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Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933392/leishmania-infection-painful-or-painless
#1
REVIEW
Sergio M Borghi, Victor Fattori, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Wander R Pavanelli, Waldiceu A Verri
The complex life cycle and immunopathological features underpinning the interaction of Leishmania parasites and their mammalian hosts poses frequent poorly explored and inconclusively resolved questions. The altered nociceptive signals over the course of leishmaniasis remain an intriguing issue for nociceptive and parasitology researchers. Experimental investigations have utilized behavioral, morphological, and neuro-immune approaches in the study of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The data generated indicates new venues for the study of the pathological characteristics of nociceptive processing in this parasitic disease...
December 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926501/abdominal-radical-trachelectomy-guided-by-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-for-stage-ib1-cervical-cancer-with-tumors-2-cm
#2
Xiangyun Deng, Ying Zhang, Dapeng Li, Xiaoling Zhang, Hui Guo, Fei Wang, Xiugui Sheng
Accuracy of prediction of pelvic lymph node status using sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), and outcomes of SLNB-guided abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) were assessed. Patients with stage IB1 (Figure 2009) cervical cancer and with tumors >2 cm were enrolled. Prior to fertility-sparing surgery 99mTc-labeled phytate was administered. SLNs were intraoperatively identified, excised, and assessed using fast-frozen sections. Systematic bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy with or without para-aortic lymphadenectomy was subsequently undertaken...
December 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922126/viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-in-severe-pneumonia-triggers-innate-immune-responses-and-specifically-enhances-ip-10-a-translational-study
#3
Jonathan Hoffmann, Daniela Machado, Olivier Terrier, Stephane Pouzol, Mélina Messaoudi, Wilma Basualdo, Emilio E Espínola, Rosa M Guillen, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Valentina Picot, Thomas Bénet, Hubert Endtz, Graciela Russomando, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Mixed viral and bacterial infections are widely described in community-acquired pneumonia; however, the clinical implications of co-infection on the associated immunopathology remain poorly studied. In this study, microRNA, mRNA and cytokine/chemokine secretion profiling were investigated for human monocyte-derived macrophages infected in-vitro with Influenza virus A/H1N1 and/or Streptococcus pneumoniae. We observed that the in-vitro co-infection synergistically increased interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (CXCL10, IP-10) expression compared to the singly-infected cells conditions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920778/the-dynamics-of-t-and-b-cells-in-lymph-node-during-chronic-hiv-infection-tfh-and-hiv-unhappy-dance-partners
#4
REVIEW
Jung Joo Hong, Kyu-Tae Chang, Francois Villinger
Although the dynamics of germinal center (GC) formation, follicular helper T (TFH) cell recruitment to B cell follicles within lymphoid organs, and changes of lymphoid tissue architecture in HIV/SIV infection have been documented, the underlying immunopathology remains unclear. Here, we summarize what is known regarding the kinetics of TFH cells and GC B cells during the course of infection as well as the potential immunopathological features associated with structural changes in the lymphoid compartment. This review also explores the implications of cell dynamics in the formation and maintenance of viral reservoirs in hyperplastic follicles of secondary lymphoid organs before and after viral suppressive antiretroviral therapy...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920273/divergent-functions-of-tlr2-on-hematopoietic-and-nonhematopoietic-cells-during-chronic-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#5
Jill Konowich, Archana Gopalakrishnan, Jillian Dietzold, Sheetal Verma, Kamlesh Bhatt, Wasiulla Rafi, Padmini Salgame
We have reported that TLR2 is crucial for host resistance against chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; however, which cell types are key players in this response remain unknown. This led us to decipher the relative contribution of TLR2 on nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells in resistance against chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice infected with M. tuberculosis Erdman. Consistent with our previous report, at 8 wk of infection, TLR2 knockout (TLR2KO)→TLR2KO bone marrow chimeric mice exhibited increased bacterial burden, disorganized accumulation of lymphocytes and mononuclear cells, and extensive pulmonary immunopathology compared with wild-type (WT)→WT chimeric mice...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914961/expanding-the-clinical-and-genetic-spectrum-of-g6pd-deficiency-the-occurrence-of-bcgitis-and-novel-missense-mutation
#6
Taj Ali Khan, Humaira Mazhar, Mehboob Nawaz, Kalsoom Kalsoom, Muhammad Ishfaq, Huma Asif, Hazir Rahman, Muhammad Qasim, Farkhanda Naz, Mubashir Hussain, Baharullah Khattak, Waheed Ullah, Otavio Cabral-Marques, Jawad Butt, Asif Iqbal
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway that ensures sufficient production of coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) by catalyzing the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Noteworthy, the latter mediates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. Therefore, patients with severe forms of G6PD deficiency may present impaired NADPH oxidase activity and become susceptible to recurrent infections...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910159/staphylococcus-aureus-derived-membrane-vesicles-exacerbate-skin-inflammation-in-atopic-dermatitis
#7
S H Jun, J H Lee, S I Kim, C W Choi, T I Park, H R Jung, J W Cho, S H Kim, J C Lee
BACKGROUND: Skin colonization or infection with Staphylococcus aureus is known to trigger aggravation of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the exact mechanisms by which S. aureus can worsen AD are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether and how S. aureus-derived membrane vesicles (MVs) contribute to worsening of AD. METHODS: Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic analyses were performed to detect staphylococcal protein A (SPA) in the epidermis of AD lesions...
