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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150258/a-spent-coffee-grounds-based-biorefinery-for-the-production-of-biofuels-biopolymers-antioxidants-and-biocomposites
#1
REVIEW
Sanjib Kumar Karmee
Spent coffee grounds are composed of lipid, carbohydrates, carbonaceous, and nitrogen containing compounds among others. Using n-hexane and n-hexane/isopropanol mixture highest oil yield was achived during soxhlet extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Alternatively, supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as a green solvent for the extraction of oil. Using advanced chemical and biotechnological methods, spent coffee grounds are converted to various biofuels such as, biodiesel, renewable diesel, bioethanol, bioethers, bio-oil, biochar, and biogas...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149812/architectures-and-mechanical-properties-of-drugs-and-complexes-of-surface-active-compounds-at-air-water-and-oil-water-interfaces
#2
Dipak K Sarker
BACKGROUND: Drugs can represents a multitude of compounds from proteins and peptides, such as growth hormones and insulin and on to simple organic molecules such as flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and lidocaine. Given the chemical nature of these compounds two features are always present. A portion or portions of the molecule that has little affinity for apolar surfaces and media and the opposite a series of part or one large part that has considerable affinity for hydrophilic, polar or charged media and surfaces...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149800/longitudinal-improvement-in-balance-error-scoring-system-scores-among-ncaa-division-i-football-athletes
#3
Ross E Mathiasen, Christopher P Hogrefe, Kari K Harland, Andrew Peterson, Kyle Smoot
INTRODUCTION: The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is a commonly used concussion assessment tool. Recent studies have questioned the stability and reliability of baseline BESS scores. The purpose of this longitudinal prospective cohort study is to examine differences in yearly baseline BESS scores in athletes participating on an NCAA Division-I football team. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NCAA Division-I freshman football athletes were videotaped performing the BESS test at matriculation and following one year of participation in the football program...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149712/detection-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-sulphonates-in-italian-eel-samples-by-hplc-hrms-orbitrap
#4
Luca Maria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Elisa Pasquale, Claudia Balzaretti, Petra Cagnardi, Doriana Tedesco, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contain one or more carbon-bound hydrogens substituted by fluorine. Since the 1950s, these compounds have been used to manufacture fat- and water-resistant fabrics, paper and food containers, and to produce photographic films, firefighting foams, detergents and insecticides. The widespread use and global distribution of PFASs, have led to their accumulation in the environment. Food, particularly fish and other seafood, is considered the main route of human exposure to PFASs...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149567/preparation-of-lithium-titanate-reduced-graphene-oxide-composites-with-3d-fishnet-like-conductive-structure-via-a-gas-foaming-method-for-high-rate-lithium-ion-batteries
#5
Tao Meng, Fenyun Yi, Honghong Cheng, Junnan Hao, Dong Shu, Shixu Zhao, Chun He, Xiaona Song, Fan Zhang
Using ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) as the pore-forming agent, three-dimensional (3D) "fishnet-like" lithium titanate/reduced graphene oxide (LTO/G) composites with hierarchical porous structure are prepared via a gas-foaming method. SEM and TEM images show that in the composite prepared with the NH4Cl concentration of 1 mg mL-1 (1-LTO/G), LTO particles with sizes of 50~100 nm disperse homogeneously on the 3D "fishnet-like" graphene sheets. The nitrogen-sorption analyses reveal the existence of micro/mesopores, which is attributed to the introduction of NH4Cl into the gap between the graphene sheets that further decomposes into gases and produces hierarchical pores during the thermal treatment process...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149035/wearete-a-scalable-wearable-e-textile-triboelectric-energy-harvesting-system-for-human-motion-scavenging
#6
Xian Li, Ye Sun
In this paper, we report the design, experimental validation and application of a scalable, wearable e-textile triboelectric energy harvesting (WearETE) system for scavenging energy from activities of daily living. The WearETE system features ultra-low-cost material and manufacturing methods, high accessibility, and high feasibility for powering wearable sensors and electronics. The foam and e-textile are used as the two active tribomaterials for energy harvester design with the consideration of flexibility and wearability...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147813/noninvasive-induction-of-angiogenesis-in-tissues-by-external-suction-sequential-optimization-for-use-in-reconstructive-surgery
#7
G Giatsidis, L Cheng, A Haddad, K Ji, J Succar, L Lancerotto, J Lujan-Hernandez, P Fiorina, H Matsumine, D P Orgill
In reconstructive surgery, tissues are routinely transferred to repair a defect caused by trauma, cancer, chronic diseases, or congenital malformations; surgical transfer intrinsically impairs metabolic supply to tissues placing a risk of ischemia-related complications such as necrosis, impaired healing, or infection. Pre-surgical induction of angiogenesis in tissues (preconditioning) can limit postsurgical ischemic complications and improve outcomes, but very few preconditioning strategies have successfully been translated to clinical practice due to the invasiveness of most proposed approaches, their suboptimal effects, and their challenging regulatory approval...
