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Prostate cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679430/is-mri-targeted-biopsy-a-useful-addition-to-systematic-confirmatory-biopsy-in-men-on-active-surveillance-for-low-risk-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Ivo G Schoots, Daan Nieboer, Francesco Giganti, Caroline M Moore, Chris H Bangma, Monique J Roobol
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance of prostate cancer is recommended for men with Gleason 3+3 on standard TRUS-guided biopsy. Confirmatory assessment can include repeat standard TRUS-guided biopsy, and/or MRI with targeted biopsy when indicated. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyse evidence regarding the additional value of MRI and MRI-targeted biopsies to confirmatory systematic biopsies in identifying high-grade prostate cancer in men with low-risk disease on TRUS biopsy...
April 21, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678994/can-exercise-delay-transition-to-active-therapy-in-men-with-low-grade-prostate-cancer-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Daniel A Galvão, Dickon Hayne, Mark Frydenberg, Suzanne K Chambers, Dennis R Taaffe, Nigel Spry, Paul A Scuffham, Robert S Ware, Nicolas H Hart, Robert U Newton
INTRODUCTION: Active surveillance is a strategy for managing low-risk, localised prostate cancer, where men are observed with serial prostate-specific antigen assessments to identify signs of disease progression. Currently, there are no strategies to support active surveillance compliance nor are there interventions that can prevent or slow disease progression, ultimately delaying transition to active treatment before it is clinically required. Recently, we proposed that exercise may have a therapeutic potential in delaying the need for active treatment in men on active surveillance...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678542/effect-of-intravascular-contrast-agent-on-diffusion-and-perfusion-fraction-coefficients-in-the-peripheral-zone-and-prostate-cancer
#3
Yousef Mazaheri, Andreas M Hötker, Amita Shukla-Dave, Oguz Akin, Hedvig Hricak
PURPOSE: To determine whether water diffusion and the perfusion fraction coefficients in prostate peripheral zone (PZ) and prostate cancer (PCa) are affected by intravenous contrast injection and explore the potential mechanism behind previously reported differences between pre- and post-contrast ADC values. METHODS: Our institutional review board waived informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study, which included 32 patients (median age, 63 years; range, 47-77 years) with biopsy-proven, untreated PCa who underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including DW-MRI at b-values 0, 400, 700, 1000 s/mm2 before and after gadolinium injection...
April 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678471/hematologic-toxicity-from-radium-223-therapy-for-bone-metastases-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-risk-factors-and-practical-considerations
#4
REVIEW
Heather Jacene, Leonard Gomella, Evan Y Yu, Eric M Rohren
Radium-223 dichloride is an α-emitting radiopharmaceutical that localizes to bone matrix and is approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases. The cumulative impact of Ra-223 and other therapeutic agents for metastatic CRPC on myelosuppression in bone marrow is unknown. The phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ALSYMPCA trial of Ra-223 in patients with CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678358/impact-of-68-ga-psma-pet-on-the-management-of-patients-with-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Sangwon Han, Sungmin Woo, Yeon Joo Kim, Chong Hyun Suh
CONTEXT: 68 Gallium prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (68 Ga-PSMA PET) is an emerging imaging modality for assessment of prostate cancer. Recent studies show promising results regarding its ability to detect recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer superior to that of conventional imaging modalities. However, the impact of 68 Ga-PSMA PET on management of patients with prostate cancer has not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of 68 Ga-PSMA PET on management of patients with prostate cancer...
