Read by QxMD icon Read


Xinghui Liu, Hongwen Tan, Xiaoqiao Liu, Qiang Wu
The objective of this study was to investigate the expression level of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in vascular endothelium of hypertension rats and its correlation with expression of inflammatory factors. Twenty spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR) were randomly divided into SHR group (n=10) and inhibition group (MD group, n=10), and the Sprague Dawley rats were enrolled as the control group (C group, n=10). For rats in the MD group, Mdivi-1, a mitochondrial division inhibitor, was given in dosage of 25 mg/kg...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Wen Ding, Keyvan Yousefi, Stefania Goncalves, Bradley J Goldstein, Alfonso L Sabater, Amy Kloosterboer, Portia Ritter, Guerline Lambert, Armando J Mendez, Lina A Shehadeh
Alport syndrome is a rare hereditary renal disorder with no etiologic therapy. We found that osteopontin (OPN) is highly expressed in the renal tubules of the Alport mouse and plays a causative pathological role. OPN genetic deletion ameliorated albuminuria, hypertension, tubulointerstitial proliferation, renal apoptosis, and hearing and visual deficits in the Alport mouse. In Alport renal tubules we found extensive cholesterol accumulation and increased protein expression of dynamin-3 (DNM3) and LDL receptor (LDLR) in addition to dysmorphic mitochondria with defective bioenergetics...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Xiangyi Wen, Matthew J Van Hook, Justin J Grassmeyer, Alex I Wiesman, Grace M Rich, Karlene M Cork, Wallace B Thoreson
Endocytosis is an essential process at sites of synaptic release. Not only are synaptic vesicles recycled by endocytosis, but the removal of proteins and lipids by endocytosis is needed to restore release site function at active zones after vesicle fusion. Synaptic exocytosis from vertebrate photoreceptors involves synaptic ribbons that serve to cluster vesicles near the presynaptic membrane. In this study, we hypothesize that this clustering increases the likelihood that exocytosis at one ribbon release site may disrupt release at an adjacent site and therefore that endocytosis may be particularly important for restoring release site competence at photoreceptor ribbon synapses...
March 19, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Yan He, Kun Jia, Lei Li, Qi Wang, Shuhui Zhang, Jiaming Du, Heng Du
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a featured pathology underlying synaptic injury and neuronal stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In recent years, the vicious cycle between mitochondrial deficits and intra-neuronal Redox state imbalance has received considerable attention. In this regard, it is of great interest to determine whether antioxidants could alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction in AD-related conditions. Salvianolic acid B (SalB), a bioactive component of alvia miltiorrhiza Bge, is a potent antioxidant...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jinpeng Li, Megumi Kanasaki, Ling Xu, Munehiro Kitada, Kenji Nagao, Yusuke Adachi, Hiroko Jinzu, Yasushi Noguchi, Miyuki Kohno, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
Muscle biology is important topic in diabetes research. We have reported that a diet with ketogenic amino acids rich replacement (KAAR) ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatosteatosis via activation of the autophagy system. Here, we found that a KAAR ameliorated the mitochondrial morphological alterations and associated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by an HFD through induction of the AKT/4EBP1 and autophagy signaling pathways in both fast and slow muscles. The mice were fed with a standard HFD (30% fat in food) or an HFD with KAAR (HFDKAAR )...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Francesco Consolato, Francesca Maltecca, Susanna Tulli, Irene Sambri, Giorgio Casari
The proteolytic processing of dynamin like GTPase OPA1, mediated by the activity of both YME1L1 ( i- AAA protease complex) and OMA1, is a crucial step in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. OMA1 is a zinc metallopeptidase of the inner mitochondrial membrane that undergoes pre-activating proteolytic and auto-proteolytic cleavage after mitochondrial import. Here, we identify AFG3L2 ( m- AAA complex) as the major protease mediating this event by maturing the pre-pro-OMA1 of 60 kDa to the pro-OMA1 form of 40 kDa by severing the amino-terminal part without recognizing specific consensus sequence...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
A Covarrubias-Pinto, A I Acuña, G Boncompain, E Pápic, P V Burgos, F Perez, M A Castro
Ascorbic acid (Asc) is an antioxidant molecule essential for physiological functions. The concentration of extracellular Asc increases during synaptic transmission and renal reabsorption. These phenomena induce an increase of the Sodium-dependent-Vitamin-C-transporter 2 (SVCT2) at plasma membrane (PM) localization, as we previously demonstrated in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate intracellular SVCT2 trafficking kinetics in response to Asc. We observed two peaks of SVCT2 localization and function at the PM (at 5-10min, "acute response", and 30-60min, "post-acute response") when cells were incubated with Asc...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Marco M Manni, Marion L Tiberti, Sophie Pagnotta, Hélène Barelli, Romain Gautier, Bruno Antonny
