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Immunopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328326/interleukin-12-and-interleukin-23-blockade-in-leukocyte-adhesion-deficiency-type-1
#1
Niki M Moutsopoulos, Christa S Zerbe, Teresa Wild, Nicolas Dutzan, Laurie Brenchley, Giovanni DiPasquale, Gulbu Uzel, Karen C Axelrod, Andrea Lisco, Lucia D Notarangelo, George Hajishengallis, Luigi D Notarangelo, Steven M Holland
A patient with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1) had severe periodontitis and an intractable, deep, nonhealing sacral wound. We had previously found a dominant interleukin-23-interleukin-17 signature at inflamed sites in humans with LAD1 and in mouse models of the disorder. Blockade of this pathway in mouse models has resulted in resolution of the immunopathologic condition. We treated our patient with ustekinumab, an antibody that binds the p40 subunit of interleukin-23 and interleukin-12 and thereby blocks the activity of these cytokines, inhibiting interleukin-23-dependent production of interleukin-17...
March 23, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327797/bacterial-immunostat-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lipids-and-their-role-in-the-host-immune-response
#2
Adriano Queiroz, Lee W Riley
The lipid-rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dynamic structure that is involved in the regulation of the transport of nutrients, toxic host-cell effector molecules, and anti-tuberculosis drugs. It is therefore postulated to contribute to the long-term bacterial survival in an infected human host. Accumulating evidence suggests that M. tuberculosis remodels the lipid composition of the cell wall as an adaptive mechanism against host-imposed stress. Some of these lipid species (trehalose dimycolate, diacylated sulphoglycolipid, and mannan-based lipoglycans) trigger an immunopathologic response, whereas others (phthiocerol dimycocerosate, mycolic acids, sulpholipid-1, and di-and polyacyltrehalose) appear to dampen the immune responses...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322935/early-pathogenesis-during-infectious-bursal-disease-in-susceptible-chickens-is-associated-with-changes-in-b-cell-genomic-methylation-and-loss-of-genome-integrity
#3
Nick A Ciccone, Lorraine P Smith, William Mwangi, Amy Boyd, Andrew J Broadbent, Adrian L Smith, Venugopal Nair
We propose a model by which an increase in the genomic modification, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), contributes to B cell death within the chicken bursa of Fabricus (BF) infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Our findings indicate that, following an IBDV infection, Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens have fewer surviving B cells and higher levels of 5hmC in the BF than the more resistant 15l line of birds. Elevated genomic 5hmC levels within the RIR BF are associated with markers of immune responses: infiltrating T cells and increased expression of CD40L, FasL and iNOS...
March 17, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321419/pvaxhsp65-vaccination-primes-for-high-il-10-production-and-decreases-experimental-encephalomyelitis-severity
#4
Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci, Thais Graziela Donegá França, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Larissa Camargo da Rosa, Priscila Maria Colavite, Bianca Balbino, Camila Marques, Maura Rosane Valerio Ikoma, Ana Paula Masson, Célio Lopes Silva, Alexandrina Sartori
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating pathology of the central nervous system (CNS) used as a model to study multiple sclerosis immunopathology. EAE has also been extensively employed to evaluate potentially therapeutic schemes. Considering the presence of an immune response directed to heat shock proteins (hsps) in autoimmune diseases and the immunoregulatory potential of these molecules, we evaluated the effect of a previous immunization with a genetic vaccine containing the mycobacterial hsp65 gene on EAE development...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319731/stimulating-cd27-to-quantitatively-and-qualitatively-shape-adaptive-immunity-to-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Timothy Nj Bullock
The capacity of the immune system to recognize and respond to tumors has been appreciated for over 100 years. However, clinical success has largely depended on the elucidation of the positive and negative regulators of effector cells after their activation via the antigen cell receptor. On the one hand, effector cells upregulate checkpoint molecules that are thought to play a role in limiting immunopathology. On the other, second and third waves of costimulation are often required to promote the expansion, survival and differentiation of effector cells...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314885/adverse-effects-of-levamisole-in-cocaine-users-a-review-and-risk-assessment
#6
REVIEW
Tibor Markus Brunt, Jorrit van den Berg, Ed Pennings, Bastiaan Venhuis
The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303135/a-human-lin-cd123-cd127-low-population-endowed-with-ilc-features-and-migratory-capabilities-contributes-to-immunopathological-hallmarks-of-psoriasis
#7
Luz María Mora-Velandia, Octavio Castro-Escamilla, Andrés González Méndez, Cristina Aguilar-Flores, Martha Velázquez-Avila, María Isabel Tussié-Luna, Juan Téllez-Sosa, César Maldonado-García, Fermín Jurado-Santacruz, Eduardo Ferat-Osorio, Jesus Martínez-Barnetche, Rosana Pelayo, Laura C Bonifaz
