keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Immunopathology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098630/collapse-of-the-microbiome-emergence-of-the-pathobiome-and-the-immunopathology-of-sepsis
#1
John C Alverdy, Monika A Krezalek
The definition of sepsis has been recently modified to accommodate emerging knowledge in the field, while at the same time being recognized as challenging, if not impossible, to define. Here, we seek to clarify the current understanding of sepsis as one that has been typically framed as a disorder of inflammation to one in which the competing interests of the microbiota, pathobiota, and host immune cells lead to loss of resilience and nonresolving organ dysfunction. Here, we challenge the existence of the idea of noninfectious sepsis given that critically ill humans never exist in a germ-free state...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094582/effects-of-arsenic-on-porcine-dendritic-cells-in-vitro
#2
Jalil Mehrzad, Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy Gharaie, Masumeh Taheri
Exposure to arsenic (As) is an ongoing, and in some places increasing, health problem. Still, however, the effects of As exposure on the immune system are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DC) are a critical immune cell that bridges the innate and adaptive immune systems. To determine the impact of inorganic (i)As exposure on DC, the effects of (geo)anthropogenically relevant levels of NaAsO2 on the function of porcine monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) were evaluated in an in vitro model. The results showed a low dose of iAs reduced the phagocytic capacity of MoDC...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094581/early-immunopathological-events-in-acute-model-of-mycobacterial-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-in-mice
#3
Elisabet Johansson, Gregory P Boivin, Jagjit S Yadav
Prolonged exposure to antigens of non-tuberculous mycobacteria species colonizing industrial metalworking fluid (MWF), particularly Mycobacterium immunogenum (MI), has been implicated in chronic forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machinists based on epidemiology studies and long-term exposure of mouse models. However, a role of short-term acute exposure to these antigens has not been described in the context of acute forms of HP. This study investigated short-term acute exposure of mice to MI cell lysate (or live cell suspension) via oropharyngeal aspiration...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093595/mortality-and-cause-of-death-in-israeli-patients-with-pemphigus
#4
Khalaf Kridin, Shira Zelber Sagi, Reuven Bergman
All-cause and cause-specific mortality among patients with pemphigus compared with the general population is yet to be established. This study investigated overall mortality and cause-specific mortality in a large immunopathologically validated cohort of patients with pemphigus. Mortality of patients with pemphigus was compared with age- and gender-matched control subjects in the general population. All-cause and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated. The study cohort included 245 patients newly-diagnosed with pemphigus between January 1990 and June 2016...
January 17, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090087/a-mast-cell-ilc2-th9-pathway-promotes-lung-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Silvia Moretti, Giorgia Renga, Vasilis Oikonomou, Claudia Galosi, Marilena Pariano, Rossana G Iannitti, Monica Borghi, Matteo Puccetti, Marco De Zuani, Carlo E Pucillo, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Teresa Zelante, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Oxana Bereshchenko, Paolo Sportoletti, Vincenzina Lucidi, Maria Chiara Russo, Carla Colombo, Ersilia Fiscarelli, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Fabio Majo, Gabriella Ricciotti, Helmut Ellemunter, Luigi Ratclif, Vincenzo Nicola Talesa, Valerio Napolioni, Luigina Romani
T helper 9 (Th9) cells contribute to lung inflammation and allergy as sources of interleukin-9 (IL-9). However, the mechanisms by which IL-9/Th9 mediate immunopathology in the lung are unknown. Here we report an IL-9-driven positive feedback loop that reinforces allergic inflammation. We show that IL-9 increases IL-2 production by mast cells, which leads to expansion of CD25(+) type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and subsequent activation of Th9 cells. Blocking IL-9 or inhibiting CD117 (c-Kit) signalling counteracts the pathogenic effect of the described IL-9-mast cell-IL-2 signalling axis...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#6