Phospholipid membranes form cellular barriers but need to be flexible enough to divide by fission. Phospholipids generally contain a saturated fatty acid (FA) at position sn1 whereas the sn2 -FA is saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Our understanding of the impact of phospholipid unsaturation on membrane flexibility and fission is fragmentary. Here, we provide a comprehensive view of the effects of the FA profile of phospholipids on membrane vesiculation by dynamin and endophilin. Coupled to simulations, this analysis indicates that: (i) phospholipids with two polyunsaturated FAs make membranes prone to vesiculation but highly permeable; (ii) asymmetric sn1 -saturated- sn2 -polyunsaturated phospholipids provide a tradeoff between efficient membrane vesiculation and low membrane permeability; (iii) When incorporated into phospholipids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; omega-3) makes membranes more deformable than arachidonic acid (omega-6)...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Tamako Nishimura, Nobuhiro Morone, Shiro Suetsugu
Lipid membranes are structural components of cell surfaces and intracellular organelles. Alterations in lipid membrane shape are accompanied by numerous cellular functions, including endocytosis, intracellular transport, and cell migration. Proteins containing Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domains (BAR proteins) are unique, because their structures correspond to the membrane curvature, that is, the shape of the lipid membrane. BAR proteins present at high concentration determine the shape of the membrane, because BAR domain oligomers function as scaffolds that mould the membrane...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Saki Hirofuji, Yuta Hirofuji, Hiroki Kato, Keiji Masuda, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Hiroshi Sato, Fumiko Takayama, Michiko Torio, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Nonaka
Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder associated with psychomotor impairments, autonomic dysfunctions and autism. Patients with Rett syndrome have loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Abnormal biogenic amine signaling and mitochondrial function have been found in patients with Rett syndrome; however, few studies have analyzed the association between these factors. This study investigated the functional relationships between mitochondria and the neuronal differentiation of the MeCP2-deficient stem cells from the exfoliated deciduous teeth of a child with Rett syndrome...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Summer J Rozzi, Valeria Avdoshina, Jerel A Fields, Italo Mocchetti
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection of the central nervous system promotes neuronal injury that culminates in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Viral proteins, including transactivator of transcription (Tat), have emerged as leading candidates to explain HIV-mediated neurotoxicity, though the mechanisms remain unclear. Tat transgenic mice or neurons exposed to Tat, which show neuronal loss, exhibit smaller mitochondria as compared to controls. To provide an experimental clue as to which mechanisms are used by Tat to promote changes in mitochondrial morphology, rat cortical neurons were exposed to Tat (100 nM) for various time points...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Benjamin Gottschalk, Christinae Klec, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that essentially contribute to cell signaling by sophisticated mechanisms of communications. Live cell imaging studies showed that mitochondria are dynamic and complex structures that form ramified networks by directed movements, fission, and fusion events. There is emerging evidence that the morphology of mitochondria determines cellular functions and vice versa. Several intracellular signaling pathways and messengers including Ca2+ dynamically influence the architecture of mitochondria...
March 12, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Hector R Mendez-Gomez, Jasbir Singh, Craig Meyers, Weijun Chen, Oleg S Gorbatyuk, Nicholas Muzyczka
Phospholipase D2 (PLD2), an enzyme involved in vesicle trafficking and membrane signaling, interacts with α-synuclein, a protein known to contribute in the development of Parkinson disease. We previously reported that PLD2 overexpression in rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) causes a rapid neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons, and that α-synuclein suppresses PLD2-induced nigral degeneration (Gorbatyuk et al., 2010). Here, we report that PLD2 toxicity is due to its lipase activity. Overexpression of a catalytically inactive mutant (K758R) of PLD2 prevents the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc and does not show signs of toxicity after 10 weeks of overexpression...
