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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634493/an-exceptional-case-of-intraparotid-plexiform-neurofibroma-originating-from-autonomic-fibers-of-the-auriculotemporal-nerve
#1
Sarantis Blioskas, Sotiris Sotiriou, Katerina Rizou, Triantafyllia Koletsa, Petros Karkos, Anna Kalogera-Fountzila, Konstantinos Markou
Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors that tend to occur in patients suffering from neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). This report addresses a rare case where the tumor affected the parotid gland, deriving almost exclusively from the peripheral portion of the facial nerve. A 6-year-old male was referred to us complaining about a gradually enlarging swelling over the right parotid area. Imaging localized the lesion to the superficial lobe of the parotid gland, suggesting a neurofibroma. Cosmetic disfigurement and a functional deficit led us to perform complete surgical resection...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632796/handheld-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-to-aid-in-the-management-of-complex-facial-lentigo-maligna
#2
Brian P Hibler, Oriol Yélamos, Miguel Cordova, Heidy Sierra, Milind Rajadhyaksha, Kishwer S Nehal, Anthony M Rossi
Diagnosis and management of lentigo maligna (LM) and LM melanoma (LMM) is challenging. Novel noninvasive imaging technologies such as reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) have advanced the ability to better diagnose and monitor challenging lesions. In addition, the new handheld RCM (HRCM) together with the use of videomosaics has allowed an accurate evaluation of large lesions in concave/convex areas of the body (eg, the face). Herein, we review the impact of HRCM in the detection, treatment decision-making, and monitoring of 5 cases of complex facial LM/LMM...
May 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630257/contrasting-effects-of-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-lesions-on-credit-assignment-and-decision-making-in-humans
#3
MaryAnn P Noonan, Bolton Chau, Matthew Fs Rushworth, Lesley K Fellows
The orbitofrontal cortex is critical for goal-directed behavior. Recent work in macaques has suggested the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) is relatively more concerned with assignment of credit for rewards to particular choices during value-guided learning, while the medial orbitofrontal cortex (often referred to as ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans; vmPFC/mOFC) is involved in constraining the decision to the relevant options. We examined whether people with damage restricted to sub-regions of prefrontal cortex showed the patterns of impairment observed in prior investigations of the effects of lesions to homologous regions in macaques...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629777/mechanistic-insights-into-transcription-coupled-dna-repair
#4
REVIEW
Bibhusita Pani, Evgeny Nudler
Transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) acts on lesions in the transcribed strand of active genes. Helix distorting adducts and other forms of DNA damage often interfere with the progression of the transcription apparatus. Prolonged stalling of RNA polymerase can promote genome instability and also induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These generally unfavorable events are counteracted by RNA polymerase-mediated recruitment of specific proteins to the sites of DNA damage to perform TCR and eventually restore transcription...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622412/textural-analysis-of-early-phase-spatiotemporal-changes-in-contrast-enhancement-of-breast-lesions-imaged-with-an-ultrafast-dce-mri-protocol
#5
Jana Milenković, Mehmet Ufuk Dalmış, Janez Žgajnar, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: New ultrafast view-sharing sequences have enabled breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to be performed at high spatial and temporal resolution. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of textural features that quantify the spatiotemporal changes of the contrast-agent uptake in computer-aided diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution DCE-MRI. METHOD: The proposed approach is based on the textural analysis quantifying the spatial variation of six dynamic features of the early-phase contrast-agent uptake of a lesion's largest cross-sectional area...
June 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616997/emotion-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-an-integrative-review
#6
Matthew L Dixon, Ravi Thiruchselvam, Rebecca Todd, Kalina Christoff
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615234/impact-of-routine-fractional-flow-reserve-on-management-decision-and-1-year-clinical-outcome-of-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-prime-ffr-insights-from-the-post-it-portuguese-study-on-the-evaluation-of-ffr-guided-treatment-of-coronary-disease-and-r3f
#7
Eric Van Belle, Sergio-Bravo Baptista, Luís Raposo, John Henderson, Gilles Rioufol, Lino Santos, Christophe Pouillot, Ruben Ramos, Thomas Cuisset, Rita Calé, Emmanuel Teiger, Elisabete Jorge, Loic Belle, Carina Machado, Didier Barreau, Marco Costa, Michel Hanssen, Eduardo Oliveira, Cyril Besnard, João Costa, Jean Dallongeville, João Pipa, Georgios Sideris, Nuno Fonseca, Christophe Bretelle, Jorge Guardado, Nicolas Lhoest, Bruno Silva, Pierre Barnay, Maria-João Sousa, Laurent Leborgne, João Carlos Silva, Flavien Vincent, Alberto Rodrigues, Luís Seca, Renato Fernandes, Patrick Dupouy
