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Dynamin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339907/o-linked-%C3%AE-n-acetylglucosamine-modification-of-proteins-is-essential-for-foot-process-maturation-and-survival-in-podocytes
#1
Shinya Ono, Shinji Kume, Mako Yasuda-Yamahara, Kosuke Yamahara, Naoko Takeda, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Hisazumi Araki, Osamu Sekine, Hideki Yokoi, Masashi Mukoyama, Takashi Uzu, Shin-Ichi Araki, Hiroshi Maegawa
Background.: O-linked β- N -acetylglucosamine modification O-GlcNAcylation) is a post-translational modification of intracellular proteins, serving as a nutrient sensor. Growing evidence has demonstrated its physiological and pathological importance in various mammalian tissues. This study examined the physiological role of O-GlcNAcylation in podocyte function and development. Methods.: O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt) is a critical enzyme for O-GlcNAcylation and resides on the X chromosome...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329914/ginsenoside-rg3-restores-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-aberrant-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-inhibits-virus-propagation
#2
Seong-Jun Kim, Jae Young Jang, Eun-Jung Kim, Eun Kyung Cho, Dae Gyun Ahn, Chonsaeng Kim, Han Seul Park, Soung Won Jeong, Sae Hwan Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Hong Soo Kim, Boo Sung Kim, Ji-Hyung Lee, Aleem Siddiqui
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) alters mitochondrial dynamics associated with persistent viral infection and suppression of innate immunity. Mitochondrial dysfunction is also a pathologic feature of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment. Despite the high efficacy of DAAs, their treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C in interferon-sparing regimens occasionally produces undesirable side effects such as fatigue, migraine and other conditions, which may be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we show that clinically prescribed DAAs, including Sofosbuvir, affect mitochondrial dynamics...
March 22, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327657/dynasore-impairs-vegfr2-signalling-in-an-endocytosis-independent-manner
#3
Dimitris Basagiannis, Sofia Zografou, Katerina Galanopoulou, Savvas Christoforidis
VEGFR2 is a critical angiogenic receptor playing a key role in vascular homeostasis. Upon activation by VEGF, VEGFR2 becomes endocytosed. Internalisation of VEGFR2 is facilitated, in part, through clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME), the role of which in VEGFR2 function is debated. Here, we confirm the contribution of CME in VEGFR2 uptake. However, curiously, we find that different approaches of inhibition of CME exert contradictory effects on VEGF signalling; knockdown of clathrin, or of dynamin, or overexpression of dynamin K44A, do not affect VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, while dynasore causes strong inhibition...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325808/membrane-remodeling-during-embryonic-abscission-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Julia König, E B Frankel, Anjon Audhya, Thomas Müller-Reichert
Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis and results in the physical separation of two daughter cells. In this study, we conducted a time-resolved series of electron tomographic reconstructions to define the steps required for the first embryonic abscission in Caenorhabditis elegans Our findings indicate that membrane scission occurs on both sides of the midbody ring with random order and that completion of the scission process requires actomyosin-driven membrane remodeling, but not microtubules. Moreover, continuous membrane removal predominates during the late stages of cytokinesis, mediated by both dynamin and the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324764/enhancing-mitofusin-marf-ameliorates-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-drosophila-models-of-tdp-43-proteinopathies
#5
Bilal Khalil, Marie-Jeanne Cabirol-Pol, Laetitia Miguel, Alexander J Whitworth, Magalie Lecourtois, Jean-Charles Liévens
Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) is considered a major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The precise mechanisms by which TDP-43 dysregulation leads to toxicity in neurons are not fully understood. Using TDP-43-expressing Drosophila, we examined whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a central determinant in TDP-43 pathogenesis. Expression of human wild-type TDP-43 in Drosophila neurons results in abnormally small mitochondria...