November 17, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146346/enhanced-functionality-of-pea-rice-protein-isolate-blends-through-direct-steam-injection-processing
#8
Ewa Pietrysiak, Denise M Smith, Brennan M Smith, Girish M Ganjyal
Direct steam injection (DSI) processing with pH adjustment was investigated to enhance the functionality of pea-rice protein isolate blends (PR). Protein slurries at concentration of 5%(w/w) of commercial pea and rice protein isolates in the ratio of 2:1(w/w) across a range of steam temperatures (66-107°C) and pH values (2-11) were studied. After DSI treatment, the PR were freeze-dried to obtain the final dry protein powder. Based on protein solubility profiles, the optimal DSI processing conditions were 107°C and pH 11...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145143/biodegradation-of-polystyrene-wastes-in-yellow-mealworms-larvae-of-tenebrio-molitor-linnaeus-factors-affecting-biodegradation-rates-and-the-ability-of-polystyrene-fed-larvae-to-complete-their-life-cycle
#9
Shan-Shan Yang, Anja Malawi Brandon, James Christopher Andrew Flanagan, Jun Yang, Daliang Ning, Shen-Yang Cai, Han-Qing Fan, Zhi-Yue Wang, Jie Ren, Eric Benbow, Nan-Qi Ren, Robert M Waymouth, Jizhong Zhou, Craig S Criddle, Wei-Min Wu
Commercial production of polystyrene (PS) -a persistent plastic that is not biodegradable at appreciable rates in most environments-has led to its accumulation as a major contaminant of land, rivers, lakes, and oceans. Recently, however, an environment was identified in which PS is susceptible to rapid biodegradation: the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworms). In this study, we evaluate PS degradation capabilities of a previously untested strain of T. molitor and assess its survival and PS biodegradation rates for a range of conditions (two simulated food wastes, three temperatures, seven PS waste types)...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145139/application-and-microbial-ecology-of-psychrotrophs-in-domestic-wastewater-treatment-at-low-temperature
#10
Zhenzhen Xu, Yue Ben, Zhonglin Chen, Anxi Jiang, Jimin Shen, Xiaoyun Han
The feasibility of a bunch of screened psychrotrophs being applied to low-temperature wastewater treatment was investigated. The screened psychrophillic strains are capable of growth at a broad temperature-range from 0 to 40 °C and exhibit a preferable TTC-dehydrogenase activity at low temperature (4-10 °C). Along the sharply fluctuant temperatures (25-4-25 °C), the screened psychrotrophs (compared with the indigenous mesophiles) demonstrate less fluctuations of COD removal and more rapid recovery after temperature shocks...
October 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143333/the-effect-of-alcohol-based-hand-sanitizer-vapors-on-evidential-breath-alcohol-test-results
#11
Ellen Strawsine, Brian Lutmer
This study was undertaken to determine if the application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) to the hands of a breath test operator will affect the results obtained on evidential breath alcohol instruments (EBTs). This study obtained breath samples on three different EBTs immediately after application of either gel or foam ABHS to the operator's hands. A small, but significant, number of initial analyses (13 of 130, 10%) resulted in positive breath alcohol concentrations, while 41 samples (31.5%) resulted in a status code...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142178/actual-consumption-amount-of-personal-care-products-reflecting-japanese-cosmetic-habits
#12
Masahiko Yamaguchi, Daisuke Araki, Takeshi Kanamori, Yasuko Okiyama, Hirokazu Seto, Masaki Uda, Masahito Usami, Yutaka Yamamoto, Takuji Masunaga, Hitoshi Sasa
Safety assessments of cosmetics are carried out by identifying possible harmful effects of substances in cosmetic products and assessing the exposure to products containing these substances. The present study provided data on the amounts of cosmetic products consumed in Japan to enhance and complement the existing data from Europe and the United States, i.e., the West. The outcomes of this study increase the accuracy of exposure assessments and enable more sophisticated risk assessment as a part of the safety assessment of cosmetic products...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140865/influence-of-syringe-volume-on-foam-stability-in-sclerotherapy-for-varicose-vein-treatment
#13
Taoping Bai, Wentao Jiang, Yubo Fan
BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of sclerotherapy for treating varicose veins, it still exhibits various problems, such as pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, phlebitis, and visual disorders. OBJECTIVE: To investigate syringe volume influence on foam stability, obtain the foam decay rule, and provide a reference for clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five types of syringes are used to prepare foam at room temperature with various liquid-gas ratios...