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077598/notch-ligand-delta-like-4-promotes-regulatory-t-cell-identity-in-pulmonary-viral-infection
#7
Hung-An Ting, Matthew A Schaller, Denise E de Almeida Nagata, Andrew J Rasky, Ivan P Maillard, Nicholas W Lukacs
Regulatory T (Treg) cells establish tolerance, prevent inflammation at mucosal surfaces, and regulate immunopathology during infectious responses. Recent studies have shown that Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) was upregulated on APC after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and its inhibition leads to exaggerated immunopathology. In the present study, we outline the role of Dll4 in Treg cell differentiation, stability, and function in RSV infection. We found that Dll4 was expressed on CD11b(+) pulmonary dendritic cells in the lung and draining lymph nodes in wild-type BALB/c mice after RSV infection...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074932/the-helicobacter-cinaedi-antigen-caip-participates-in-atherosclerotic-inflammation-by-promoting-the-differentiation-of-macrophages-in-foam-cells
#8
Mario Milco D'Elios, Francesca Vallese, Nagaja Capitani, Marisa Benagiano, Maria Lina Bernardini, Mirko Rossi, Gian Paolo Rossi, Mauro Ferrari, Cosima Tatiana Baldari, Giuseppe Zanotti, Marina de Bernard, Gaia Codolo
Recent studies have shown that certain specific microbial infections participate in atherosclerosis by inducing inflammation and immune reactions, but how the pathogens implicated in this pathology trigger the host responses remains unknown. In this study we show that Helicobacter cinaedi (Hc) is a human pathogen linked to atherosclerosis development since at least 27% of sera from atherosclerotic patients specifically recognize a protein of the Hc proteome, that we named Cinaedi Atherosclerosis Inflammatory Protein (CAIP) (n = 71)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073373/t-cell-exhaustion-from-pathophysiological-basics-to-tumor-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Kemal Catakovic, Eckhard Klieser, Daniel Neureiter, Roland Geisberger
The immune system is capable of distinguishing between danger- and non-danger signals, thus inducing either an appropriate immune response against pathogens and cancer or inducing self-tolerance to avoid autoimmunity and immunopathology. One of the mechanisms that have evolved to prevent destruction by the immune system, is to functionally silence effector T cells, termed T cell exhaustion, which is also exploited by viruses and cancers for immune escape In this review, we discuss some of the phenotypic markers associated with T cell exhaustion and we summarize current strategies to reinvigorate exhausted T cells by blocking these surface marker using monoclonal antibodies...
January 5, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064210/characteristics-of-autoantibodies-targeting-14-3-3-proteins-and-their-association-with-clinical-features-in-newly-diagnosed-giant-cell-arteritis
#10
Anne Kistner, Marc B Bigler, Kathrin Glatz, Simon B Egli, Fabian S Baldin, Florian A Marquardsen, Matthias Mehling, Katharina M Rentsch, Daniel Staub, Markus Aschwanden, Mike Recher, Thomas Daikeler, Christoph T Berger
OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies are useful biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring treatment in some autoimmune diseases. Antibodies against isoforms of 14-3-3 protein have been proposed as biomarkers for the presence of aortic aneurysm in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). Here, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role and potential immunopathological involvement of anti-14-3-3 antibodies in newly diagnosed LVV patients. METHODS: Antibodies against three isoforms of 14-3-3 (γ, ε and ζ) were measured in 90 subjects: 48 GCA and 3 Takayasu's arteritis (TA) patients, and 39 controls (non-inflammatory and inflammatory diseases), using a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay and immunoprecipitation studies...