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is not firmly established as a guide to treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Primary goals were to evaluate the impact of integrating FFR on management decisions and on clinical outcome of patients with ACS undergoing coronary angiography, as compared with patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: R3F (French FFR Registry) and POST-IT (Portuguese Study on the Evaluation of FFR-Guided Treatment of Coronary Disease), sharing a common design, were pooled as PRIME-FFR (Insights From the POST-IT and R3F Integrated Multicenter Registries - Implementation of FFR in Routine Practice)...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614395/eeg-based-motor-network-biomarkers-for-identifying-target-patients-with-stroke-for-upper-limb-rehabilitation-and-its-construct-validity
#8
Chun-Chuan Chen, Si-Huei Lee, Wei-Jen Wang, Yu-Chen Lin, Mu-Chun Su
Rehabilitation is the main therapeutic approach for reducing poststroke functional deficits in the affected upper limb; however, significant between-patient variability in rehabilitation efficacy indicates the need to target patients who are likely to have clinically significant improvement after treatment. Many studies have determined robust predictors of recovery and treatment gains and yielded many great results using linear approachs. Evidence has emerged that the nonlinearity is a crucial aspect to study the inter-areal communication in human brains and abnormality of oscillatory activities in the motor system is linked to the pathological states...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604479/18f-fes-pet-has-added-value-in-staging-and-therapy-decision-making-in-patients-with-disseminated-lobular-breast-cancer
#9
Clasina Venema, Erik de Vries, Andor Glaudemans, Boelo Poppema, Geke Hospers, Carolina Schröder
Lobular breast cancer is the second most common type of invasive breast cancer. Lobular breast cancer lesions are often difficult to detect with conventional imaging because they tend to grow less cohesively than ductal cancer. These images represent 3 lobular breast cancer cases, in whom confirmation of metastatic disease would make the crucial difference between curative or noncurative treatment. Staging with conventional imaging, however, yielded equivocal results, and a biopsy was not feasible. In contrast, FES (16α-[F]fluoro-17β-estradiol) PET provided a decisive contribution to clinical decision making in these patients...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603095/traditional-surgical-planning-of-liver-surgery-is-modified-by-3d-interactive-quantitative-surgical-planning-approach-a-single-center-experience-with-305-patients
#10
Xue-Dong Wang, Hong-Guang Wang, Jun Shi, Wei-Dong Duan, Ying Luo, Wen-Bin Ji, Ning Zhang, Jia-Hong Dong
BACKGROUND: Decision making and surgical planning are to achieve the precise balance of maximal removal of target lesion, maximal sparing of functional liver remnant volume, and minimal surgical invasiveness and therefore, crucial in liver surgery. The aim of this prospective study was to validate the accuracy and predictability of 3D interactive quantitative surgical planning approach (IQSP), and to evaluate the impact of IQSP on traditional surgical plans based on 2D images. METHODS: A total of 305 consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy were included in this study...
June 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602597/performance-comparison-of-10-different-classification-techniques-in-segmenting-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-aging
#11
Mahsa Dadar, Josefina Maranzano, Karen Misquitta, Cassandra J Anor, Vladimir S Fonov, M Carmela Tartaglia, Owen T Carmichael, Charles Decarli, D Louis Collins
INTRODUCTION: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are areas of abnormal signal on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) that characterize various types of histopathological lesions. The load and location of WMHs are important clinical measures that may indicate the presence of small vessel disease in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Manually segmenting WMHs is time consuming and prone to inter-rater and intra-rater variabilities. Automated tools that can accurately and robustly detect these lesions can be used to measure the vascular burden in individuals with AD or the elderly population in general...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587888/outcome-of-4-surgical-treatments-for-wear-and-osteolysis-of-cementless-acetabular-components
#12
Rapeepat Narkbunnam, Derek F Amanatullah, Ali J Electriwala, James I Huddleston, William J Maloney, Stuart B Goodman
BACKGROUND: Loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis are some of the most common long-term complications after hip arthroplasty. The decision-making process and surgical treatment options are controversial. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 96 acetabular revisions (91 patients) performed between 2002 and 2012, with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up and a mean of 5.7 years of follow-up. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score. The size and location of osteolytic lesions were evaluated using the preoperative radiographs; healing of the defects was categorized using a standardized protocol...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583649/spindle-cell-lesions-of-the-breast-multimodality-imaging-and-clinical-differentiation-of-pathologically-similar-neoplasms
#13
REVIEW
Sean D Raj, Kevin Sweetwood, Megha M Kapoor, Karuna M Raj, Chandandeep Nagi, Karla A Sepulveda, Emily L Sedgwick
Spindle cell lesions of the breast comprise a wide-range of entities including reactive, benign and malignant proliferations. They can be pathologically challenging to differentiate as there is often immunohistochemical and morphologic similarities with characteristic spindle shaped cellular patterns. Radiological and pathological correlation is essential. Radiology detects, defines the size and extent, and assists in localizing the lesions. Pathology confirms the diagnosis and provides prognostic parameters...
