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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718976/low-density-lipopolyprotein-inhibits-flavivirus-acquisition-in-aedes-aegypti
#1
Z L Wagar, M O Tree, M C Mpoy, M J Conway
Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of a number of human pathogens including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. aegypti acquires these viruses during the processing of bloodmeals obtained from an infected vertebrate host. Vertebrate blood contains a number of factors that have the potential to modify virus acquisition in the mosquito. Interestingly, low density lipopolyprotein (LDL) levels are decreased during severe DENV infection. Accordingly, we hypothesized that LDL is a modifiable factor that can influence flavivirus acquisition in the mosquito...
July 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712398/-fasudil-attenuates-mitochondrial-injury-and-apoptosis-in-rat-model-of-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Hongwei Ye, Guanjun Zhang, Ruiping Cao, Pinfang Kang, Zhenghong Li, Qin Gao
Objective To observe the changes of mitochondria fusion protein 2 (Mfn2) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in the cardioprotection of fasudil, and analyze the significance. Methods Hearts isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes (occlusion of left anterior descending artery), and continuously perfusion for 120 minutes to establish myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model. The rats were divided into 3 groups: sham group, I/R group and fasudil group. The left ventricular hemodynamics were continuously recorded; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content was measured during reperfusion; myocardial ultrastructure was observed by electron microscopy; the protein expression of phosphorylated protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A (p-PPP1R12A/p-MYPT1) was detected by immunohistochemistry; and the protein expressions of Mfn2, Drp1 and cleaved caspase-3 (c-caspase-3) were detected by Western blot analysis...
July 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705612/cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics-mir-mediated-regulation-during-cardiac-injury
#3
Anusha Sivakumar, Ramasamy Subbiah, Rekha Balakrishnan, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Mitochondrial integrity is indispensable for cardiac health. With the advent of modern imaging technologies, mitochondrial motility and dynamics within the cell are extensively studied. Terminally differentiated and well-structured cardiomyocytes depict little mitochondrial division and fusion, questioning the contribution of mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mitofusin 1/2 and Optic Atrophy 1 protein) and fission factors (Dynamin-like protein 1 and mitochondrial fission 1 protein) in cardiomyocyte homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703078/chrysophanol-suppresses-pro-inflammatory-response-in-microglia-via-regulation-of-drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission
#4
Unbin Chae, Ju-Sik Min, Hanna Lee, Kyung-Sik Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Hong Jun Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Dong-Seok Lee
OBJECTIVES: Chrysophanol, also called chrysophanic acid, is a natural anthraquinone compound found in Rheum palmatum. R. palmatum has been used in oriental medicine in ancient East Asia. Microglial cells represent not only the forefront immune defense in the central nervous system but also the most reactive sensors to various threats. However, activated microglia can exert neurotoxic effects via excessive production of cytotoxic molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, modulation of microglial cell activation is important for maintaining neuronal function...
