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Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544588/the-in-vivo-th17-and-treg-immune-responses-to-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans
#1
Susan Mahabady, Natalia Tjokro, Shant Aharonian, Homayoun H Zadeh, Casey Chen, Hooman Allayee, Parish P Sedghizadeh
The periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is known to elicit systemic immune response in infected host, and occasionally causes non-oral infections. Detailed information on its immunopathological responses and the involvement of bacterial virulence factors remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the systemic immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans oral infection. We used an animal model that simulates systemic dissemination of the bacteria by injecting live wild type (WT) D7S-1 and double knockout mutant of leukotoxin and cytolethal distending toxin (ΔltxΔcdt) A...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537230/-allergy-and-autoimmunity-molecular-diagnostics-therapy-and-presumable-pathogenesis
#2
A S Arefieva, O V Smoldovskaya, A A Tikhonov, A Yu Rubina
Allergic and autoimmune diseases represent immunopathological reactions of an organism to antigens. Despite that the allergy is a result of exaggerated immune response to foreign antigens (allergens) and autoimmune diseases are characterized by the pathological response to internal antigens (autoantigens), the underlying mechanisms of these diseases are probably common. Thus, both types of diseases represent variations in the hypersensitivity reaction. A large percentage of both the adult and pediatric population is in need of early diagnostics of these pathologies of the immune system...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536249/bronchial-inflammation-and-bacterial-load-in-stable-copd-is-associated-with-tlr4-overexpression
#3
Antonino Di Stefano, Fabio L M Ricciardolo, Gaetano Caramori, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung, Peter J Barnes, Paola Brun, Andrea Leonardi, Filippo Andò, Davide Vallese, Isabella Gnemmi, Luisella Righi, Francesco Cappello, Bruno Balbi
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are two major forms of innate immune sensors but their role in the immunopathology of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is incompletely studied. Our objective here was to investigate TLR and NLR signalling pathways in the bronchial mucosa in stable COPD.Using immunohistochemistry, the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, CD14, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), and the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases phospho-IRAK1 and IRAK4 were measured in the bronchial mucosa of subjects with stable COPD of different severity (n=34), control smokers (n=12) and nonsmokers (n=12)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533429/fibrinogen-domain-of-frep1-is-a-broad-spectrum-malaria-transmission-blocking-vaccine-antigen
#4
Guodong Niu, Caio Franca, Genwei Zhang, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Wang Nguitragool, Xiaohong Wang, Jetsumon Prachumsri, Noah S Butler, Jun Li
FREP1 in mosquito midguts facilitates P. falciparum parasite transmission. Fibrinogen-like (FBG) domain of FREP1 is highly conserved (>90% identical) among Anopheles species from different continents, suggesting that anti-FBG antibodies may block malaria transmission to all anopheline mosquitoes. Using standard membrane-feeding assays, anti-FREP1 polyclonal antibodies significantly blocked transmission of P. berghei and P. vivax to An. gambiae and An. dirus respectively. Furthermore, in vivo studies of mice immunized with FBG achieved >75% blocking efficacy of P...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526605/microevolutionary-response-of-a-gut-nematode-to-intestinal-inflammation
#5
Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Parasitic helminths interfere with the immune responses of their hosts to establish long-lasting, chronic infections. While favorable to the parasite, the capacity to dampen the immune response can also provide a benefit to the host in terms of reduced risk of immune disorders and immunopathology. The immunomodulatory role of nematodes has been exploited in clinical trials to treat a number of inflammatory and immune diseases. However, how parasites adapt to an inflammatory environment remains a poorly explored question...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518156/interleukin-17-is-a-chief-orchestrator-of-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Marc Veldhoen
Increased understanding of the biology of interleukin 17 (IL-17) has revealed that this cytokine is a central player in immunity at the sites most exposed to microorganisms. Although it has been strongly associated with immunopathology, IL-17 also has an important role in host defense. The regulation of IL-17 secretion seems to be shared among various cell types, each of which can concomitantly secrete additional products. IL-17 has only modest activity on its own; its impact in immunity arises from its synergistic action with other factors, its self-sustaining feedback loop and, in some cases, its role as a counterpart of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)...
May 18, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516246/aspergillus-species-in-bronchiectasis-challenges-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-and-non-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#7
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Maria Teresa Martin-Gomez
Bronchiectasis is a chronic irreversible airway abnormality associated with infectious agents that either cause or superinfect the airways. While the role of bacteria is well studied, much remains to be determined about fungi in both cystic fibrosis- and non-cystic fibrosis-related bronchiectasis. The airway is constantly exposed to inhaled ambient moulds of which Aspergillus represent the most ubiquitous. In a normal healthy host, this situation is of little consequence. The presence of anatomical or immunological abnormalities such as those in bronchiectasis leads to a range of fungal-related pathologies from asymptomatic airway colonization to fungal sensitization, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or chronic pulmonary aspergillosis...