February 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324645/three-dimensional-analysis-of-somatic-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-fission-deficient-injured-motor-neurons-using-fib-sem
#6
Hiromi Tamada, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroki Hosokawa, Keisuke Ohta, Naotada Ishihara, Masatoshi Nomura, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Kei-Ichiro Nakamura, Hiroshi Kiyama
Mitochondria undergo morphological changes through fusion and fission for their quality control, which are vital for neuronal function. In this study, we examined three-dimensional morphologies of mitochondria in motor neurons under normal, nerve injured, and nerve injured plus fission-impaired conditions using the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), because the FIB/SEM technology is a powerful tool to demonstrate both 3D images of whole organelle and the intra-organellar structure simultaneously...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323206/ligands-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-promote-glutamate-transporter-1-endocytosis-in-astrocytes
#7
Hui-Ting Huang, Chih-Kai Liao, Wen-Tai Chiu, Shun-Fen Tzeng
Astrocytes, a stellate-shape glial population in the central nervous system (CNS), maintain glutamate homeostasis in adult CNS by undergoing glutamate uptake at the synapse through their glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) can be activated by endogenous saturated fatty acids to regulate astrocytic lipid metabolism and functions. However, it is unclear if PPARα can exert the regulatory action on GLT-1 expression in astrocytes. This study showed that treatment with palmitic acid (PA) and the other two PPARα agonists (GW 7647 and WY 14,643) caused no change in the morphology of astrocytes, whereas membranous GLT-1 protein levels in astrocytes were significantly decreased by PA and PPARα agonists...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321960/hiv-infection-is-influenced-by-dynamin-at-three-independent-points-in-the-viral-life-cycle
#8
Anupriya Aggarwal, Tina L Hitchen, Lars Ootes, Samantha McAllery, Andrew Wong, Khanh Nguyen, Adam McCluskey, Phillip J Robinson, Stuart G Turville
CD4 T cells are important cellular targets for HIV-1, yet the primary site of HIV fusion remains unresolved. Candidate fusion sites are either the plasma membrane or from within endosomes. One area of investigation compounding the controversy of this field, is the role of the protein dynamin in the HIV life cycle. To understand the role of dynamin in primary CD4 T cells we combined dynamin inhibition with a series of complementary assays based on single particle tracking, HIV fusion, detection of HIV DNA products and active viral transcription...
March 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321934/multi-layered-control-of-peroxisomal-activity-upon-salt-stress-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Joan Espí-Bardisa, Benito Alarcón, Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles and the sole location for fatty acid β-oxidation in yeast cells. Here we report that peroxisomal function is crucial for the adaptation to salt stress, especially upon sugar limitation. Upon stress, multiple layers of control regulate the activity and the number of peroxisomes. Activated Hog1 MAP kinase triggers the induction of genes encoding enzymes for fatty acid activation, peroxisomal import and β-oxidation through the Adr1 transcriptional activator, which transiently associates with genes encoding fatty acid metabolic enzymes in a stress- and Hog1-dependent manner...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314909/localization-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-and-its-potential-role-in-lamellipodia-formation
#10
Youhwa Jo, Hyo Min Cho, Woong Sun, Jae Ryun Ryu
Dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) plays an essential role in mitochondrial fission: Cytosolic Drp1 is translocated to the mitochondria upon stimulus, and oligomerized Drp1 constricts mitochondria by aid of actin filaments. Drp1 completes the fission process with GTP hydrolysis by its own GTPase activity. The importance of actin filament and its interaction with Drp1 in the mitochondrial fission process have been demonstrated. In this study, we found that Drp1 is enriched in the actin-rich leading edge of lamellipodia of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) wherein mitochondria or peroxisomes are absent...
March 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298442/the-short-variant-of-the-mitochondrial-dynamin-opa1-maintains-mitochondrial-energetics-and-cristae-structure
#11
Hakjoo Lee, Sylvia B Smith, Yisang Yoon
The protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a dynamin-related protein associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane, and functions in mitochondrial inner membrane fusion and cristae maintenance. Inner membrane-anchored long OPA1 (L-OPA1) undergoes proteolytic cleavage resulting in short OPA1 (S-OPA1). It is often thought that S-OPA1 is a functionally insignificant proteolytic product of L-OPA1 because the accumulation of S-OPA1 due to L-OPA1 cleavage is observed in mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction. However, cells contain a mixture of both L- and S-OPA1 in normal conditions, suggesting the functional significance of maintaining both OPA1 forms, but the differential roles of L- and S-OPA1 in mitochondrial fusion and energetics are ill-defined...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#12
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT/B most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonization such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294974/mir-30a-as-potential-therapeutics-by-targeting-tet1-through-regulation-of-drp-1-promoter-hydroxymethylation-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Songzi Zhang, Huizhu Liu, Yuxia Liu, Jie Zhang, Hongbo Li, Weili Liu, Guohong Cao, Pan Xv, Jinjin Zhang, Changjun Lv, Xiaodong Song
Several recent studies have indicated that miR-30a plays critical roles in various biological processes and diseases. However, the mechanism of miR-30a participation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) regulation is ambiguous. Our previous study demonstrated that miR-30a may function as a novel therapeutic target for lung fibrosis by blocking mitochondrial fission, which is dependent on dynamin-related protein1 (Drp-1). However, the regulatory mechanism between miR-30a and Drp-1 is yet to be investigated...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292876/maternal-exercise-upregulates-mitochondrial-gene-expression-and-increases-enzyme-activity-of-fetal-mouse-hearts
#14
Eunhee Chung, Hayli E Joiner, Tracer Skelton, Kalli D Looten, Maria Manczak, P Hemachandra Reddy
Maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve the long-term health of offspring in later life. Mitochondria are important organelles for maintaining adequate heart function, and mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on mitochondrial biogenesis in hearts are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial gene expression in fetal myocardium would be upregulated by maternal exercise...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287394/quantitative-proteomics-reveal-proteins-enriched-in-tubular-endoplasmic-reticulum-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Xinbo Wang, Shanshan Li, Haicheng Wang, Wenqing Shui, Junjie Hu
The tubular network is a critical part of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The network is shaped by the reticulons and REEPs/Yop1p that generate tubules by inducing high membrane curvature, and the dynamin-like GTPases atlastin and Sey1p/RHD3 that connect tubules via membrane fusion. However, the specific functions of this ER domain are not clear. Here, we isolated tubule-based microsomes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae via classical cell fractionation and detergent-free immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged Yop1p, which specifically localizes to ER tubules...