April 17, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675414/spondyloarthritis-acute-anterior-uveitis-and-fungi-updating-the-catterall-king-hypothesis
#6
Martin Laurence, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
Spondyloarthritis is a common type of arthritis which affects mostly adults. It consists of idiopathic chronic inflammation of the spine, joints, eyes, skin, gut, and prostate. Inflammation is often asymptomatic, especially in the gut and prostate. The HLA-B*27 allele group, which presents intracellular peptides to CD8+ T cells, is by far the strongest risk factor for spondyloarthritis. The precise mechanisms and antigens remain unknown. In 1959, Catterall and King advanced a novel hypothesis explaining the etiology of spondyloarthritis: an as-yet-unrecognized sexually acquired microbe would be causing all spondyloarthritis types, including acute anterior uveitis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674422/a-perspective-on-the-evolving-story-of-psma-biology-and-psma-based-imaging-and-endoradiotherapeutic-strategies
#7
Denise S O'Keefe, Dean J Bacich, Steve S Huang, Warren D Heston
We will review the evolution of knowledge of the biology of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and how the translation to therapy has also developed. The usual key to discovery is a realistic model for experimentation and hypothesis testing. This is especially true for the prostate where the human prostate differs significantly from that of other often used species for research models. We will emphasize the genetic characterization of PSMA, The nature of the PSMA protein and its role as a carboxypeptidase, with differing important substrates and products in different tissues...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673922/patient-reported-outcomes-after-treatment-for-clinically-localized-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Mónica Ávila, Laila Patel, Silvia López, Laura Cortés-Sanabria, Olatz Garin, Àngels Pont, Ferran Ferrer, Ana Boladeras, Victor Zamora, Sophie Fosså, Anne H Storås, Martin Sanda, Vicky Serra-Sutton, Montse Ferrer
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review is to assess the impact of primary treatments with curative intention in patients with localized prostate cancer, measured with Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs), and to examine differences among modalities within treatments. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for January 2005-March 2017 following PRISMA guidelines, including longitudinal studies measuring disease-specific PROs in localized prostate cancer patients with a follow-up from pre- to post-treatment (≥1 year)...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673712/update-on-systemic-prostate-cancer-therapies-management-of-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-oncology
#9
REVIEW
Philipp Nuhn, Johann S De Bono, Karim Fizazi, Stephen J Freedland, Maurizio Grilli, Philip W Kantoff, Guru Sonpavde, Cora N Sternberg, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
CONTEXT: Introduction of novel agents for the management of advanced prostate cancer provides a range of treatment options with notable benefits for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). At the same time, understanding of optimal patient selection, effective sequential use, and development of resistance patterns remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To review current systemic therapies and recent advances in drug development for mCRPC and strategies to aid in patient selection and optimal sequencing...
April 16, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672549/tumor-development-in-japanese-patients-with-lynch-syndrome
#10
Chiaki Saita, Tatsuro Yamaguchi, Shin-Ichiro Horiguchi, Rin Yamada, Misato Takao, Takeru Iijima, Rika Wakaume, Tomoyuki Aruga, Taku Tabata, Koichi Koizumi
BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome (LS) patients have a high risk of developing various tumors. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of tumors developing in LS patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 55 LS patients treated at Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital. RESULTS: The median age at the diagnosis of the first malignant tumor and first LS-related tumor was 44 (range, 19-65) and 44 (range, 24-66) years, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671777/calcium-and-nuclear-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Ivan V Maly, Wilma A Hofmann
Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in calcium-regulated nuclear import and nuclear calcium signaling, from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and myosin families. This review surveys the new state of the calcium and nuclear signaling fields with the aim of identifying the unifying themes that hold out promise in the context of the problems presented by prostate cancer...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671080/-lutetium-177-psma-radioligand-therapy-consensus-within-the-framework-of-gkv-funded-care-between-the-university-hospitals-in-aachen-bonn-d%C3%A3-sseldorf-essen-and-cologne-and-the-mdk-nordrhein
#12
REVIEW
H Ahmadzadehfar, P Albers, A Bockisch, M Boegemann, C Böhme, W Burchert, M Dietlein, A Drzezga, U Fabry, G Feldmann, A Heidenreich, A Heinzel, K Herrmann, A Heyll, C Höhling, C Kreuzer, D Laufer, R Mengel, F M Mottaghy, H-W Müller, S C Müller, E Ost, K Rahbar, W Reifenhäuser, M Schäfers, C Schlenkhoff, M Schmidt, I Schmidt-Wolf, C Wildenhain, B Zimmer, M Essler
In the last 3 years, Lutetium-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen radioligand therapy (Lu-177-PSMA-RLT) has received increasing attention in nuclear medicine as a new form of treatment for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. This therapy combines the radionuclide Lutetium-177, which has been therapeutically used in nuclear medicine for many years, with a molecular target of the transmembrane prostate-specific membrane antigen expressed by prostate cancer cells. Since there are no prospective randomized studies on Lu-177-PSMA-RLT and the question of reimbursement has repeatedly been the subject of review by the MDK Nordrhein (Medischenische Dienst der Krankenversicherung), there was a desire because of the increasing number of patients being treated to clarify under which circumstances Lu-177-PSMA-RLT can be reimbursed by German statutory health insurance...
