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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328436/role-of-exosomes-and-exosomal-micrornas-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-potential-in-diagnosis-and-antitumour-treatments-review
#1
Jing-Hua Pan, Hong Zhou, Xiao-Xu Zhao, Hui Ding, Wei Li, Li Qin, Yun-Long Pan
Communication between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and their environment is essential for the development and progression of HCC. Exosomes, which are microvesicles secreted by a number of cell types, are carriers of intercellular information and regulate the tumour microenvironment. Studies have demonstrated that exosomes are involved in the communication between HCC cells, endothelial cells and stem cells, and that they serve important roles in the metastasis and invasion, immune evasion and immunotherapy of HCC...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327939/blockade-of-the-complement-c5a-c5ar1-axis-impairs-lung-cancer-bone-metastasis-by-cxcl16-mediated-effects
#2
Daniel Ajona, Carolina Zandueta, Leticia Corrales, Haritz Moreno, María J Pajares, Sergio Ortiz-Espinosa, Elena Martínez-Terroba, Naiara Perurena, Fernando J de Miguel, Eloisa Jantus-Lewintre, Carlos Camps, Silvestre Vicent, Jackeline Agorreta, Luis M Montuenga, Ruben Pio, Fernando Lecanda
RATIONALE: C5aR1(CD88), a receptor for complement anaphylatoxin C5a, is a potent immune mediator. Its impact on malignant growth and dissemination of NSCLC cells is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of the C5a/C5aR1 axis to the malignant phenotype of NSCLC cells, particularly in skeletal colonization, a preferential lung metastasis site. METHODS: Association between C5aR1 expression and clinical outcome was assessed in silico and validated by immunohistochemistry...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325640/selective-egf-receptor-inhibition-in%C3%A2-cd4-%C3%A2-t%C3%A2-cells-induces-anergy-and%C3%A2-limits%C3%A2-atherosclerosis
#3
Lynda Zeboudj, Mikael Maître, Lea Guyonnet, Ludivine Laurans, Jeremie Joffre, Jeremie Lemarie, Simon Bourcier, Wared Nour-Eldine, Coralie Guérin, Jonas Friard, Abdelilah Wakkach, Elizabeth Fabre, Alain Tedgui, Ziad Mallat, Pierre-Louis Tharaux, Hafid Ait-Oufella
BACKGROUND: Several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been successfully developed for the treatment of cancer, limiting tumor growth and metastasis. EGFR is also expressed by leukocytes, but little is known about its role in the modulation of the immune response. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether EGFR expressed on CD4+ T cells is functional and to address the consequences of EGFR inhibition in atherosclerosis, a T cell-mediated vascular chronic inflammatory disease...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324443/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-leads-to-nk-cell-mediated-metastasis-specific-immunosurveillance-in-lung-cancer
#4
Peter J Chockley, Jun Chen, Guoan Chen, David G Beer, Theodore J Standiford, Venkateshwar G Keshamouni
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cancer cells trans-differentiate into highly-motile, invasive, mesenchymal-like cells giving rise to disseminating tumor cells. Only few of these disseminated cells successfully metastasize. Immune cells and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment was shown to drive EMT, but few studies investigated the consequences of EMT on tumor immunosurveillance. In addition to initiating metastasis, we demonstrate that EMT confers increased susceptibility to NK cells and contributes, in part, to the inefficiency of the metastatic process...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322091/a-retroviral-replicating-vector-encoding-cytosine-deaminase-and-5-fc-induces-immune-memory-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-models
#5
Kader Yagiz, Maria E Rodriguez-Aguirre, Fernando Lopez Espinoza, Tiffany T Montellano, Daniel Mendoza, Leah A Mitchell, Carlos E Ibanez, Noriyuki Kasahara, Harry E Gruber, Douglas J Jolly, Joan M Robbins
Treatment of tumors with Toca 511, a gamma retroviral replicating vector encoding cytosine deaminase, followed by 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) kills tumors by local production of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In brain tumor models, this treatment induces systemic anti-tumor immune responses and long-term immune-mediated survival. Phase 1 Toca 511 and Toca FC (extended-release 5-FC) clinical trials in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma show durable complete responses and promising survival data compared to historic controls...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320431/galectin-targeted-therapy-in-oncology-current-knowledge-and-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Kamil Wdowiak, Tomasz Francuz, Enrique Gallego-Colon, Natalia Ruiz-Agamez, Marcin Kubeczko, Iga Grochoła, Jerzy Wojnar
The incidence and mortality of cancer have increased over the past decades. Significant progress has been made in understanding the underpinnings of this disease and developing therapies. Despite this, cancer still remains a major therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic research has targeted several aspects of the disease such as cancer development, growth, angiogenesis and metastases. Many molecular and cellular mechanisms remain unknown and current therapies have so far failed to meet their intended potential...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307118/chemotherapy-induced-metastasis-mechanisms-and-translational-opportunities
#7
George S Karagiannis, John S Condeelis, Maja H Oktay
Tumors often overcome the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy through either acquired or environment-mediated drug resistance. In addition, signals from the microenvironment obfuscate the beneficial effects of chemotherapy and may facilitate progression and metastatic dissemination. Seminal mediators in chemotherapy-induced metastasis appear to be a wide range of hematopoietic, mesenchymal and immune progenitor cells, originating from the bone marrow. The actual purpose of these cells is to orchestrate the repair response to the cytotoxic damage of chemotherapy...