July 13, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700237/rgd-modified-albumin-nanoconjugates-for-targeted-delivery-of-a-porphyrin-photosensitizer
#5
Fang Li, Yan Zhao, Chengqiong Mao, Yi Kong, Xin Ming
Advances in photodynamic therapy of cancer have been restrained by lack of cancer specificity and side effects to normal tissues. Molecularly targeted photodynamic therapy can achieve higher cancer specificity by combination of active cancer targeting and localized laser activation. We aimed to use albumin as a carrier to prepare targeted nanoconjugates that are selective to cancer cells and smaller than conventional nanoparticles for superior tumor penetration. IRDye® 700DX (IR700), a porphyrin photosensitizer, was covalently conjugated to human serum albumin that was also linked with tumor-targeting RGD peptides...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694451/polymorphic-regulation-of-mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-modifies-phenotypes-of-microglia-in-neuroinflammation
#6
Mitsuhiko Katoh, Bao Wu, Huy Bang Nguyen, Truc Quynh Thai, Ryo Yamasaki, Haiyan Lu, Anna M Rietsch, Musab M Zorlu, Youichi Shinozaki, Yurika Saitoh, Sei Saitoh, Takashi Sakoh, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Schuichi Koizumi, Richard M Ransohoff, Nobuhiko Ohno
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and play complex roles in the milieu of diseases including the primary diseases of myelin. Although mitochondria are critical for cellular functions and survival in the nervous system, alterations in and the roles of mitochondrial dynamics and associated signaling in microglia are still poorly understood. In the present study, by combining immunohistochemistry and 3D ultrastructural analyses, we show that mitochondrial fission/fusion in reactive microglia is differentially regulated from that in monocyte-derived macrophages and the ramified microglia of normal white matter in myelin disease models...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687675/two-dynamin-like-proteins-stabilize-ftsz-rings-during-streptomyces-sporulation
#7
Susan Schlimpert, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Govind Chandra, Maureen J Bibb, Kim C Findlay, Klas Flärdh, Mark J Buttner
During sporulation, the filamentous bacteria Streptomyces undergo a massive cell division event in which the synthesis of ladders of sporulation septa convert multigenomic hyphae into chains of unigenomic spores. This process requires cytokinetic Z-rings formed by the bacterial tubulin homolog FtsZ, and the stabilization of the newly formed Z-rings is crucial for completion of septum synthesis. Here we show that two dynamin-like proteins, DynA and DynB, play critical roles in this process. Dynamins are a family of large, multidomain GTPases involved in key cellular processes in eukaryotes, including vesicle trafficking and organelle division...
July 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684113/sericin-improves-heart-and-liver-mitochondrial-architecture-in-hypercholesterolaemic-rats-and-maintains-pancreatic-and-adrenal-cell-biosynthesis
#8
Sumate Ampawong, Duangnate Isarangkul, Pornanong Aramwit
Hypercholesterolaemia is well known to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, subsequently leading to multiple organ failure. Similar to other natural products, sericin is a candidate for adjunctive therapy in hyperlipidaemic conditions. However, the cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of sericin are multifactorial and controversial. Here, a high-cholesterol-fed rat model with or without sericin treatment was established using a dosage of 1,000mg/kg/day for 30 days. Blood lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; malondialdehyde, MDA; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor, Nrf-2), dysmorphic mitochondria in relation to fission (dynamin-related protein-1; Drp-1) and fusion (guanosine triphosphatase mutated in dominant optic atrophy; OPA-1) markers and biosynthetic markers (aquaporin, AQP-1; tubulin-4β, Tb4B) in the pancreas and adrenal gland were evaluated...
July 3, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683400/azidothymidine-triphosphate-impairs-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-disrupting-the-quality-control-system
#9
Ryosuke Nomura, Takeya Sato, Yuka Sato, Jeffrey A Medin, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teruyuki Yanagisawa
Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) has been used to block the progression and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although it decreases morbidity and mortality, clinical use of HAART has also been linked to various adverse effects such as severe cardiomyopathy resulting from compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, the mechanistic basis for these effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a key component of HAART, 3ꞌ-azido-3ꞌ-deoxythymidine (AZT), particularly, its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 cells derived from rat embryonic myoblasts, which serve as a model for cardiomyopathy...