January 7, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058749/is-psoriasis-an-autoimmune-disease-interpretations-from-an-immunofluorescence-based-study
#11
Shashi Anand, Parikshaa Gupta, Ranjeet Bhardwaj, Tarun Narang, Sunil Dogra, Ranjana W Minz, Biman Saikia, Seema Chhabra
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a multisystem, immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Some authors have proposed an autoimmune basis for psoriasis; however, till date, it has not been definitely established. The present study was conducted to explore the autoimmune nature of psoriasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study in which 43 psoriasis patients were assessed for detailed clinical, histopathological and immunopathological features to explore the diagnostic utility of subtypes, intensity, and number of immunoreactants in lesional and non-lesional skin in these patients...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055081/soluble-cd27-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#12
Roos M van der Vuurst de Vries, Julia Y Mescheriakova, Tessel F Runia, Naghmeh Jafari, Theodora A M Siepman, Rogier Q Hintzen
Importance: There is a growing number of therapies that could be administered after the first symptom of central nervous system demyelination. These drugs can delay multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and slow down future disability. However, treatment of patients with benign course may not be needed; therefore, there is a need for biomarkers to predict long-term prognosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Objective: To investigate whether the T-cell activation marker soluble CD27 (sCD27) measured in cerebrospinal fluid of patients at time of a first attack is associated with a subsequent diagnosis of MS and a higher relapse rate...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046123/neo-epitopes-generated-on-hydroxyl-radical-modified-glycatedigg-have-role-in-immunopathology-of-diabetes-type-2
#13
Sidra Islam, Abdul Rouf Mir, Alok Raghav, Farzana Khan, Khursheed Alam, Asif Ali, Moin Uddin
Glycoxidation plays a crucial role in diabetes and its associated complications. Among the glycoxidation agents, methylglyoxal (MG) is known to have very highglycationpotential witha concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during its synthesis and degradation. The presentstudy probes the MG and ROSinduced structural damage to immunoglobulin G (IgG) and alterations in its immunogenicity in diabetes type 2 patients (T2DM). Human IgG was first glycated with MG followed by hydroxyl radical (OH•) modification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044057/disease-tolerance-and-immunity-in-host-protection-against-infection
#14
Miguel P Soares, Luis Teixeira, Luis F Moita
The immune system probably evolved to limit the negative effects exerted by pathogens on host homeostasis. This defence strategy relies on the concerted action of innate and adaptive components of the immune system, which sense and target pathogens for containment, destruction or expulsion. Resistance to infection refers to these immune functions, which reduce the pathogen load of an infected host as the means to preserve homeostasis. Immune-driven resistance to infection is coupled to an additional, and arguably as important, defence strategy that limits the extent of dysfunction imposed on host parenchymal tissues during infection, without exerting a direct negative effect on pathogens...
January 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032234/the-emerging-role-of-interleukin-il-1-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-inflammatory-and-degenerative-eye-diseases
#15
Claudia Fabiani, Jurgen Sota, Gian Marco Tosi, Rossella Franceschini, Bruno Frediani, Mauro Galeazzi, Donato Rigante, Luca Cantarini
Interleukin (IL)-1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis and thereafter in the search for specific treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative eye diseases. Indeed, an overactivity of IL-1 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in the eye, as proven by the efficacy of the specific IL-1 blockade in different ocular diseases. For instance, the uveitis in monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, such as Blau syndrome and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, or in complex polygenic autoinflammatory disorders, such as Behçet's disease, has been successfully treated with IL-1 blockers...
