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Herbert B Allen, Saagar Jadeja, Rina M Allawh, Kavita Goyal
Group A Streptococcus has been identified as a possible etiologic agent in psoriasis in epidemiologic, immunologic, immunopathologic, medical, and surgical studies. Tonsillectomy has been shown to provide considerable relief to 75% of patients with plaque psoriasis. Even with the substantial evidence supporting group A Streptococcus as a causative pathogen in psoriasis, it is an elusive pathogen because it is not culturable, nor does it exhibit any positive serologic evidence of its presence. One possible reason for the negative cultures and negative serology findings with group A Streptococcus is the development of biofilms...
March 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
John J McMurtrey, Mark O M Tso
Most patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) inherit the disorder; however, the immune-pathologic features associated with this disease have yet to be extensively studied. Six reports correlate anti-retinal immune activity with vision deterioration in RP patients. Some of these patients have sporadic RP that occurs in excess of expected gene segregation during inheritance. The hypothesis that a primary immune-mediated disease process occurs in this sporadic group is supported by significant associations of RP with autoimmune endocrinopathies and other immune related conditions or factors; however, no immunologic difference regarding RP family history is reported in the peripheral blood studies of RP patients...
March 15, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Lu Gan, Mengyuan Zhu, Xiaozhao Li, Chen Chen, Ting Meng, Jiaxi Pu, Huiming Luo, Fengmin Shao, Qiaoling Zhou
BACKGROUND: Tonsillitis can promote the progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) by aggravating immunopathologic response. Th22 cell disorder is involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN with tonsillitis. This study was determined to explore the possible mechanism of IgAN with tonsillitis underlying Th22 cell chemotaxis response to the effect of CCL20, CCL22, and CCL27. METHODS: This research was conducted on 65 subjects including 16 healthy controls (HC group), 5 patients with  renal carcinoma (HTC group) and 44 patients with IgAN between 2015 and 2016...
March 16, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Julio Furlong-Silva, Hanna Sjoberg, Stephen Cross, Alice Halliday, Ana F Guimaraes, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Nico Van Rooijen, Judith E Allen, Stephen J Jenkins, Mark J Taylor
Eosinophils are effectors in immunity to tissue helminths but also induce allergic immunopathology. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in non-mucosal tissues during infection remain unresolved. Here we identify a pivotal function of tissue macrophages (Mϕ) in eosinophil anti-helminth immunity using a BALB/c mouse intra-peritoneal Brugia malayi filarial infection model. Eosinophilia, via C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)3, was necessary for immunity as CCR3 and eosinophil impairments rendered mice susceptible to chronic filarial infection...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yuta Takashima, Jun Sakakibara-Konishi, Yutaka Hatanaka, Kanako C Hatanaka, Yoshihito Ohhara, Satoshi Oizumi, Yasuhiro Hida, Kichizo Kaga, Ichiro Kinoshita, Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Masaharu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% to 30% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating mutations are not responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Although primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs has been attributed to various genetic alterations, little is known about the clinical and immunopathologic features of patients with primary resistance. The tumor immune microenvironment, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), has been reported to play an important role in tumor progression in those with NSCLC...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Marliane Batista Campos, Luciana Vieira do Rêgo Lima, Ana Carolina Stocco de Lima, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Patrícia Karla Santos Ramos, Claudia Maria de Castro Gomes, Fernando Tobias Silveira
Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and Leishmania(L.) amazonensis are the most pathogenic agents of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil, causing a wide spectrum of clinical and immunopathological manifestations, including: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCLDTH+/++), borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (BDCLDTH±), anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCLDTH-), and mucosal leishmaniasis (MLDTH++++). It has recently been demonstrated, however, that while L. (V.) braziliensis shows a clear potential to advance the infection from central LCL (a moderate T-cell hypersensitivity form) towards ML (the highest T-cell hypersensitivity pole), L...