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are members of a heterogeneous family with a lymphoid origin that mimics the T helper (Th) cytokine profile. ILC are involved in early effector cytokine-mediated responses during infections in peripheral tissues. ILC also play an important role in chronic skin inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. Although classical ILC express CD127, it has been recently reported that the presence of non-classical CD127(-) ILC populations and an early ILC precursor (EILP) CD127(low). ILC development has predominately been investigated in mouse models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302598/helminths-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-as-modulators-of-immunity-and-pathology
#8
Fumi Varyani, John O Fleming, Rick M Maizels
Helminth parasites are highly prevalent in many low- and middle-income countries, in which inflammatory bowel disease and other immunopathologies are less frequent than in the developed world. Many of the most common helminths establish in the gastrointestinal tract, and can exert counter-inflammatory influences on the host immune system. For these reasons, interest has arisen in how parasites may ameliorate intestinal inflammation and whether these organisms, or products they release, could offer future therapies for immune disorders...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286112/the-gut-microbiome-and-microbial-translocation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. Immunopathologies shared with MS are regulated by bacteria reduced in individuals with MS. These bacteria regulate systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity including regulatory T cell function, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, CNS-resident cells. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota structure implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286109/bullous-pemphigoid
#10
REVIEW
Işın Sinem Bağcı, Orsolya N Horváth, Thomas Ruzicka, Miklós Sárdy
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous disorder which is characterized by autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal proteins of the skin and mucous membranes. Collagen XVII and dystonin-e have been identified as target antigens. BP affects mostly the elderly. The incidence of the disease is increasing gradually and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Clinically, BP is characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption with widespread bullous lesions. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging in the setting of atypical presentations...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284714/strain-specificities-in-cellular-and-molecular-immunopathogenic-mechanisms-underlying-development-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-aged-rats
#11
Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Ivan Pilipović, Ivana Vujnović, Biljana Bufan, Mirjana Dimitrijević, Gordana Leposavić
To understand strain-specificities of immune system in aged rats and their immunopathological implications, CD4+ T lymphocyte-mediated neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was studied in two strains. Upon immunization for EAE, 22-24-month-old Albino Oxford (AO) rats developed milder neurological deficit of prolonged duration compared with their Dark Agouti (DA) counterparts. Consistently, they exhibited: (i) diminished neuroantigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocyte generation in draining lymph nodes (reflecting lower density of high-affinity IL-2 receptor complex on their surface and higher CD4+FoxP3+CD25+ regulatory cell frequency); (ii) less favorable spinal cord expression of CXCL12 and CCL2, and consequently diminished infiltration of neuroantigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes, including highly pathogenic IL-17+IFN-γ+ ones, and inflammatory monocytes into the spinal cord and (iii) subsequently impaired CD4+ T lymphocyte reactivation/survival and differentiation into highly pathogenic IL-17+ cells (reflecting downregulated expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19)...
March 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283855/the-role-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-in-the-immunopathology-of-the-respiratory-tract
#12
REVIEW
Malgorzata Pawełczyk, Marek Leszek Kowalski
Viral infections are leading causes of both upper and lower airway acute illness in all age groups of healthy persons, and have also been implicated in the acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. Human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and coronavirus have been considered as the most important respiratory pathogens and relatively little attention has been paid to the role of parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Human parainfluenza viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that may evoke lower respiratory infections in infants, children and immunocompromised individuals...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283748/macrophages-in-gastrointestinal-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
John R Grainger, Joanne E Konkel, Tamsin Zangerle-Murray, Tovah N Shaw
Monocyte-derived mononuclear phagocytes, particularly macrophages, are crucial to maintain gastrointestinal homeostasis in the steady state but are also important for protection against certain pathogens. However, when uncontrolled, they can promote immunopathology. Broadly two subsets of macrophages can be considered to perform the vast array of functions to complete these complex tasks: resident macrophages that dominate in the healthy gut and inflammation-elicited (inflammatory) macrophages that derive from circulating monocytes infiltrating inflamed tissue...
