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Prostate cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933396/diagnostic-performance-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-prostate-cancer-peripheral-zone-versus-transition-zone
#1
Hakmin Lee, Sung Il Hwang, Hak Jong Lee, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Sung Kyu Hong
OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be an important component of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). We compared performance of DWI for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) of prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data of 460 subjects who underwent preoperative 3.0-Tesla mpMRI and subsequently radical prostatectomy. Level of suspicion for PCa was graded using 5-grade Likert-scale from DWI...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932371/micrornas-in-prostate-cancer-from-function-to-biomarker-discovery
#2
Ahmed A Moustafa, Hogyoung Kim, Rasha S Albeltagy, Ola H El-Habit, Asim B Abdel-Mageed
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a small functional non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression. miRNAs are key regulatory components of various cellular networks. Current evidence support that multiple mammalian genome-encoded miRNAs impact the cellular biology, including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and tumorigenesis, by targeting specific subsets of mRNAs. This minireview is focused on the current themes underlying the interactions between miRNAs and their mRNA targets and pathways in prostate tumorigenesis and progression, and their potential clinical utility as biomarkers for prostate cancer...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932287/risk-pattern-and-survival-impact-of-second-primary-tumors-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-following-definitive-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy
#3
James C H Chow, Kwok Hung Au, Oscar W K Mang, Ka Man Cheung, Roger K C Ngan
AIM: Second primary tumor (SPT) is a serious late complication after definitive radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We evaluated the incidence, pattern, risk factors and survival impact of SPT in NPC patients following definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS: A retrospective review of 780 consecutive IMRT-treated NPC patients between February 2003 and September 2011 was conducted. Cumulative SPT incidence and overall survival after SPT diagnosis were estimated...
June 22, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931182/factors-predicting-biochemical-recurrence-after-radical-prostatectomy-among-patients-with-clinical-t3-prostate-cancer
#4
Masafumi Otsuka, Tomohiko Kamasako, Toshihiro Uemura, Nobushige Takeshita, Tetsuo Shinozaki, Masayuki Kobayashi, Atsushi Komaru, Satoshi Fukasawa
Background: The effectiveness of cancer control is unclear after radical prostatectomy for patients with clinical T3 prostate cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1409 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between April 2007 and December 2014, including 210 patients with cT3 prostate cancer. Nine patients who received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and three patients who were lost to follow-up were excluded from the analysis. Clinical staging was performed by an experienced radiologist using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings...
June 19, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931077/incidence-and-location-of-positive-surgical-margin-among-open-laparoscopic-and-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-in-prostate-cancer-patients-a-single-institutional-analysis
#5
Atsushi Koizumi, Shintaro Narita, Taketoshi Nara, Koichiro Takayama, Sohei Kanda, Kazuyuki Numakura, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Atsushi Maeno, Mingguo Huang, Mitsuru Saito, Takamitsu Inoue, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Shigeru Satoh, Hiroshi Nanjo, Tomonori Habuchi
Objective: To evaluate the positive surgical margin rates and locations in radical prostatectomy among three surgical approaches, including open radical prostatectomy, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical outcomes at our institution of 450 patients who received radical prostatectomy. Multiple surgeons were involved in the three approaches, and a single pathologist conducted the histopathological diagnoses...
June 19, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930800/molecular-functions-of-sirp%C3%AE-and-its-role-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Shinichiro Takahashi
Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)172a or Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase substrate-1, is a cell surface receptor expressed on myeloid and hematopoietic stem cells and neurons. Accumulating data suggests an important role of SIRPα in cell signaling as a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In various cancers, including prostate, breast and liver, as well as astrocytoma and myeloid malignancies, downregulation of SIRPα is frequently observed, resulting in activation of these downstream signaling pathways...