March 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283188/targeted-cytoplasmic-irradiation-and-autophagy
#16
Jinhua Wu, Bo Zhang, Yen-Ruh Wuu, Mercy M Davidson, Tom K Hei
The effect of ionizing irradiation on cytoplasmic organelles is often underestimated because the general dogma considers direct DNA damage in the nuclei to be the primary cause of radiation induced toxicity. Using a precision microbeam irradiator, we examined the changes in mitochondrial dynamics and functions triggered by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation with α-particles. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by targeted cytoplasmic irradiation led to activation of autophagy, which degraded dysfunctional mitochondria in order to maintain cellular energy homeostasis...
March 1, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282614/inhibition-of-drp1-protects-against-senecionine-induced-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-primary-hepatocytes-and-in-mice
#17
Xiao Yang, Hua Wang, Hong-Min Ni, Aizhen Xiong, Zhengtao Wang, Hiromi Sesaki, Wen-Xing Ding, Li Yang
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of compounds found in various plants and some of them are widely consumed in the world as herbal medicines and food supplements. PAs are potent hepatotoxins that cause irreversible liver injury in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms by which PAs induce liver injury are not clear. In the present study, we determined the hepatotoxicity and molecular mechanisms of senecionine, one of the most common toxic PAs, in primary cultured mouse and human hepatocytes as well as in mice...
March 2, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277942/hitchhiking-vesicular-transport-routes-to-the-vacuole-amyloid-recruitment-to-the-insoluble-protein-deposit-ipod
#18
Rajesh Kumar, Nicole Neuser, Jens Tyedmers
Sequestration of aggregates into specialized deposition sites occurs in many species across all kingdoms of life ranging from bacteria to mammals and is commonly believed to have a cytoprotective function. Yeast cells possess at least 3 different spatially separated deposition sites, one of which is termed "Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD)" and harbors amyloid aggregates. We have recently discovered that recruitment of amyloid aggregates to the IPOD uses an actin cable based recruitment machinery that also involves vesicular transport...
March 9, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273447/dynamin-related-protein-1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-changes-in-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-regulate-insulin-action
#19
Beatrice M Filippi, Mona A Abraham, Pamuditha N Silva, Mozhgan Rasti, Mary P LaPierre, Paige V Bauer, Jonathan V Rocheleau, Tony K T Lam
Mitochondria undergo dynamic changes to maintain function in eukaryotic cells. Insulin action in parallel regulates glucose homeostasis, but whether specific changes in mitochondrial dynamics alter insulin action and glucose homeostasis remains elusive. Here, we report that high-fat feeding in rodents incurred adaptive dynamic changes in mitochondria through an increase in mitochondrial fission in parallel to an activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the brain. Direct inhibition of Drp1 negated high-fat-feeding-induced mitochondrial fission, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and insulin resistance in the DVC and subsequently restored hepatic glucose production regulation...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272479/plasmalogen-biosynthesis-is-spatiotemporally-regulated-by-sensing-plasmalogens-in-the-inner-leaflet-of-plasma-membranes
#20
Masanori Honsho, Yuichi Abe, Yukio Fujiki
Alkenyl ether phospholipids are a major sub-class of ethanolamine- and choline-phospholipids in which a long chain fatty alcohol is attached at the sn-1 position through a vinyl ether bond. Biosynthesis of ethanolamine-containing alkenyl ether phospholipids, plasmalogens, is regulated by modulating the stability of fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (Far1) in a manner dependent on the level of cellular plasmalogens. However, precise molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of plasmalogen synthesis remain poorly understood...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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