May 17, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514692/interferon-%C3%AE-mediates-non-redundant-front-line-antiviral-protection-against-influenza-virus-infection-without-compromising-host-fitness
#8
Ioanna E Galani, Vasiliki Triantafyllia, Evridiki-Evangelia Eleminiadou, Ourania Koltsida, Athanasios Stavropoulos, Maria Manioudaki, Dimitris Thanos, Sean E Doyle, Sergei V Kotenko, Kalliopi Thanopoulou, Evangelos Andreakos
Lambda interferons (IFNλs) or type III IFNs share homology, expression patterns, signaling cascades, and antiviral functions with type I IFNs. This has complicated the unwinding of their unique non-redundant roles. Through the systematic study of influenza virus infection in mice, we herein show that IFNλs are the first IFNs produced that act at the epithelial barrier to suppress initial viral spread without activating inflammation. If infection progresses, type I IFNs come into play to enhance viral resistance and induce pro-inflammatory responses essential for confronting infection but causing immunopathology...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511719/interleukin-10-producing-lag3-regulatory-t-cells-are-associated-with-disease-activity-and-abatacept-treatment-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Shinichiro Nakachi, Shuji Sumitomo, Yumi Tsuchida, Haruka Tsuchiya, Masanori Kono, Rika Kato, Keiichi Sakurai, Norio Hanata, Yasuo Nagafuchi, Shoko Tateishi, Hiroko Kanda, Tomohisa Okamura, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Keishi Fujio
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a role in the suppression of inflammation in autoimmune diseases, and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3) was reported as a marker of interleukin (IL)-10-producing Tregs. We aimed to clarify the function of human IL-10-producing CD4(+)CD25(-)LAG3(+) T cells (LAG3(+) Tregs) and their association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: LAG3(+) Tregs of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with B cells and follicular helper T cells to examine antibody suppression effects...
May 16, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508153/cellular-and-molecular-perspectives-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
REVIEW
Douglas J Veale, Carl Orr, Ursula Fearon
Synovial immunopathology in rheumatoid arthritis is complex involving both resident and infiltrating cells. The synovial tissue undergoes significant neovascularization, facilitating an influx of lymphocytes and monocytes that transform a typically acellular loose areolar membrane into an invasive tumour-like pannus. The microvasculature proliferates to form straight regularly-branching vessels; however, they are highly dysfunctional resulting in reduced oxygen supply and a hypoxic microenvironment. Autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are found at an early stage, often before arthritis has developed, and they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA...
May 15, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498152/oligoclonal-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-in-colonic-biopsies-of-patients-with-microscopic-colitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#11
Sezin Günaltay, Dirk Repsilber, Gisela Helenius, Nils Nyhlin, Johan Bohr, Olof Hultgren, Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist
BACKGROUND: Microscopic colitis (MC), comprising collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), is a type of variation of inflammatory bowel diseases. Local T-cell infiltration in the mucosa plays a major role in MC immunopathology. METHODS: To understand diversity and clonality of infiltrating T cells, we analyzed the T-cell receptor beta (TCRβ) chains in colonic biopsies of MC, ulcerative colitis (UC), and their remission counterparts (CC/LC-HR [histological remission] or UC-R [remission]) compared with patients with noninflamed colons using next-generation sequencing...
May 10, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497614/broad-th2-neutralization-and-anti-inflammatory-action-of-pentosan-polysulfate-sodium-in-experimental-allergic-rhinitis
#12
Caroline Sanden, Michiko Mori, Prajakta Jogdand, Jimmie Jönsson, Ravi Krishnan, Xiangdong Wang, Jonas S Erjefält
BACKGROUND: Th2 cytokines like interleukin-4, -5, and -13 are regarded as important drivers of the immunopathology underlying allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. The present study explores the capacity of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), a semi-synthetic heparin-like macromolecular carbohydrate, to bind Th2 cytokines and exert biological neutralization in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory actions in vivo. METHODOLOGY: The capacity of PPS to bind recombinant Th2 cytokines was tested with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology and biological Th2 neutralization was assessed by Th2-dependent proliferation assays...