July 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930538/role-of-tumor-derived-chemokines-in-osteolytic-bone-metastasis
#7
REVIEW
Salvatore J Coniglio
Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer patients. The bone marrow is a common destination for many malignant cancers, including breast carcinoma (BC), prostate carcinoma, multiple myeloma, lung carcinoma, uterine cancer, thyroid cancer, bladder cancer, and neuroblastoma. The molecular mechanism by which metastatic cancer are able to recognize, infiltrate, and colonize bone are still unclear. Chemokines are small soluble proteins which under normal physiological conditions mediate chemotactic trafficking of leukocytes to specific tissues in the body...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928699/methodology-for-tissue-sample-collection-within-a-translational-sub-study-of-the-chhip-trial-cruk-06-016-a-large-randomised-phase-iii-trial-in-localised-prostate-cancer
#8
Anna Wilkins, Christine Stuttle, Shama Hassan, Claire Blanchard, Clare Cruickshank, Clare Griffin, Jake Probert, Catherine M Corbishley, Chris Parker, David Dearnaley, Emma Hall
Background: This article presents the methodology for tissue sample collection in Trans-CHHiP, the main translational study within the CHHiP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High dose intensity modulated radiotherapy in Prostate cancer, ISRCTN 97182923) trial. The CHHiP trial randomised 3216 men with localised prostate cancer to 3 different radiotherapy fractionation schedules. Trans-CHHiP aims to identify biomarkers of fraction sensitivity. Methods: We outline the process of tissue collection, including central review by a study-specific specialist uropathologist and comparison of the centrally-assigned Gleason grade group with that assigned by the recruiting-centre pathologist...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928275/the-pathologic-role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-prostate-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Tongwen Ou, Michael Lilly, Wei Jiang
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is expressed on normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. The TLR4 and its downstream signaling pathways mediate innate immune responses in the host against invading pathogens. However, multiple lines of evidence shows that TLR4 expression is increased in prostate tissues from prostate cancer patients, and altered TLR4 signals may promote cancer development, as well as antitumor effects. In this review, we have summarized key features of the TLR4 signaling pathway and its associated immune responses and focused on the pathologic role of TLR4 in prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926761/quality-of-life-among-black-prostate-cancer-survivors-an-integrative-review
#10
Sabrina L Dickey, Motolani E Ogunsanya
The purpose of this integrative review was to explore the impact of prostate cancer (PCa) on the quality of life (QoL) and factors that contribute to the QoL for Black men with PCa. Prostate is recognized as the prevalent cancer among men in the United States. Compared to other men, Black men are diagnosed more frequently and with more advanced stages of PCa. Black men also experience disproportionately higher morbidity and mortality rates of PCa, among all racial and ethnic groups. The initial diagnosis of PCa is often associated with a barrage of concerns for one's well-being including one's QoL...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926226/trpm8-and-prostate-a-cold-case
#11
REVIEW
Lucile Noyer, Guillaume P Grolez, Natalia Prevarskaya, Dimitra Gkika, Loic Lemonnier
While originally cloned from the prostate in 2001, transient receptor potential, melastatin member 8 (TRPM8) has since been identified as the cold/menthol receptor in the peripheral nervous system. This discovery has led to hundreds of studies regarding the role of this channel in pain and thermosensation phenomena, while relegating TRPM8 involvement in cancer to a secondary role. Despite these findings, there is growing evidence that TRPM8 should be carefully studied within the frame of carcinogenesis, especially in the prostate, where it is highly expressed and where many teams have confirmed variations in its expression during cancer progression...
June 20, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926137/radiomics-and-radiogenomics-of-prostate-cancer
#12
Clayton P Smith, Marcin Czarniecki, Sherif Mehralivand, Radka Stoyanova, Peter L Choyke, Stephanie Harmon, Baris Turkbey
Radiomics and radiogenomics are attractive research topics in prostate cancer. Radiomics mainly focuses on extraction of quantitative information from medical imaging, whereas radiogenomics aims to correlate these imaging features to genomic data. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview summarizing recent progress in the application of radiomics-based approaches in prostate cancer and to discuss the potential role of radiogenomics in prostate cancer.
June 20, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925283/the-relationship-between-circulating-testosterone-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-men
#13
Nur-Vaizura Mohamad, Sok Kuan Wong, Wan Nuraini Wan Hasan, James Jam Jolly, Mohd Fozi Nur-Farhana, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, Kok-Yong Chin
Testosterone is the predominant gonadal androgen in men. Low testosterone levels are found to be associated with an increased in metabolic risk and systematic inflammation. Since adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory cytokines, testosterone may regulate inflammation by acting on adipose tissue. This review aimed to explore the role of testosterone in inflammation and its mechanism of action. Both animal studies and human studies showed that (1) testosterone deficiency was associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines; (2) testosterone substitution reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 21, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925281/alkaline-phosphatase-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-reassessment-of-an-older-biomarker
#14
Daniel Heinrich, Øyvind Bruland, Theresa A Guise, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Oliver Sartor
Since most patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have bone metastases, it is important to understand the potential impact of therapies on prognostic biomarkers, such as ALP. Clinical studies involving mCRPC life-prolonging agents (i.e., sipuleucel-T, abiraterone, enzalutamide, docetaxel, cabazitaxel, and radium-223) have shown that baseline ALP level is prognostic for overall survival, and may be a better prognostic marker for overall survival than prostate-specific antigen in patients with bone-dominant mCRPC...