June 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676660/drp3-and-elm1-are-required-for-mitochondrial-fission-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#10
Nagisa Nagaoka, Akihiro Yamashita, Rina Kurisu, Yuta Watari, Fumiko Ishizuna, Nobuhissro Tsutsumi, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Shin-Ichi Arimura
Mitochondria increase in number by the fission of existing mitochondria. Mitochondrial fission is needed to provide mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four kinds of genes have been reported to be involved in mitochondrial fission. Two of them, DRP3 (dynamin-related protein3) and FIS1 (FISSION1), are well conserved in eukaryotes. The other two are plant-specific ELM1 (elongated mitochondria1) and PMD (peroxisomal and mitochondrial division). To better understand the commonality and diversity of mitochondrial fission factors in land plants, we examined mitochondrial fission-related genes in a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676641/dynamin-2-mutations-linked-to-centronuclear-myopathy-impair-actin-dependent-trafficking-in-muscle-cells
#11
Arlek M González-Jamett, Ximena Baez-Matus, María José Olivares, Fernando Hinostroza, Maria José Guerra-Fernández, Jacqueline Vasquez-Navarrete, Mai Thao Bui, Pascale Guicheney, Norma Beatriz Romero, Jorge A Bevilacqua, Marc Bitoun, Pablo Caviedes, Ana M Cárdenas
Dynamin-2 is a ubiquitously expressed GTP-ase that mediates membrane remodeling. Recent findings indicate that dynamin-2 also regulates actin dynamics. Mutations in dynamin-2 cause dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM), a congenital myopathy characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the muscle-specific roles of dynamin-2 affected by these mutations remain elusive. Here we show that, in muscle cells, the GTP-ase activity of dynamin-2 is involved in de novo actin polymerization as well as in actin-mediated trafficking of the glucose transporter GLUT4...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674108/reciprocal-regulation-of-signaling-and-endocytosis-implications-for-the-evolving-cancer-cell
#12
REVIEW
Sandra L Schmid
Cell surface receptor uptake via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and subsequent intracellular sorting for degradation or recycling regulates the strength and specificity of downstream signaling. Signaling, in turn, modulates early endocytic trafficking. This reciprocal regulation of signaling and endocytosis provides opportunities for the establishment of feedback loops to enhance or suppress surface-derived signals. Recent studies suggest that dynamin-1, a presumed neuron-specific isoform of the large, membrane fission GTPase, can be activated in nonneuronal cells downstream of cancer-relevant signaling pathways and thereby function as a nexus between signaling and early endocytic trafficking...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674075/clathrin-mediated-post-fusion-membrane-retrieval-influences-the-exocytic-mode-of-endothelial-weibel-palade-bodies
#13
Nicola L Stevenson, Ian J White, Jessica J McCormack, Christopher Robinson, Daniel F Cutler, Thomas D Nightingale
Weibel Palade bodies (WPB), the storage organelles of endothelial cells, are essential to normal haemostatic and inflammatory responses. Their major content protein is Von Willebrands factor (VWF) that, following secretagogue-stimulation, is released into the blood vessel lumen as large platelet-catching strings. This exocytosis changes the protein composition of the cell surface and also results in a net increase in the amount of plasma membrane. Compensatory endocytosis is thought to limit changes in cell size and retrieve fusion machinery and other misplaced integral membrane proteins following exocytosis, however little is known about the extent, timing, mechanism and precise function of compensatory endocytosis in endothelial cells...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672961/salidroside-inhibits-high-glucose-induced-proliferation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-via-inhibiting-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress
#14
Xinyu Zhuang, Alimujiang Maimaitijiang, Yong Li, Haiming Shi, Xiaofei Jiang
The mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, carefully maintaining network homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mitochondrial dynamics are involved in the regulation of a variety of pathophysiological processes, including cell proliferation. Oxidative stress serves an important role in the remodeling of arterial vascular tissue in diabetic patients by affecting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Salidroside is the primary active component of Rhodiola rosea and has been demonstrated to be an antioxidant with cardio- and vascular-protective effects, in addition to improving glucose metabolism...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670625/mechanisms-of-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity-and-their-translation-to-the-human-pathophysiology
#15
Anup Ramachandran, Hartmut Jaeschke
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States and mechanisms of liver injury induced by APAP overdose have been the focus of extensive investigation. Studies in the mouse model, which closely reproduces the human condition, have shown that hepatotoxicity is initiated by formation of a reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which depletes cellular glutathione and forms protein adducts on mitochondrial proteins. This leads to mitochondrial oxidative and nitrosative stress, accompanied by activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its translocation to the mitochondria...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669852/dynamin-regulates-the-fusion-pore-of-endo-and-exocytotic-vesicles-as-revealed-by-membrane-capacitance-measurements
#16
Eva Lasič, Matjaž Stenovec, Marko Kreft, Phillip J Robinson, Robert Zorec
BACKGROUND: Dynamin is a multidomain GTPase exhibiting mechanochemical and catalytic properties involved in vesicle scission from the plasmalemma during endocytosis. New evidence indicates that dynamin is also involved in exocytotic release of catecholamines, suggesting the existence of a dynamin-regulated structure that couples endo- to exocytosis. METHODS: Thus we here employed high-resolution cell-attached capacitance measurements and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy to directly examine single vesicle interactions with the plasmalemma in cultured rat astrocytes treated with distinct pharmacological modulators of dynamin activity...