November 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906988/atypical-manifestations-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-region-endemic-for-leishmania-braziliensis-clinical-immunological-and-parasitological-aspects
#8
Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Adriano Queiroz, Juliana A Silva, Silvana C Silva, Viviane Magalhães, Ednaldo L Lago, Paulo Roberto L Machado, Olívia Bacellar, Mary E Wilson, Stephen M Beverley, Edgar M Carvalho, Albert Schriefer
BACKGROUND: Atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has become progressively more frequent in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. Herein we characterize clinical presentation, antimony response, cytokine production and parasite strains prevailing in ACL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 2005 and 2012, 51 ACL (cases) and 51 temporally matched cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) subjects (controls) were enrolled and followed over time in Corte de Pedra. Clinical and therapeutic data were recorded for all subjects...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903736/t-and-b-cell-markers-in-dried-blood-spots-of-neonates-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-b-cell-numbers-at-birth-are-associated-with-long-term-outcomes
#9
Roberta Rovito, Marjolein J Korndewal, Menno C van Zelm, Dimitrios Ziagkos, Els Wessels, Mirjam van der Burg, Aloys C M Kroes, Anton W Langerak, Ann C T M Vossen
Congenital CMV infection (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection that can cause long-term impairment (LTI). The pathogenesis of LTI is not completely understood. Fetal immunity may play a role in controlling the infection and preventing LTI, although immune activation may also contribute to fetal immunopathology. In this study, we analyzed various molecular markers of T and B cell numbers in neonatal dried blood spots of 99 children with cCMV and 54 children without cCMV: δRec-ψJα signal joints on TCR excision circles, intron recombination signal sequence k-deleting element signal joints on Igκ-deleting recombination excision circles, genomic intron recombination signal sequence k-deleting element coding joint, genomic Vδ1-Jδ1, and Vδ2-Jδ1 rearrangements...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#10
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900451/th9-cells-in-immunity-and-immunopathological-diseases
#11
EDITORIAL
Markus F Neurath, Mark H Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898568/whole-exome-sequencing-to-identify-novel-biological-pathways-associated-with-infertility-after-pelvic-inflammatory-disease
#12
Brandie D Taylor, Xiaojing Zheng, Toni Darville, Wujuan Zhong, Kranti Konganti, Olayinka Abiodun-Ojo, Roberta B Ness, Catherine M O'Connell, Catherine L Haggerty
BACKGROUND: Ideal management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) may require risk markers for pathology or vaccine development. Previously, we identified common genetic variants associated with chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and reduced fecundity. As this explains only a proportion of the long-term morbidity risk, we used whole-exome sequencing to identify biological pathways that may be associated with STI-related infertility. METHODS: We obtained stored DNA from 43 non-Hispanic black women with PID from the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health Study...