March 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Jeong-Min Hong, Sun-Mee Lee
AIMS: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an endogenous cytoprotective enzyme, is reported that can be localized in mitochondria under stress, contributing to preserve mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial quality control (QC) is essential to cellular health and recovery linked with redox homeostasis. Recent studies reported that phosphoglycerate mutase family member (PGAM) 5, a mitochondria-resident phosphatase, plays critical role in mitochondrial homeostasis. Therefore, we aim to investigate cytoprotective mechanisms of HO-1 in I/R-induced hepatic injury focusing on mitochondrial QC associated with PGAM5 signaling...
March 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Tadahiro Miyake, Duo Wang, Hidetada Matsuoka, Kentaro Morita, Hiroshi Yasuda, Kazuhiro Yatera, Tamotsu Kanazawa, Yasuhiro Yoshida
Particulate matter (PM) with a median diameter <2.5 μm, is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. We previously reported the biological effects of PM in vivo, and although neutrophils play an important role in initiating inflammation, few reports have focused on the relationship between PM inhalation and immune responses. Here, we investigated the effect of PM particle size on neutrophils, including their endocytosis activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that 1 μm particles are readily endocytosed by neutrophils and that endocytosis is reduced at 4 °C...
March 6, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Ruven Jilly, Nadir Zaman Khan, Henrik Aronsson, Dirk Schneider
Dynamin-like proteins (DLPs) are a family of membrane-active proteins with low sequence identity. The proteins operate in different organelles in eukaryotic cells, where they trigger vesicle formation, membrane fusion, or organelle division. As discussed here, representatives of this protein family have also been identified in chloroplasts and DLPs are very common in cyanobacteria. Since cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, an organelle of bacterial origin, have similar internal membrane systems, we suggest that DLPs are involved in membrane dynamics in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Da Yeon Kim, Seok Yun Jung, Yeon Ju Kim, Songhwa Kang, Ji Hye Park, Seung Taek Ji, Woong Bi Jang, Shreekrishna Lamichane, Babita Dahal Lamichane, Young Chan Chae, Dongjun Lee, Joo Seop Chung, Sang-Mo Kwon
Tumor undergo uncontrolled, excessive proliferation leads to hypoxic microenvironment. To fulfill their demand for nutrient, and oxygen, tumor angiogenesis is required. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been known to the main source of angiogenesis because of their potential to differentiation into endothelial cells. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of EPC-mediated angiogenesis in hypoxia is critical for development of cancer therapy. Recently, mitochondrial dynamics has emerged as a critical mechanism for cellular function and differentiation under hypoxic conditions...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Jie Gao, Ailin Luo, Jing Yan, Xi Fang, Xiaole Tang, Yilin Zhao, Shiyong Li
Accumulating evidence indicates that general anesthetics can cause acute neuroapoptosis and long-term cognitive deficit in models exposed to anesthetics during the brain growth-spurt period. Anesthetics-induced imbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission preceded and contributed to developmental neuroapoptosis. Accordingly, the imbalance was accompanied by activation of dynamin-related protein (Drp)1 which was closely associated with synaptic degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases. Based on the neuroprotective role of mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1) in neurodegeneration and stroke, we set out to examine whether mdivi-1 can mitigate developmental neurotoxicity induced by isoflurane...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Hichem Tasfaout, Valentina M Lionello, Christine Kretz, Pascale Koebel, Nadia Messaddeq, Deborah Bitz, Jocelyn Laporte, Belinda S Cowling
Myotubular myopathy, or X-linked centronuclear myopathy, is a severe muscle disorder representing a significant burden for patients and their families. It is clinically characterized by neonatal and severe muscle weakness and atrophy. Mutations in the myotubularin (MTM1) gene cause myotubular myopathy, and no specific curative treatment is available. We previously found that dynamin 2 (DNM2) is upregulated in both Mtm1 knockout and patient muscle samples, whereas its reduction through antisense oligonucleotides rescues the clinical and histopathological features of this myopathy in mice...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Tianzheng Yu, Iman Ferdjallah, Falicia Elenberg, Star K Chen, Patricia Deuster, Yifan Chen
AIMS: We have previously demonstrated in vitro that heat-induced skeletal muscle damage is associated with an increase in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission and no change in mitochondrial fusion. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of mitochondrial fission inhibition on heat-induced oxidative skeletal muscle injury and hyperthermic response in mice. MAIN METHODS: Core body temperatures of mice pre-treated with vehicle or Mdivi-1 were recorded by radio telemetry during heat exposure...
February 27, 2018: Life Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"