June 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667181/dnm1-encephalopathy-a-new-disease-of-vesicle-fission
#17
Sarah von Spiczak, Katherine L Helbig, Deepali N Shinde, Robert Huether, Manuela Pendziwiat, Charles Lourenço, Mark E Nunes, Dean P Sarco, Richard A Kaplan, Dennis J Dlugos, Heidi Kirsch, Anne Slavotinek, Maria R Cilio, Mackenzie C Cervenka, Julie S Cohen, Rebecca McClellan, Ali Fatemi, Amy Yuen, Yoshimi Sagawa, Rebecca Littlejohn, Scott D McLean, Laura Hernandez-Hernandez, Bridget Maher, Rikke S Møller, Elizabeth Palmer, John A Lawson, Colleen A Campbell, Charuta N Joshi, Diana L Kolbe, Georgie Hollingsworth, Bernd A Neubauer, Hiltrud Muhle, Ulrich Stephani, Ingrid E Scheffer, Sérgio D J Pena, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Ingo Helbig
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in dynamin 1 (DNM1), encoding the presynaptic protein DNM1, and to investigate possible genotype-phenotype correlations and predicted functional consequences based on structural modeling. METHODS: We reviewed phenotypic data of 21 patients (7 previously published) with DNM1 mutations. We compared mutation data to known functional data and undertook biomolecular modeling to assess the effect of the mutations on protein function...
June 30, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666116/friction-at-the-bar-leads-to-membrane-breakup
#18
Kranthi K Mandadapu, James H Hurley
A long-standing question in cell biology is how endocytic vesicles and tubules detach from the plasma membrane in the absence of constriction by dynamin. In this issue of Cell, Simunovic et al. describe an elegant biophysical model in which friction between lipids and BAR-domain proteins drives the scission of elongating membrane tubules.
June 29, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665886/ablation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-mitigates-central-blood-pressure-response-during-hyperhomocysteinemia
#19
Nevena Jeremic, Gregory J Weber, Anastasia Familtseva, Naira Metreveli, Suresh C Tyagi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to define the mechanisms of homocysteine-induced effects on the aortic wall that promote vascular remodeling and hypertension as well as explore the role of Toll-like receptor 4 in homocysteine-induced effects. METHOD: Five strains of mice were utilized in this study: C57BL/6J, C3H/HeOuJ, CBS+/-, C3H/HeJ and CBS+/-/C3H. Aorta, heart and blood were collected at the end of the experiments. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded using noninvasive tail cuff method...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665255/hypothermia-identifies-dynamin-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-experimental-stroke
#20
Jong Youl Kim, Nuri Kim, Jong Eun Lee, Midori A Yenari
Apoptosis is a cell death pathway that is activated in ischemic stroke. The interaction between Fas and its ligand (FasL) initiates a complex pattern of intracellular events involving the recruitment of specific adaptor proteins and the development of apoptosis. We recently reported that dynamin is increased after experimental stroke, and its inhibition improves neurological outcome. Dynamin has been shown to transport Fas from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface where it can be bound by its ligand, FasL...
June 30, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
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