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Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426686/reactive-oxygen-species-are-required-for-driving-efficient-and-sustained-aerobic-glycolysis-during-cd4-t-cell-activation
#1
Dana M Previte, Erin C O'Connor, Elizabeth A Novak, Christina P Martins, Kevin P Mollen, Jon D Piganelli
The immune system is necessary for protecting against various pathogens. However, under certain circumstances, self-reactive immune cells can drive autoimmunity, like that exhibited in type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4+ T cells are major contributors to the immunopathology in T1D, and in order to drive optimal T cell activation, third signal reactive oxygen species (ROS) must be present. However, the role ROS play in mediating this process remains to be further understood. Recently, cellular metabolic programs have been shown to dictate the function and fate of immune cells, including CD4+ T cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421165/the-diverse-cellular-and-animal-models-to-decipher-the-physiopathological-traits-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Audrey Bernut, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Diane Ordway, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus represents an important respiratory pathogen among the rapidly-growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Infections caused by M. abscessus are increasingly found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and are often refractory to antibiotic therapy. The underlying immunopathological mechanisms of pathogenesis remain largely unknown. A major reason for the poor advances in M. abscessus research has been a lack of adequate models to study the acute and chronic stages of the disease leading to delayed progress of evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of potentially active antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421074/immunometabolic-phenotype-alterations-associated-with-the-induction-of-disease-tolerance-and-persistent-asymptomatic-infection-of-salmonella-in-the-chicken-intestine
#3
REVIEW
Michael H Kogut, Ryan J Arsenault
The adaptation of Salmonella enterica to the eukaryotic host is a key process that enables the bacterium to survive in a hostile environment. Salmonella have evolved an intimate relationship with its host that extends to their cellular and molecular levels. Colonization, invasion, and replication of the bacteria in an appropriate host suggest that modification of host functions is central to pathogenesis. Intuitively, this subversion of the cell must be a complex process, since hosts are not inherently programmed to provide an environment conducive to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421070/interplay-of-regulatory-t-cell-and-th17-cells-during-infectious-diseases-in-humans-and-animals
#4
REVIEW
Sharvan Sehrawat, Barry T Rouse
It is now clear that the outcome of an inflammatory process caused by infections depends on the balance of responses by several components of the immune system. Of particular relevance is the interplay between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4(+) T cells that produce IL-17 (Th17 cells) during immunoinflammatory events. In addition to discussing studies done in mice to highlight some unresolved issues in the biology of these cells, we emphasize the need to include outbred animals and humans in analyses. Achieving a balance between Treg and Th17 cells responses represents a powerful approach to control events during immunity and immunopathology...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420428/significant-heterogeneity-in-wolbachia-copy-number-within-and-between-populations-of-onchocerca-volvulus
#5
Samuel Armoo, Stephen R Doyle, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Warwick N Grant
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria found in arthropods and several filarial nematode species. The filarial Wolbachia have been proposed to be involved in the immunopathology associated with onchocerciasis. Higher Wolbachia-to-nematode ratios have been reported in the savannah-ecotype compared to the forest-ecotype, and have been interpreted as consistent with a correlation between Wolbachia density and disease severity. However, factors such as geographic stratification and ivermectin drug exposure can lead to significant genetic heterogeneity in the nematode host populations, so we investigated whether Wolbachia copy number variation is also associated with these underlying factors...
April 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414794/intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-acute-ileitis-in-mice-harboring-a-human-gut-microbiota
#6
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413098/therapeutic-inhibition-of-complement-well-worth-the-risk
#7
Scott R Barnum
Complement is an integral part of the immune system and protects against infection. Complement-mediated immunopathology in many autoimmune diseases and syndromes has led to the therapeutic targeting of complement and to questions around the safety of complement inhibition. Here; I examine and clarify the risks associated with complement therapeutics.