May 12, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494703/globule-leukocytes-and-other-mast-cells-in-the-mouse-intestine
#13
Peter Vogel, Laura Janke, David M Gravano, Meifen Lu, Deepali V Sawant, Dorothy Bush, Shuyu E, Dario A A Vignali, Asha Pillai, Jerold E Rehg
Only 2 major mast cell (MC) subtypes are commonly recognized in the mouse: the large connective tissue mast cells (CTMCs) and the mucosal mast cells (MMCs). Interepithelial mucosal inflammatory cells, most commonly identified as globule leukocytes (GLs), represent a third MC subtype in mice, which we term interepithelial mucosal mast cells (ieMMCs). This term clearly distinguishes ieMMCs from lamina proprial MMCs (lpMMCs) while clearly communicating their common MC lineage. Both lpMMCs and ieMMCs are rare in normal mouse intestinal mucosa, but increased numbers of ieMMCs are seen as part of type 2 immune responses to intestinal helminth infections and in food allergies...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490401/immunopathologic-characteristics-of-nasal-polyps-in-adult-koreans-a-single-center-study
#14
Seung-Heon Shin, Yee-Hyuk Kim, Mi-Kyung Ye, Sung-Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (NP) (CRSwNP) is classified into eosinophilic and noneosinophilic types based on the level of tissue eosinophilia. The immunopathologic features of Western and Asian CRSwNP differ. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunopathologic characteristics of Korean patients with eosinophilic NP versus noneosinophilic NP and those with atopic NP versus nonatopic NP. METHODS: Tissue samples were collected from 81 patients with NP and 24 controls...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487311/egr2-and-3-control-adaptive-immune-responses-by-temporally-uncoupling-expansion-from-t-cell-differentiation
#15
Tizong Miao, Alistair L J Symonds, Randeep Singh, Janine D Symonds, Ane Ogbe, Becky Omodho, Bo Zhu, Suling Li, Ping Wang
Egr2 and 3 are important for maintaining immune homeostasis. Here we define a fundamental function of Egr2 and 3 operating as a checkpoint that controls the transition between clonal expansion and differentiation of effector T cells. Egr2 and 3 deficiency resulted in defective clonal expansion but hyperactivation and excessive differentiation of T cells in response to viral infection. Conversely, sustained Egr2 expression enhanced expansion but severely impaired effector differentiation. Egr2 bound to and controlled the expression of genes regulating proliferation (Myc and Myb) and differentiation repressors (Bcl6, Id3), while repressing transcription factors required for effector function (Zeb2, RORa, RORc, and Bhlhe40)...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483675/effector-cd8-t-cell-derived-interleukin-10-enhances-acute-liver-immunopathology
#16
Jessica Fioravanti, Pietro Di Lucia, Diletta Magini, Federica Moalli, Carolina Boni, Alexandre Pierre Benechet, Valeria Fumagalli, Donato Inverso, Andrea Vecchi, Amleto Fiocchi, Stefan Wieland, Robert Purcell, Carlo Ferrari, Francis V Chisari, Luca G Guidotti, Matteo Iannacone
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Besides secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and effector molecules, effector CD8(+) T cells that arise upon acute infection with certain viruses have been shown to produce the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and, therefore, contain immunopathology. Whether the same occurs during acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the role that IL-10 might play in liver disease is currently unknown. METHODS: This study involved mouse models of acute HBV pathogenesis, as well as chimpanzees and patients acutely infected with HBV...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483310/severe-delayed-cutaneous-and-systemic-reactions-to-drugs-a-global-perspective-on-the-science-and-art-of-current-practice
#17
Jonathan Grant Peter, Rannakoe Lehloenya, Sipho Dlamini, Kimberly Risma, Katie D White, Katherine C Konvinse, Elizabeth J Phillips
Most immune-mediated adverse drug reactions (IM-ADRs) involve the skin, and many have additional systemic features. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) are an uncommon, potentially life-threatening, and challenging subgroup of IM-ADRs with diverse clinical phenotypes, mechanisms, and offending drugs. T-cell-mediated immunopathology is central to these severe delayed reactions, but effector cells and cytokines differ by clinical phenotype. Strong HLA-gene associations have been elucidated for specific drug-SCAR IM-ADRs such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, although the mechanisms by which carriage of a specific HLA allele is necessary but not sufficient for the development of many IM-ADRs is still being defined...
May 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480196/mda5-autoantibody-another-indicator-of-clinical-diversity-in-dermatomyositis
#18
REVIEW
Richard D Sontheimer
Allenbach and colleagues have recently reported for the first time the results of an intriguing study of the histopathologic, immunopathologic and gene expression differences in muscle biopsy tissue from adult dermatomyositis (DM) patients who do and do not have circulating MDA5 autoantibodies (anti-MDA5). Anti-MDA5 were originally identified in a clinically-defined subset of DM patients whose disease was expressed predominately in the skin for unusually long periods of time without accompanying muscle weakness [i...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475709/matrix-degradation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-tuberculosis-and-tuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Naomi F Walker, Katalin A Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Liku B Tezera, Rene Goliath, Janique M Peyper, Rebecca Tadokera, Charles Opondo, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Jon S Friedland, Paul T Elkington
Background.: Extensive immunopathology occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. Excessive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is emerging as a key process but has not been systematically studied in HIV-associated TB. Methods.: We performed a cross-sectional study of matrix turnover in HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and -uninfected TB patients and controls, and a prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected TB patients at risk of TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), in Cape Town, South Africa...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472426/chemical-or-drug-hypersensitivity-is-the-immune-system-clearing-the-danger
#20
Marc Pallardy, Rami Bechara
Hypersensitivity reaction or allergy, initially perceived as a secondary disorder, is now believed to be a major public health. For instance, contact dermatitis is a type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to skin allergens. An estimated 15-20% of the general population has acquired contact allergy. To maintain immune tolerance our immune system need to differentiate between harmful non-self and innocuous non-self. Living organisms have developed during their evolution a set of biological mechanisms to protect them from the "outside": physical barrier, inflammation, cell-based mechanisms, metabolism and elimination and biochemical pathways such as glutathione...
May 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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