June 21, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923622/advances-in-the-computational-and-molecular-understanding-of-the-prostate-cancer-cell-nucleus
#15
Neil M Carleton, George Lee, Anant Madabhushi, Robert W Veltri
Nuclear alterations are a hallmark of many types of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Recent evidence shows that subvisual changes, ones that may not be visually perceptible to a pathologist, to the nucleus and its ultrastructural components can precede visual histopathological recognition of cancer. Alterations to nuclear features, such as nuclear size and shape, texture, and spatial architecture, reflect the complex molecular-level changes that occur during oncogenesis. Quantitative nuclear morphometry, a field that uses computational approaches to identify and quantify malignancy-induced nuclear changes, can enable a detailed and objective analysis of the PCa cell nucleus...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922710/aspirin-use-correlates-with-survival-in-women-with-clear-cell-ovarian-cancer
#16
Alyssa M Wield, Christine S Walsh, B J Rimel, Ilana Cass, Beth Y Karlan, Andrew J Li
Data from colon, breast and prostate cancers suggest that aspirin users have reduced mortality. While the direct mechanism remains uncertain, aspirin can suppress the COX-dependent and independent pathways involved in tumor progression. We hypothesized that aspirin users with clear cell ovarian cancer would have improved survival outcomes. We performed a retrospective review of patients with clear cell ovarian cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2010, and followed outcomes through 2016. Patients underwent primary cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy...
August 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922632/18-fluoride-labeled-sodium-fluoride-positron-emission-tomography-with-computer-tomography-the-impact-of-pretreatment-staging-in-intermediate-and-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#17
Simon Jd Harley, Richard Hoffmann, Dylan Bartholomeusz, Peter Sutherland, Barry Chatterton, Michael Kitchener, Prab Takhar, Chris Tsopelas, Andrew Fuller, Richard Wells, Raj Singh-Rai, John Bolt
Background: 18-Fluoride labeled sodium fluoride (Na-18-F) positron emission tomography with computer tomography (PET/CT) has a better sensitivity and specificity than whole body bone scan (WBBS) in detecting osseous metastatic prostate cancer. We performed a pilot study of 20 men to examine what level of impact Na-18-F PET/CT has on management plans when used for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Twenty men were prospectively enrolled into the study in South Australia...
June 2018: Prostate International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922630/the-incidence-of-prostate-cancer-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Soheil Hassanipour, Mohammad Fathalipour, Hamid Salehiniya
Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men. There are various estimates of prostate cancer incidence from different geographical areas in Iran. In addition, no systematic reviews are available regarding the incidence rate of prostate cancer in Iran. Therefore, the present systematic review aimed to address this epidemiological gap. Method: This systematic review was performed based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses in July 2017...
June 2018: Prostate International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922603/association-of-rs3787016-in-long-non-coding-rnas-polr2e-and-rs2910164-in-mirna-146a-with-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Shuaishuai Huang, Hui Cui, Zhongguan Lou, Xue Wang, Liangliang Chen, Zhenhua Xie, Michael Hehir, Xuping Yao, Yu Ren, Dong Cen, Guobin Weng
Background: The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the association between the two SNPs and PCa risk. Methods: Medline, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Wan Fang Database and Chinese Zhi Wang Database were searched for the association of the two SNPs with susceptibility to PCa. The effect size was pooled by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Nine case-control studies, 5 on rs3787016 and 4 on rs2910164, were included...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921791/fatty-acids-and-calcium-regulation-in-prostate-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Ivan V Maly, Wilma A Hofmann
Prostate cancer is a widespread malignancy characterized by a comparative ease of primary diagnosis and difficulty in choosing the individualized course of treatment. Management of prostate cancer would benefit from a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the transition to the lethal, late-stage forms of the disease, which could potentially yield new biomarkers for differential prognosis and treatment prioritization in addition to possible new therapeutic targets. Epidemiological research has uncovered a significant correlation of prostate cancer incidence and progression with the intake (and often co-intake) of fatty acids and calcium...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
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