April 13, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412393/adhesion-induced-eosinophil-cytolysis-requires-the-ripk3-mlkl-signaling-pathway-which-is-counter-regulated-by-autophagy
#8
Susanne Radonjic-Hoesli, Xiaoliang Wang, Elisabeth de Graauw, Christina Stoeckle, Beata Styp-Rekowska, Ruslan Hlushchuk, Dagmar Simon, Peter J Spaeth, Shida Yousefi, Hans-Uwe Simon
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils are a subset of granulocytes which can be involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including allergy. Their effector functions are closely linked to their cytotoxic granule proteins. The release takes place by several different mechanisms, one of which is cytolysis, which is associated with the release of intact granules, so-called clusters of free eosinophil granules. The mechanism underlying this activation-induced form of cell death in eosinophils has remained unclear...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408496/visualizing-the-life-of-mrna-in-t-cells
#9
REVIEW
Benoit P Nicolet, Fiamma Salerno, Monika C Wolkers
T cells release ample amounts of cytokines during infection. This property is critical to prevent pathogen spreading and persistence. Nevertheless, whereas rapid and ample cytokine production supports the clearance of pathogens, the production must be restricted in time and location to prevent detrimental effects of chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes determine the levels of cytokine production. How these regulatory mechanisms are interconnected, and how they regulate the magnitude of protein production in primary T cells is to date not well studied...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406797/m1-like-monocytes-are-a-major-immunological-determinant-of-severity-in-previously-healthy-adults-with-life-threatening-influenza
#10
Suzanne L Cole, Jake Dunning, Wai Ling Kok, Kambez Hajipouran Benam, Adel Benlahrech, Emmanouela Repapi, Fernando O Martinez, Lydia Drumright, Timothy J Powell, Michael Bennett, Ruth Elderfield, Catherine Thomas, Tao Dong, John McCauley, Foo Y Liew, Stephen Taylor, Maria Zambon, Wendy Barclay, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Peter J Openshaw, Andrew J McMichael, Ling-Pei Ho
In each influenza season, a distinct group of young, otherwise healthy individuals with no risk factors succumbs to life-threatening infection. To better understand the cause for this, we analyzed a broad range of immune responses in blood from a unique cohort of patients, comprising previously healthy individuals hospitalized with and without respiratory failure during one influenza season, and infected with one specific influenza A strain. This analysis was compared with similarly hospitalized influenza patients with known risk factors (total of n = 60 patients recruited)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406481/liver-receptor-homolog-1-nr5a2-regulates-cd95-fas-ligand-transcription-and-associated-t-cell-effector-functions
#11
Juliane Schwaderer, Ann-Kathrin Gaiser, Truong San Phan, MEugenia Delgado, Thomas Brunner
CD95/Fas ligand (FasL) is a cell death-promoting member of the tumor necrosis factor family with important functions in the regulation of T-cell homeostasis and cytotoxicity. In T cells, FasL expression is tightly regulated on a transcriptional level involving a complex set of different transcription factors. The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1/NR5a2) is involved in the regulation of development, lipid metabolism and proliferation and is predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues...
April 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405622/m1-like-monocytes-are-a-major-immunological-determinant-of-severity-in-previously-healthy-adults-with-life-threatening-influenza
#12
Suzanne L Cole, Jake Dunning, Wai Ling Kok, Kambez Hajipouran Benam, Adel Benlahrech, Emmanouela Repapi, Fernando O Martinez, Lydia Drumright, Timothy J Powell, Michael Bennett, Ruth Elderfield, Catherine Thomas, Tao Dong, John McCauley, Foo Y Liew, Stephen Taylor, Maria Zambon, Wendy Barclay, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Peter J Openshaw, Andrew J McMichael, Ling-Pei Ho
In each influenza season, a distinct group of young, otherwise healthy individuals with no risk factors succumbs to life-threatening infection. To better understand the cause for this, we analyzed a broad range of immune responses in blood from a unique cohort of patients, comprising previously healthy individuals hospitalized with and without respiratory failure during one influenza season, and infected with one specific influenza A strain. This analysis was compared with similarly hospitalized influenza patients with known risk factors (total of n = 60 patients recruited)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401431/sustained-immunosuppression-alters-olfactory-function-in-the-mrl-model-of-cns-lupus
#13
Minesh Kapadia, Hui Zhao, Donglai Ma, Boris Sakic
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is frequently accompanied by diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations. An increased frequency of olfactory deficits has been recently reported as another marker of CNS involvement in SLE patients. Similarly, we observed that spontaneous development of lupus-like disease in MRL/lpr mice is accompanied by altered olfaction-related behaviors. However, it remained unclear whether the behavioral deficits are due to systemic autoimmunity, or the distinct genetic make-up...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396349/biochemical-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-chlamydia-groel-chaperonins
#14
Melissa Illingworth, Anna J Hooppaw, Lu Ruan, Derek J Fisher, Lingling Chen
Chaperonins are essential for cellular growth under normal and stressful conditions and consequently represent one of the most conserved and ancient protein classes. The paradigm Escherichia coli chaperonin, EcGroEL, and its cochaperonin, EcGroES, assist folding of proteins via an ATP-dependent mechanism. In addition to the presence of groEL and groES homologs, groEL paralogs are found in many bacteria, including pathogens, and have evolved poorly understood species-specific functions. Chlamydia spp., which are obligate intracellular bacteria, have reduced genomes that nonetheless encode three groEL genes, ChgroEL, ChgroEL2 and ChgroEL3 We hypothesized that ChGroEL is the bona-fide chaperonin, while the paralogs perform novel, Chlamydia-specific functions...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390814/meeting-report-of-the-pathogenesis-of-pemphigus-and-pemphigoid-meeting-in-munich-september-2016