January 6, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306014/the-special-at-rich-sequence-binding-protein-1-satb1-and-its-role-in-solid-tumors
#8
Anja Frömberg, Kurt Engeland, Achim Aigner
The Special AT-rich Sequence Binding Protein 1 (SATB1) exerts multiple functions, by influencing the structural organization of chromatin and interacting with several co-activators and co-repressors of transcription. Thus, SATB1 affects the expression of various genes by multiple mechanisms of action, involving three-dimensional chromatin architecture. More recently, SATB1 has been connected with solid tumors, tumorigenesis, tumor progression and tumor immunity. On the diagnostic side, SATB1 levels were found to correlate with clinicopathological features like increased TNM stage, reduced tumor differentiation, and a shorter overall survival...
January 3, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304816/extracellular-vesicles-as-mediators-of-the-progression-and-chemoresistance-of-pancreatic-cancer-and-their-potential-clinical-applications
#9
REVIEW
Jiangdong Qiu, Gang Yang, Mengyu Feng, Suli Zheng, Zhe Cao, Lei You, Lianfang Zheng, Taiping Zhang, Yupei Zhao
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide due to its insidious symptoms, early metastasis, and chemoresistance. Hence, the underlying mechanisms contributing to pancreatic cancer progression require further exploration. Based on accumulating evidence, extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer progression and chemoresistance. Furthermore, they also possess the potential to be promising biomarkers, therapy targets and tools for treating pancreatic cancer...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302577/rna-binding-protein-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-target-for-cancer-prevention-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Suntaek Hong
After transcription, RNAs are always associated with RNA binding proteins (RBPs) to perform biological activities. RBPs can interact with target RNAs in sequence- and structure-dependent manner through their unique RNA binding domains. In development and progression of carcinogenesis, RBPs are aberrantly dysregulated in many human cancers with various mechanisms, such as genetic alteration, epigenetic change, noncoding RNA-mediated regulation, and post-translational modifications. Upon deregulation in cancers, RBPs influence every step in the development and progression of cancer, including sustained cell proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, avoiding immune surveillance, inducing angiogenesis, and activating metastasis...
December 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299639/b7-h3-in-tumors-friend-or-foe-for-tumor-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Gen Li, Yanchun Quan, Fengyuan Che, Lijuan Wang
B7-H3 is a type I transmembrane co-stimulatory molecule of the B7 family. B7-H3 mRNA is widely distributed in most tissues; however, B7-H3 protein is not constitutively expressed. Few molecules have been shown to mediate the regulation of B7-H3 expression, and their regulatory mechanisms remain unexplored. Recently, TREM-like transcript 2 (TLT-2) has been identified as a potential receptor of B7-H3. However, TLT-2 may not be the only receptor of B7-H3, as B7-H3 has many contradictory roles. As a co-stimulatory molecule, B7-H3 increases the proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and enhances cytotoxic T-cell activity...
January 3, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298830/golgi-phosphoprotein-2-is-a-novel-regulator-of-il-12-production-and-macrophage-polarization
#12
Wei Zhang, Hajeong Kim, Jiyang Lv, Na Zhao, Xiaojing Ma
Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GOLPH2), a widely expressed Golgi type II transmembrane protein, has been implicated in several important physiological and pathological processes, including virus infections, cancer cell proliferation, and metastasis. However, its biological functions and mechanisms, particularly in the immune system, remain highly obscure. In this study, we report the biochemical identification of GOLPH2 from B cell lymphoma culture supernatant and show that the secreted protein could inhibit IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DCs) and IL-12-induced IFN-γ production by activated T cells...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289998/molecular-signature-of-nitric-oxide-on-major-cancer-hallmarks-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Paramita Mandal
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the one of the most important diseases throughout the world. Several aetiological risk factors, viz. sedentary life style, smoking, alcohol intake, less physical activity, red meat, and microbiota, are associated with the development of CRC. Molecular pathophysiology of CRC implies inflammation, metastasis, apotosis and angiogenesis. Inflammation involves interaction between various immune cells, inflammatory cells, chemokines, cytokines, and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways, which may lead to signalling towards, tumour cell proliferation, growth, and invasion whereas nitric oxide (NO) has been associated with metastasis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis...
