) are designed and synthesized comprising the normuramyl-l-α-aminobutanoyl (norAbu) structural moiety. All new analogues show depressed pyrogenicity in both free (micellar) state and in liposomal formulations when tested in rabbits in vivo (sc and iv application). New analogues are also shown to be selective activators of NOD2 and NLRP3 (inflammasome) in vitro but not NOD1...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813514/the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-promotes-il-8-synthesis-in-a-model-of-pediatric-airway-epithelium-via-p38-map-kinase
#16
Myra G Dela Pena-Ponce, Monica T Jimenez, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick, Lisa A Miller
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811347/tifa-signaling-in-gastric-epithelial-cells-initiates-the-cag-type-4-secretion-system-dependent-innate-immune-response-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#17
Alevtina Gall, Ryan G Gaudet, Scott D Gray-Owen, Nina R Salama
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing inflammation which, in some cases, leads to gastric ulcers and cancer. The clinical outcome of infection depends on a complex interplay of bacterial, host genetic, and environmental factors. Although H. pylori is recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems, this rarely results in bacterial clearance. Gastric epithelial cells are the first line of defense against H. pylori and alert the immune system to bacterial presence...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768269/a-potential-role-for-the-nod1-variant-rs6958571-in-gram-positive-blood-stream-infection-in-elbw-infants
#18
Venkatesh Sampath, Neil Mulrooney, Aloka L Patel, Jonathan Cohen, Liyun Zhang, Jeffery Garland, Pascal M Lavoie, John Dagle, Pippa Simpson
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of sepsis susceptibility in preterm infants remains understudied. Herein, we investigated the nucleotide binding-oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family of immune receptors as putative loci for preterm sepsis susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NLR genes are associated with blood stream infections (BSI) in premature infants. METHODS: An international cohort of infants with gestational age (GA) <35 weeks were genotyped for SNPs in the ATG16L1, CARD8, NLRP3, NOD2, and NOD1 genes...
August 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736992/microbiota-metabolome-and-immune-alterations-in-obese-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-containing-type-2-resistant-starch
#19
Javad Barouei, Zach Bendiks, Alice Martinic, Darya Mishchuk, Dustin Heeney, Yu-Hsin Hsieh, Dorothy Kieffer, Jose Zaragoza, Roy Martin, Carolyn Slupsky, Maria L Marco
SCOPE: We examined the intestinal and systemic responses to incorporating a type 2 resistant starch (RS) into a high fat diet fed to obese mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obese, C57BL/6J male mice were fed an HF diet without or with 20% (by weight) high-amylose maize resistant starch (HF-RS) for 6 weeks. Serum adiponectin levels were higher with RS consumption, but there were no differences in weight gain and adiposity. With HF-RS, the expression levels of ileal TLR2 and Reg3g and cecal occludin, TLR2, TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 were induced; whereas colonic concentrations of the inflammatory cytokine IL-17A declined...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671993/epithelial-cells-detect-functional-type-iii-secretion-system-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-novel-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#20
Yael Litvak, Shir Sharon, Meirav Hyams, Li Zhang, Simi Kobi, Naama Katsowich, Shira Dishon, Gabriel Nussbaum, Na Dong, Feng Shao, Ilan Rosenshine
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a common cause of infant diarrhea, is associated with high risk of mortality in developing countries. The primary niche of infecting EPEC is the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells. EPEC employs a type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject the host cells with dozens of effector proteins, which facilitate attachment to these cells and successful colonization. Here we show that EPEC elicit strong NF-κB activation in infected host cells. Furthermore, the data indicate that active, pore-forming TTSS per se is necessary and sufficient for this NF-κB activation, regardless of any specific effector or protein translocation...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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