#15
Enno Schmidt, Volker Spindler, Rüdiger Eming, Masayuki Amagai, Frank Antonicelli, John F Baines, Meriem Belheouane, Philippe Bernard, Luca Borradori, Marzia Caproni, Giovanni Di Zenzo, Sergei Grando, Karen Harman, Marcel F Jonkman, Hiroshi Koga, Ralf J Ludwig, Andrew P Kowalczyk, Eliane J Müller, Wataru Nishie, Hendri Pas, Aimee S Payne, Christian D Sadik, Allan Seppänen, Jane Setterfield, Hiroshi Shimizu, Animesh A Sinha, Eli Sprecher, Michael Sticherling, Hideyuki Ujiie, Detlef Zillikens, Michael Hertl, Jens Waschke
Autoimmune blistering diseases are a heterogeneous group of about a dozen complex disorders that are characterized by intraepidermal (pemphigus) and subepidermal blistering (pemphigoid diseases and dermatitis herpetiformis). The Pathogenesis of Pemphigus and Pemphigoid Meeting, organized by the Departments of Dermatology in Lübeck and Marburg and the Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Munich, was held in September 2016 in Munich. The meeting brought together basic scientists and clinicians from all continents dedicating their work to autoimmune blistering diseases...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389622/il-4r%C3%AE-on-dendritic-cells-in-neonates-and-th2-immunopathology-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#16
Bishwas Shrestha, Dahui You, Jordy Saravia, David T Siefker, Sridhar Jaligama, Greg I Lee, Asmaa A Sallam, Jeffrey N Harding, Stephania A Cormier
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children, and severe RSV infection early in life has been associated with asthma development. Using a neonatal mouse model, we have shown that down-regulation of IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) with antisense oligonucleotides in the lung during neonatal infection protected from RSV immunopathophysiology. Significant down-regulation of IL-4Rα was observed on pulmonary CD11b(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) suggesting a role for IL-4Rα on mDCs in the immunopathogenesis of neonatal RSV infection...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386004/reovirus-infection-triggers-inflammatory-responses-to-dietary-antigens-and-development-of-celiac-disease
#17
Romain Bouziat, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Judy J Brown, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Mine Ikizler, Toufic Mayassi, Marlies Meisel, Sangman M Kim, Valentina Discepolo, Andrea J Pruijssers, Jordan D Ernest, Jason A Iskarpatyoti, Léa M M Costes, Ian Lawrence, Brad A Palanski, Mukund Varma, Matthew A Zurenski, Solomiia Khomandiak, Nicole McAllister, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Karl W Boehme, Fengling Hu, Janneke N Samsom, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Sonia S Kupfer, Stefano Guandalini, Carol E Semrad, Valérie Abadie, Chaitan Khosla, Luis B Barreiro, Ramnik J Xavier, Aylwin Ng, Terence S Dermody, Bana Jabri
Viral infections have been proposed to elicit pathological processes leading to the initiation of T helper 1 (TH1) immunity against dietary gluten and celiac disease (CeD). To test this hypothesis and gain insights into mechanisms underlying virus-induced loss of tolerance to dietary antigens, we developed a viral infection model that makes use of two reovirus strains that infect the intestine but differ in their immunopathological outcomes. Reovirus is an avirulent pathogen that elicits protective immunity, but we discovered that it can nonetheless disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis at inductive and effector sites of oral tolerance by suppressing peripheral regulatory T cell (pTreg) conversion and promoting TH1 immunity to dietary antigen...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384338/peripheral-and-central-immune-cell-reservoirs-in-tissues-from-asymptomatic-cats-chronically-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#18
C D Eckstrand, E E Sparger, K A Pitt, B G Murphy
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats results in life-long viral persistence and progressive immunopathology. We have previously described a cohort of experimentally infected cats demonstrating a progressive decline of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell over six years in the face of apparent peripheral viral latency. More recently we reported findings from this same cohort that revealed popliteal lymph node tissue as sites for ongoing viral replication suggesting that tissue reservoirs are important in FIV immunopathogenesis during the late asymptomatic phase of infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384263/universal-vaccine-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-and-b-subtypes
#19
Jeong-Yoon Lee, Jun Chang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, young children, and the elderly. Two subtypes of RSV, A and B, circulate alternately at 1-2-year intervals during epidemics. The attachment glycoprotein (G protein) of RSV is one of the major targets for immune responses. In this study, we generated a recombinant fusion protein, GcfAB, which consists of the central regions (a.a. residues 131-230) of the G proteins of both RSV A (A2 strain) and B (B1 strain) subtypes, and investigated immunogenicity, protective efficacy, and immunopathology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382773/the-yin-and-yang-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-infectious-diseases-and-avenues-to-target-them
#20
REVIEW
Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Iris Bosschem, Freddy Haesebrouck, Jagadeesh Bayry
CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players for maintaining immune tolerance. Tregs are critical for reducing the inflammation-mediated tissue damage following infection. However, Tregs also suppress protective immune responses to pathogens (including virus, bacteria, parasites and fungi) and vaccines, and enhance pathogen persistence by inhibiting the activation and functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, T and B lymphocytes, and by promoting immunosuppressive environment...
April 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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