December 30, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288515/a-third-generation-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-inhibits-the-growth-of-liver-tumors-in-mice
#14
Richi Nakatake, Masaki Kaibori, Yusuke Nakamura, Yoshito Tanaka, Hideyuki Matushima, Tadayoshi Okumura, Takashi Murakami, Yasushi Ino, Tomoki Todo, Masanori Kon
Multimodality therapies are used to manage patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although advanced HCC is incurable. Oncolytic virus therapy is probably the next major breakthrough in cancer treatment. The third-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) T-01 kills tumor cells without damaging the surrounding normal tissues. Here we investigated the antitumor effects of T-01 on HCC and the host's immune response to HCC cells. The cytopathic activities of T-01 were tested in 14 human and one murine hepatoma cell lines in vitro...
December 30, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285274/lipopolysaccharide-coated-cus-nanoparticles-promoted-anti-cancer-and-anti-metastatic-effect-by-immuno-photothermal-therapy
#15
Bian Jang, Li Xu, Madhappan S Moorthy, Wei Zhang, Ling Zeng, Mingyeong Kang, Minseok Kwak, Junghwan Oh, Jun-O Jin
To meet the ultimate goal of cancer therapy, which is treating not only the primary tumor but also preventing metastatic cancer, the concept of combining immunotherapy with photothermal therapy (PTT) is gaining great interest. Here, we studied the new material, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) coated copper sulfide nanoparticles (LPS-CuS), for the immuno-photothermal therapy. We evaluated the effect of LPS-CuS for induction of apoptosis of CT26 cells and activation of dendritic cells. Moreover, the LPS-CuS and laser irradiation was examined anti-metastasis effect by liver metastasis model mouse in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283184/basic-understanding-and-therapeutic-approaches-to-target-toll-like-receptors-in-cancerous-microenvironment-and-metastasis
#16
REVIEW
Mojtaba Khajeh Alizadeh Attar, Muhammad Ayaz Anwar, Mahsa Eskian, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Sangdun Choi, Nima Rezaei
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane components that sense danger signals, like damage- and pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules, as receptors, and maintain homeostasis in tissues. They are mainly involved in immune system activation through a variety of mediators, which either carry out (1) elimination of pathogenic threats and redressing homeostatic imbalances or (2) contribution to the initiation and worsening of pathological conditions, including cancers. Under physiological conditions, TLRs coordinate the innate and adaptive immunity, and inhibit autoimmune disorders...
December 28, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275470/lipid-inflammatory-mediators-in-cancer-progression-and-therapy
#17
Saraswoti Khadge, John Graham Sharp, Timothy R McGuire, Geoffrey M Thiele, James E Talmadge
Rodent and clinical studies have documented that myeloid cell infiltration of tumors is associated with neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia and poor patient outcomes. This contrasts with lymphocyte infiltration of tumors, which is associated with improved outcomes. Lifestyle parameters such as high fat diet s and omega (ω)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake may influence these inflammatory parameters including extramedullary myelopoiesis that can contribute to a metastatic "niche". While, tumor secretion of growth factors (GFs) and chemokines regulate tumor-immune-cell crosstalk, in this chapter, we also emphasize how lifestyle choices, including, obesity, high-fat and high ω-6 PUFA dietary content, contribute to inflammation and myeloid cell infiltration of tumors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258963/secretory-micrornas-as-biomarkers-of-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Kazuharu Kai, Rachel L Dittmar, Subrata Sen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression predominantly by inhibiting transcription and/or promoting degradation of target mRNAs also in addition to being involved in non-canonical mechanisms regulating transcription, translation and cell signaling processes. Extracellular secretory miRNAs, either in complex with specific proteins or encapsulated in microvesicles called exosomes, are transported between cells as means of intercellular communication. Secretory miRNAs in circulation remain functional after delivery to recipient cells, regulating target genes and their corresponding signaling pathways...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250194/rho-gdp-dissociation-inhibitor-%C3%AE-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#19
Christoph-Alexander von Klot, Natalia Dubrowinskaja, Inga Peters, Jörg Hennenlotter, Axel S Merseburger, Arnulf Stenzl, Markus A Kuczyk, Jürgen Serth
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor-β (ARHGDIB) is an important mediator of cell signaling. The expression of ARHGDIB is associated with tumor growth and metastasis in a variety of non-genitourinary cancers; however, the role of ARHGDIB in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not yet been evaluated. In the present study, tissue samples from 105 patients undergoing surgery for RCC were obtained. The expression levels of ARHGDIB mRNA in normal kidney tissues and in corresponding cancer tissues were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249397/mrna-vaccine-with-antigen-specific-checkpoint-blockade-induces-an-enhanced-immune-response-against-established-melanoma
#20
Yuhua Wang, Lu Zhang, Zhenghong Xu, Lei Miao, Leaf Huang
We reported a preclinical cancer vaccine that simultaneously introduced an mRNA antigen and an immune checkpoint blocking siRNA into the antigen-presenting cells. This was achieved by formulating both nucleic acid-based immunotherapeutics into a lipid-coated calcium phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle (NP) as a carrier to address the delivery challenge. The PEGylated lipid NPs were functionalized with mannose as the targeting ligand to facilitate the preferential uptake by the dendritic cells (DCs) in the lymph nodes after subcutaneous administration...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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