December 28, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031333/t-cells-infiltrating-diseased-liver-express-ligands-for-the-nkg2d-stress-surveillance-system
#16
Wei-Chen Huang, Nicholas J Easom, Xin-Zi Tang, Upkar S Gill, Harsimran Singh, Francis Robertson, Chiwen Chang, John Trowsdale, Brian R Davidson, William M Rosenberg, Giuseppe Fusai, Antoine Toubert, Patrick T Kennedy, Dimitra Peppa, Mala K Maini
NK cells, which are highly enriched in the liver, are potent regulators of antiviral T cells and immunopathology in persistent viral infection. We investigated the role of the NKG2D axis in T cell/NK cell interactions in hepatitis B. Activated and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells, particularly the CD4 fraction, expressed NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL), which were not found on T cells from healthy controls (p < 0.001). NKG2DL-expressing T cells were strikingly enriched within HBV-infected livers compared with the periphery or to healthy livers (p < 0...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017800/viral-mouse-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-epilepsy-marked-differences-in-neuropathogenesis-following-infection-with-two-naturally-occurring-variants-of-theiler-s-virus-bean-strain
#17
Sonja Bröer, Elias Hage, Christopher Käufer, Ingo Gerhauser, Muneeb Anjum, Lin Li, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Thomas F Schulz, Wolfgang Löscher
Following intracerebral inoculation, the BeAn 8386 strain of Theiler's virus causes persistent infection and inflammatory demyelinating encephalomyelitis in the spinal cord of T-cell defective SJL/J mice, which is widely used as a model of multiple sclerosis. In contrast, C57BL/6 (B6) mice clear the virus and develop inflammation and lesions in the hippocampus, associated with acute and chronic seizures, representing a novel model of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy. Here we characterize the geno- and phenotype of two naturally occurring variants of BeAn (BeAn-1 and BeAn-2) that can be used to further understand the viral and host factors involved in the neuropathogenesis in B6 and SJL/J mice...
December 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003150/concomitant-helminth-infection-downmodulates-the-vaccinia-virus-specific-immune-response-and-potentiates-virus-associated-pathology
#18
Pedro Henrique Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Lorena Falabella Daher de Freitas, Ana Clara Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Fabiana Coelho, Fernando Sérgio Barbosa, Denise Nogueira, Chiara Amorim, Lucas de Carvalho Dhom-Lemos, Luciana Maria Oliveira, Alexandre Barcelos da Silveira, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara
The aim of this work was to elucidate the immunopathological mechanisms of how helminths may influence the course of a viral infection, using a murine model. Severe virulence, a relevant increase in the virus titres in the lung and a higher mortality rate were observed in Ascaris and Vaccinia virus (VACV) co-infected mice, compared with VACV mono-infected mice. Immunopathological analysis suggested that the ablation of CD8(+) T cells, the marked reduction of circulating CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ, and the robust pulmonary inflammation were associated with the increase of morbidity/mortality in co-infection and subsequently with the negative impact of concomitant pulmonary ascariasis and respiratory VACV infection for the host...
December 18, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995614/influenza-and-dengue-virus-co-infection-impairs-monocyte-recruitment-to-the-lung-increases-dengue-virus-titers-and-exacerbates-pneumonia
#19
Michael A Schmid, Karla N González, Sanjana Shah, José Peña, Matthias Mack, Laura B Talarico, Fernando P Polack, Eva Harris
Co-infections of influenza virus and bacteria are known to cause severe disease, but little information exists on co-infections with other acute viruses. Seasonal influenza and dengue viruses (DENV) regularly co-circulate in tropical regions. The pandemic spread of influenza virus H1N1 (hereafter H1N1) in 2009 led to additional severe disease cases that were co-infected with DENV. Here, we investigated the impact of co-infection on immune responses and pathogenesis in a new mouse model. Co-infection of otherwise sublethal doses of a Nicaraguan clinical H1N1 isolate and two days later with a virulent DENV2 strain increased systemic DENV titers and caused 90% lethality...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994594/type-i-interferon-impairs-specific-antibody-responses-early-during-establishment-of-lcmv-infection
#20
Matthieu Daugan, Armstrong Murira, Barbara C Mindt, Amélie Germain, Esther Tarrab, Pascal Lapierre, Jörg H Fritz, Alain Lamarre
Elicitation of type I interferon (IFN-I) has been shown to both enhance and impair cell-mediated immune responses in acute and persistent viral infections, respectively. Here, we show that, in addition to its effect on T cells, IFN-I drives impairment of specific antibody responses through interaction with B cells in the acute phase of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. This impairment was limited to the T cell-dependent B cell response and was associated with disruption of B cell follicles, development of hypergammaglobulinemia (HGG), and expansion of the T follicular helper cell population...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
keyword
keyword
111531
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"