January 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896636/tnf-superfamily-cytokines-in-the-promotion-of-th9-differentiation-and-immunopathology
#13
REVIEW
Françoise Meylan, Richard M Siegel
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and their corresponding cytokine ligands have been implicated in many aspects of the biology of immune functions. TNF receptors have key roles during various stages of T cell homeostasis. Many of them can co-stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Additionally, several TNF cytokines can regulate T cell differentiation, including promoting Th1, Th2, Th17, and more recently the newly described Th9 subset. Four TNF family cytokines have been identified as regulators for IL-9 production by T cells...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896634/th9-cells-in-skin-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Rachael A Clark, Christoph Schlapbach
Interleukin 9 secreting TH9 cells have been proposed as the latest addition to the family of T helper cell subsets. While a growing body of evidence from animal models points to important roles for these cells in allergic inflammation of the lung, autoinflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and tumor immunity, their role in skin immunity and skin immunopathology remains poorly defined. Interestingly, studies of T helper cells from healthy humans suggest that TH9 cells are predominantly skin-homing and skin-resident and that they are involved in protection against extracellular pathogens...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885005/immunity-around-the-clock
#15
REVIEW
Kevin Man, Andrew Loudon, Ajay Chawla
Immunity is a high-cost, high-benefit trait that defends against pathogens and noxious stimuli but whose overactivation can result in immunopathologies and sometimes even death. Because many immune parameters oscillate rhythmically with the time of day, the circadian clock has emerged as an important gatekeeper for reducing immunity-associated costs, which, in turn, enhances organismal fitness. This is mediated by interactions between extrinsic environmental cues and the intrinsic oscillators of immune cells, which together optimize immune responses throughout the circadian cycle...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881941/erythrocyte-zinc-level-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-and-its-relation-to-scorad-index
#16
Ercan Karabacak, Ersin Aydin, Ali Kutlu, Omer Ozcan, Tuba Muftuoglu, Ali Gunes, Bilal Dogan, Sami Ozturk
INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory disease, characterized by a relapsing-remitting course. The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is not completely understood, although the disorder appears to result from the complex interaction between immune abnormalities, genetic and environmental factors. Trace elements are essential for normal functioning of the immune system. AIM: To determine zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes of patients with AD using an atomic absorption spectrometric technique and to investigate the relationship between those levels and disease activity...
October 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878477/paraneoplastic-pemphigus-and-autoimmune-blistering-diseases-associated-with-neoplasm-characteristics-diagnosis-associated-neoplasms-proposed-pathogenesis-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Saritha Kartan, Vivian Y Shi, Ashley K Clark, Lawrence S Chan
Autoimmune paraneoplastic and neoplasm-associated skin syndromes are characterized by autoimmune-mediated cutaneous lesions in the presence of a neoplasm. The identification of these syndromes provides information about the underlying tumor, systemic symptoms, and debilitating complications. The recognition of these syndromes is particularly helpful in cases of skin lesions presenting as the first sign of the malignancy, and the underlying malignancy can be treated in a timely manner. Autoimmune paraneoplastic and neoplasm-associated bullous skin syndromes are characterized by blister formation due to an autoimmune response to components of the epidermis or basement membrane in the context of a neoplasm...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878389/spleen-atrophy-related-immune-system-changes-attributed-to-infection-of-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-mouse-model
#18
Zhen Liu, Yu Wu, Ying Feng, Feng Wu, Rui-Feng Liu, Li-Fu Wang, Jin-Yi Liang, Jia-Hua Liu, Xi Sun, Zhong-Dao Wu
The spleen is one of the most important peripheral immune organs, which is frequently affected in infectious diseases. Infectious diseases can induce splenic alterations including splenic atrophy and functional alteration, while splenic atrophy may in turn interferes with recovery of infectious diseases. Angiostrongyliasis is an infectious disease by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis), which invade non-permissive hosts, such as humans and mice, to cause severe damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and acute inflammatory response...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867387/neutrophils-discriminate-between-lipopolysaccharides-of-different-bacterial-sources-and-selectively-release-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#19
Elmar Pieterse, Nils Rother, Cansu Yanginlar, Luuk B Hilbrands, Johan van der Vlag
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), either during "suicidal" or "vital" NETosis, represents an important strategy of neutrophils to combat Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a reported stimulus for NET formation. Although it is widely acknowledged that the structural diversity in LPS structures can elicit heterogeneous immune responses, species- and serotype-specific differences in the capacity of LPS to trigger NET formation have not yet been investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866341/the-role-of-the-p2x7-receptor-in-murine-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-aspects-of-inflammation-and-parasite-control
#20
Vanessa Ribeiro Figliuolo, Suzana Passos Chaves, Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio, Maria Luiza Prates Thorstenberg, Érika Machado Salles, Christina Maeda Takiya, Maria Regina D'Império-Lima, Herbert Leonel de Matos Guedes, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Robson Coutinho-Silva
Leishmania amazonensis is the etiological agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. The immunopathology of leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis infection is dependent on the pathogenic role of effector CD4(+) T cells. Purinergic signalling has been implicated in resistance to infection by different intracellular parasites. In this study, we evaluated the role of the P2X7 receptor in modulating the immune response and susceptibility to infection by L. amazonensis. We found that P2X7-deficient mice are more susceptible to L...
November 19, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
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