November 14, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140707/grapefruit-flavonoid-naringenin-regulates-the-expression-of-lxr%C3%AE-in-thp-1-macrophages-by-modulating-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#14
Javier Saenz, Consuelo Santa-María, Maria Edith Reyes-Quiroz, Isabel Geniz, Juan Jiménez, Francisco Sobrino, Gonzalo Alba
The present work investigates the modulation of grapefruit flavonoid naringenin over Liver X Receptor alpha (LXRα) and its target genes in THP-1 macrophages, focusing on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) implication. Naringenin induced LXRα at mRNA and protein levels besides influencing the expression of LXRα target genes ABCA1, ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette A1 and G1), and SREBP1c (sterol response element binding protein 1c) in THP-1 macrophages. The increased LXRα mRNA and protein expression was reverted when AMPK was inhibited by its chemical inhibitor, compound C or by transfection with AMPK α1 and α2 siRNA...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140616/comparisons-of-agricultural-seating-for-paraplegia
#15
Carla Sue Wilhite, William E Field, Mark Jaramillo, Kevin Sullivan
People with spinal cord injury/paraplegia are operating agricultural machinery despite the lack of research evidence to support seating interventions. These operators represent a vulnerable population in the agricultural workforce, and information to support their health in the workplace is urgently warranted. This research compared a group of subjects with paraplegia on different intervention cushion conditions during a simulated tractor driving task. Numerical data acquired from a pressure-mapping instrument were explored for statistical relationships within a small cohort of people with paraplegia participating in a feasibility study that was previously reported for clinical results...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140186/acute-effect-of-two-self-myofascial-release-protocols-on-hip-and-ankle-range-of-motion
#16
Amandda de Souza, Cristiano Gomes Sanchotene, Cristiano Moreira da Silva Lopes, Jader Alfredo Beck, Affonso Celso Kulevicz da Silva, Suzana Matheus Pereira, Caroline Ruschel
CONTEXT: Self-myofascial release (SMR) is an intervention popularly used by rehabilitation, fitness, and sports professionals to improve recovery and performance. In SMR, the athlete/patient himself applies pressure to the muscle and fascia, using various tools such as balls, rods, foam rolls and massagers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the acute effect of two SMR protocols (short- and long-term) of the posterior thigh and calf muscles on hip and ankle range of motion (ROM) in physically active men...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139528/assembly-of-small-molecule-surfactants-at-highly-dynamic-air-water-interfaces
#17
Omar T Mansour, Beatrice Cattoz, Manon Beaube, Morganne Montagnon, Richard K Heenan, Ralf Schweins, Marie-Sousai Appavou, Peter C Griffiths
Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to probe the interfacial structure of foams stabilised by small molecule surfactants at concentrations well below their critical micelle concentration. The data for wet foams showed a pronounced Q(-4) dependence at low Q and noticeable inflexions over the mid Q range. These features were found to be dependent on the surfactant structure (mainly the alkyl chain length) with various inflexions across the measured Q range as a function of the chain length but independent of factors such as concentration and foam age/height...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139119/effect-of-sterilants-on-amplification-and-detection-of-target-dna-from-bacillus-cereus-spores
#18
James M Robertson, Douglas L Anders, Francene Basalyga, Julie Millar, Donia Palomo Slack, Robert Bever
To conceal criminal activity of a bioterrorist or agroterrorist, the site of pathogen generation is often treated with sterilants to kill the organisms and remove evidence. As dead organisms cannot be analyzed by culture, this study examined whether DNA from sterilant-treated Bacillus cereus spores was viable for amplification. The spores were exposed to five common sterilants: bleach, Sterilox®, oxidizer foam (L-Gel), a peroxyacid (Actril®), and formaldehyde vapor. The spores were inoculated on typical surfaces found in offices and laboratories to test for environmental effects...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138873/effects-of-cognitive-load-on-the-amount-and-temporal-structure-of-postural-sway-variability-in-stroke-survivors
#19
Hajar Mehdizadeh, Kinda Khalaf, Hamed Ghomashchi, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Ismaeil Ebrahimi, Parvaneh Taghavi Azar Sharabiani, Seyed Javad Mousavi, Mohamad Parnianpour
This study aimed to investigate the variability in postural sway patterns during quiet standing in stroke survivors. The postural sway was measured in 19 stroke survivors, as well as 19 healthy demographically matched participants, at 3 levels of postural difficulty (rigid surface with closed and open eyes, and foam surface with closed eyes), and 3 levels of cognitive difficulty (without a cognitive task, easy and difficult cognitive tasks). Both linear analyses (the amount of postural sway variability, including the standard deviation of the COP velocity in both the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions), as well as non-linear analyses [the temporal structure of the COP variability, including % Recurrence, % Determinism, Shannon Entropy, Trend and the maximum diagonal line (D max)] were employed...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137829/effects-of-removal-and-reinsertion-of-headless-compression-screws
#20
Simon M Donald, Rui Niu, Christopher W Jones, Belinda J Smith, Elizabeth C Clarke, Richard D Lawson
PURPOSE: This study investigates the loss of compression when 3 commonly used headless compression screws are backed out (reversed), and assesses the ability to re-establish compression with screws of greater diameter. METHODS: Two investigators tested 3 screw designs (Acutrak 2, Synthes HCS, Medartis SpeedTip CCS) in 2 diameters and lengths. Each design had 10 test cycles in a polyurethane foam bone model with compression recorded using a washer load cell. A 28-mm screw of the narrower diameter was inserted until 2 mm recessed and then reversed 30°, 60°, 90°, 180°, 270°, 360°, and 720°...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
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