March 10, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279075/establishing-a-role-for-interleukin-17-in-atopic-dermatitis-related-skin-inflammation
#14
Qi Tan, Huan Yang, En-Mei Liu, Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Although CD4(+) T cells are known to contribute to the pathology of atopic dermatitis (AD), the role of T helper 17 cells and interleukin (IL)-17 in skin inflammation remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of IL-17 in AD-related inflammation and immunopathology. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 87 children with AD and 60 healthy control subjects. In addition, 10 skin biopsies from each group were collected...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275145/early-life-inflammation-immune-response-and-ageing
#15
Imroze Khan, Deepa Agashe, Jens Rolff
Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274525/epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-plasticity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#16
REVIEW
Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is mainly caused by smoking and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and irreversible. It is a worldwide health problem and the fourth most common cause of chronic disability and mortality (even in developed countries). It is a complex disease involving both the airway and lung parenchyma. Small-airway fibrosis is the main contributor to physiological airway dysfunction in COPD. One potential mechanism contributing to small-airway fibrosis is epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
March 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274286/galectins-expressed-differently-in-genetically-susceptible-c57bl-6-and-resistant-balb-c-mice-during-acute-ocular-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#17
S-J Chen, Y-X Zhang, S-G Huang, F-L Lu
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) caused by Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of infectious uveitis, however little is known about its immunopathological mechanism. Susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) and resistant BALB/c mice were intravitreally infected with 500 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. B6 mice showed more severe ocular pathology and higher parasite loads in the eyes. The levels of galectin (Gal)-9 and its receptors (Tim-3 and CD137), interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the eyes of B6 mice than those of BALB/c mice; however, the levels of IFN-α and -β were significantly decreased in the eyes and CLNs of B6 mice but significantly increased in BALB/c mice after infection...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273905/nkg2d-modulates-aggravation-of-liver-inflammation-by-activating-nk-cells-in-hbv-infection
#18
Yadong Wang, Wei Wang, Chuan Shen, Yong Wang, Mingjing Jiao, Weiyan Yu, Hongzhu Yin, Xiaobo Shang, Qianfei Liang, Caiyan Zhao
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is thought to be an immune-mediated liver disease. The mechanisms underlying natural killer (NK) cell group 2D receptor (NKG2D) that activates NK cells and participates in anti-HBV immunity and immunopathology has not been thoroughly elucidated. Peripheral NKG2D(+) and IFN-γ(+) NK cells frequencies and intrahepatic NKG2D and IFN-γ mRNA and protein expressions were determined in HBV-infected patients. Levels of NKG2D and IFN-γ mRNA and protein in NK cells, co-cultured with HBV-replicating HepG2 cells with or without NKG2D blockade, were analyzed...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270306/toll-like-receptor-2-and-its-relationship-with-streptococcus-in-psoriasis
#19
Jing Zhang, Christine Shaver, Lane Neidig, Krister Jones, Carrie A Cusack, Herbert B Allen
The authors present the immunopathologic findings of Toll-like receptor 2 in psoriasis. This novel work shows positive staining within the dermal capillaries in psoriatic lesions. Neither normal skin nor lesional skin in eczema showed similar staining. The authors postulate how the activation of this innate immune system reactant plays a significant role in psoriasis and show how it may be associated with a cascade of events that begins with streptococcus and ends with psoriasis.
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268062/regulating-damage-from-sterile-inflammation-a-tale-of-two-tolerances
#20
Shin-Rong Wu, Pavan Reddy
The severity of immunopathology from non-infectious inflammation is mainly understood and is managed by targeting immune cells. However, the role of target tissues in determining damage severity has been largely overlooked. Here, we discuss the concept of 'tissue tolerance' for tissue-intrinsic programs that ameliorate organ damage in the setting of sterile immunopathology.
March 3, 2017: Trends in Immunology
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