May 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577726/updates-in-hepatic-oncology-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Pallavi Pandey, Heather Lewis, Ankur Pandey, Carl Schmidt, Mary Dillhoff, Ihab R Kamel, Timothy M Pawlik
The utilization of advanced imaging modalities play an important role in the detection and differentiation of benign and malignant hepatic lesions. Imaging characteristics of hepatic tumors can sometimes be atypical, often leading to diagnostic challenges. Recent technical improvements in contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have helped to better characterize hepatic lesions. For example, contrast agents used in US can now better delineate liver lesions, while the ability to reliably produce multiplanar and 3-D reconstructions through the use of MDCT provides an additional advantage in the context of therapeutic decision making for patients with hepatic lesions...
June 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577079/unenhanced-magnetic-resonance-screening-using-fused-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-maximum-intensity-projection-in-patients-with-a-personal-history-of-breast-cancer-role-of-fused-dwi-for-postoperative-screening
#15
Ji Won Kang, Hee Jung Shin, Ki Chang Shin, Eun Young Chae, Woo Jung Choi, Joo Hee Cha, Hak Hee Kim
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic performance of unenhanced abbreviated protocol (AP) comprising fused diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) with DWI maximum-intensity projections (DWI MIPs) for screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC). METHODS: This institutional review board-approved retrospective observational study included 343 patients with PHBC who underwent 3T breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between November 2013 and September 2015...
June 2, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574038/-prediction-of-ischaemic-lesions-of-the-brain-in-reconstructive-operations-on-internal-carotid-arteries
#16
M M Tanashian, R B Medvedev, A N Evdokimenko, É G Gemdzhian, S I Ckrylev, O V Lagoda, M V Krotenkova, A S Suslin
The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between the level of the intensity of the ultrasonic signal reflected from atherosclerotic plaques (ATP) of carotid arteries and the risk for formation of an ischaemic lesion in the brain matter, detected during diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) performed 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Our prospective study included a total of 78 patients presenting with stenosis of the sinus of the interior carotid artery...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561041/acquired-ifn%C3%AE-resistance-impairs-anti-tumor-immunity-and-gives-rise-to-t-cell-resistant-melanoma-lesions
#17
Antje Sucker, Fang Zhao, Natalia Pieper, Christina Heeke, Raffaela Maltaner, Nadine Stadtler, Birgit Real, Nicola Bielefeld, Sebastian Howe, Benjamin Weide, Ralf Gutzmer, Jochen Utikal, Carmen Loquai, Helen Gogas, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Michael Zeschnigk, Astrid M Westendorf, Mirko Trilling, Susanne Horn, Bastian Schilling, Dirk Schadendorf, Klaus G Griewank, Annette Paschen
Melanoma treatment has been revolutionized by antibody-based immunotherapies. IFNγ secretion by CD8(+) T cells is critical for therapy efficacy having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumour cells. Our study demonstrates a genetic evolution of IFNγ resistance in different melanoma patient models. Chromosomal alterations and subsequent inactivating mutations in genes of the IFNγ signalling cascade, most often JAK1 or JAK2, protect melanoma cells from anti-tumour IFNγ activity. JAK1/2 mutants further evolve into T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions with genes involved in antigen presentation silenced and no longer inducible by IFNγ...
May 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560245/assistive-lesion-emphasis-system-an-assistive-system-for-fundus-image-readers
#18
Samrudhdhi B Rangrej, Jayanthi Sivaswamy
Computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tools are of interest as they enable efficient decision-making in clinics and the screening of diseases. The traditional approach to CAD algorithm design focuses on the automated detection of abnormalities independent of the end-user, who can be an image reader or an expert. We propose a reader-centric system design wherein a reader's attention is drawn to abnormal regions in a least-obtrusive yet effective manner, using saliency-based emphasis of abnormalities and without altering the appearance of the background tissues...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555878/correlation-between-a-2d-channelized-hotelling-observer-and-human-observers-in-a-low-contrast-detection-task-with-multi-slice-reading-in-ct
#19
Lifeng Yu, Baiyu Chen, James M Kofler, Christopher P Favazza, Shuai Leng, Matthew A Kupinski, Cynthia H McCollough
PURPOSE: Model observers have been successfully developed and used to assess the quality of static 2D CT images. However, radiologists typically read images by paging through multiple 2D slices (i.e. multi-slice reading). The purpose of this study was to correlate human and model observer performance in a low-contrast detection task performed using both 2D and multi-slice reading, and to determine if the 2D model observer still correlate well with human observer performance in multi-slice reading...
May 27, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552162/epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnostic-evaluation-and-prognosis-of-cerebral-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#20
Mohamed Samy Elhammady, Sudheer Ambekar, Roberto C Heros
Dural arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal communications, within the dural leaflets, between meningeal arteries and dural venous sinuses and/or subarachnoid veins. Although many fistulas remain clinically silent and do not require treatment, presence of cortical venous reflux, intracranial bleed, and intolerable symptoms are the main indications for treatment. A thorough understanding of the natural history is of prime importance in the decision making and management of these lesions. In this chapter we discuss the epidemiology and natural history of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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