April 18, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670060/innovative-diagnostic-methods-for-early-prostate-cancer-detection-through-urine-analysis-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Carmen Bax, Gianluigi Taverna, Lidia Eusebio, Selena Sironi, Fabio Grizzi, Giorgio Guazzoni, Laura Capelli
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death among men. It is an asymptomatic and slow growing tumour, which starts occurring in young men, but can be detected only around the age of 40–50. Although its long latency period and potential curability make prostate cancer a perfect candidate for screening programs, the current procedure lacks in specificity. Researchers are rising to the challenge of developing innovative tools able of detecting the disease during its early stage that is the most curable...
April 18, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669169/genetic-testing-for-hereditary-prostate-cancer-current-status-and-limitations
#14
REVIEW
Jun Tu Zhen, Jamil Syed, Kevin Anh Nguyen, Michael S Leapman, Neeraj Agarwal, Karina Brierley, Xavier Llor, Erin Hofstatter, Brian Shuch
A significant proportion of prostate cancer diagnoses may be associated with a strong hereditary component. Men who have multiple single-gene polymorphisms and a family history of prostate cancer have a significantly greater risk of developing prostate cancer. Numerous single-gene alterations have been confirmed to increase the risk of prostate cancer. These include breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), mutS homologs 2 and 6 (MSH2 and MSH6, respectively), postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2), homeobox B13 (HOXB13), checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), nibrin (NBN), BRCA1-interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1), and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)...
April 18, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667615/vitamin-d-in-prostate-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Donald L Trump, Jeanny B Aragon-Ching
Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies...
April 13, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666838/a-brief-history-of-intracrine-androgen-metabolism-by-castration-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#16
REVIEW
James L Mohler
This mini-review describes the evolution of the concept of intracrine androgen metabolism by prostate cancer during androgen deprivation therapy. Persistence of androgen receptor protein in the face of castrate circulating levels of testosterone could not be explained fully by hypersensitization or mutation of the androgen receptor. The hypothesis that castration-recurrent prostate cancer produced its own testosterone was proven using radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry methods adopted for use in prostate tissue...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666837/cancer-telomeres-and-white-crows
#17
REVIEW
Alan K Meeker
This mini-review article discusses past and present prostate-focused research on telomere and telomerase biology conducted at Johns Hopkins, through the eyes of a Donald S Coffey trainee. Included are past discoveries of abnormalities in telomere biology in the context of prostate cancer and its pre-malignant precursor prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN); the finding that telomerase activity is androgen-regulated in the prostate, and the potential role of telomerase in prostate epithelial stem cells. Also reviewed are more recent results showing that in situ telomere length measurements in patient tissue specimens may have utility in risk assessment and as a prognostic biomarker...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666835/aptamers-and-apple-pies-a-mini-review-of-psma-aptamers-and-lessons-from-donald-s-coffey
#18
REVIEW
Shawn E Lupold
This mini-review article is part of a special issue dedicated to Donald S. Coffey, a pioneer translational research scientist, exemplary mentor, and leader in urologic and urologic oncology research. This article first briefly reflects on life and scientific lessons from Don Coffey. It then reviews the development of two prostate cancer targeting RNA aptamers, xPSM-A9 and xPSM-A10, through in vitro selection for aptamers that bind to the extracellular domain of the Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666747/symphysis-pubis-osteomyelitis-an-uncommon-complication-after-robotic-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-case-description-with-literature-review
#19
Jad A Degheili, Mazen M Mansour, Rami W Nasr
Prostate cancer is the most common solid cancer among American men. Although there are various modalities for treatment, including radical prostatectomy among many others, the former is, nevertheless, not without any accompanied complications. Other than the well-known surgical complications such as erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and voiding dysfunction, osteomyelitis of the symphysis pubis is not a well-understood complication, with various hypotheses explaining its pathogenesis. Although osteomyelitis of the pubis symphysis has been reported after endoscopic urological procedures such as transurethral resection of the prostate, it has rarely been reported after robotic surgeries...
2018: Case Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664916/is-periodontitis-a-risk-indicator-for-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#20
Stefano Corbella, Paolo Veronesi, Viviana Galimberti, Roberto Weinstein, Massimo Del Fabbro, Luca Francetti
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the hypothesis of an association between periodontitis and the development of cancer. METHODS: Two reviewers independently screened electronic and manual sources for pertinent articles. Primary outcome measures were the occurrence of neoplasm diagnosis in exposed and non-exposed groups, reported to evaluate association between cancer and periodontitis. RESULTS: Of the 490 initially retrieved papers 10 were included in the qualitative synthesis and eight in the quantitative synthesis; the eight papers covered six studies...
2018: PloS One
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