2018: PloS One
Jolanda D F De Groot-Mijnes, Anita S Y Chan, Soon-Phaik Chee, Georges M G M Verjans
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus are the most common causes of virus-induced anterior uveitis. They can present in a variety of entities not only with typical but also overlapping clinical characteristics. These viral infections are commonly associated with ocular infiltration of T cells and B/plasma cells, and expression of cytokines and chemokines typical of a proinflammatory immune response. The infections differ in that the herpes viruses cause an acute lytic infection and inflammation, whereas rubella virus is a chronic low-grade infection with slowly progressing immunopathological responses...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
Charlie Bridgewood, Gareth W Fearnley, Anna Berekmeri, Philip Laws, Tom Macleod, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam, Martin Stacey, Anne Graham, Miriam Wittmann
The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Simon J Epps, Joanne Boldison, Madeleine L Stimpson, Tarnjit K Khera, Philippa J P Lait, David A Copland, Andrew D Dick, Lindsay B Nicholson
Ocular function depends on a high level of anatomical integrity. This is threatened by inflammation, which alters the local tissue over short and long time-scales. Uveitis due to autoimmune disease, especially when it involves the retina, leads to persistent changes in how the eye interacts with the immune system. The normal pattern of immune surveillance, which for immune privileged tissues is limited, is re-programmed. Many cell types, that are not usually present in the eye, become detectable. There are changes in the tissue homeostasis and integrity...
March 9, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Jing-Lun Chen, Guang-Min Nong
Infectious diseases can be caused by multiple pathogens, which can produce specific immune response in human body. The immune response produced by T cells is cellular immunity, which plays an important role in the anti-infection process of human body, and can participate in immunological protection and cause immunopathology. The outcome of various infectious diseases is closely related to cellular immune function, especially the function of T cells. Jurkat cells belong to the human acute T lymphocyte leukemia cell line...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Zakia Abu-Zahab, Niveen M Gad, Seham Sabry, Sherif A Nassib
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is systematic auto-immune disease characterized by abnormal activation of B cell with production of autoantibodies. Due to its heterogeneous course, there is a need for new markers to help in diagnosing and monitoring disease activity. The aim of this study was to identify the immunopathological role of CD19 and CD81 expression in patients with SLE and their correlation with the disease activity. Peripheral blood (PB) was collected from 40 SLE patients (20 active and 20 inactive) and 20 controls...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Louise A Walker, Gustavo Niño-Vega, Héctor M Mora-Montes, Gabriela W P Neves, Hector Villalobos-Duno, Laura Barreto, Karina Garcia, Bernardo Franco, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Carol A Munro, Neil A R Gow
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic species of the Sporothrix genus. A new emerging species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, is related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis and has severe clinical manifestations. The cell wall of pathogenic fungi is a unique structure and impacts directly on the host immune response. We reveal and compare the cell wall structures of Sporothrix schenckii and S. brasiliensis using high-pressure freezing electron microscopy to study the cell wall organization of both species...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rodrigo T Figueiredo, Josiane S Neves
Eosinophils are the prominent cells in asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPMs), and fungal-sensitization-associated asthma, but their roles in the immunopathology of these disorders are not well understood. Moreover, the immunological mechanisms underlying the molecular direct effector interactions between fungi and eosinophils are rare and not fully known. Here, we provide an overview of eosinophil contributions to allergic asthma and ABPMs. We also revise the major general mechanisms of fungal recognition by eosinophils and consider past and recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with eosinophil innate effector responses to different fungal species relevant to ABPMs (Alternaria alternata, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Tom Zortel, Annette Schmitt-Graeff, Susanne Kirschnek, Georg Häcker
Background: Chlamydial infection frequently causes damage to the female genital tract. The precise mechanisms of chlamydial clearance and tissue damage are unknown but studies suggest immunopathology with a particular role of neutrophils. The goal of this study was to understand the contribution of the immune system, in particular neutrophils. Methods: Using Chlamydia muridarum, we infected mice with a prolonged immune response due to expression of Bcl-2 in haematopoietic cells (Bcl-2-mice), and mice where mature neutrophils are lacking due to the deletion of Mcl-1 in myeloid cells (LysM-cre-mcl-1-flox-mice; Mcl-1-mice)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Akira Utsunomiya, Noritaka Oyama, Shiro Iino, Natsuki Baba, Takenao Chino, Natsuko Utsunomiya, Minoru Hasegawa
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and nivolumab, reverse the imbalance of antitumor self-tolerance and enhance T-cell responses. Currently, ipilimumab and nivolumab have a reported therapeutic impact on unresectable or metastatic melanomas; however, they also induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Ipilimumab-induced cutaneous irAEs are mostly low grade and manageable, although all-grade rash may occur in approximately 45% of all patients. We here report the case of a young woman with erythema multiforme major, which developed after sequential use of these 2 immune checkpoint inhibitors for advanced melanoma of the scalp...
January 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Pedro Santos E Sousa, Séverine Ciré, Thomas Conlan, Laura Jardine, Claire Tkacz, Ivana R Ferrer, Cara Lomas, Sophie Ward, Heather West, Simone Dertschnig, Sven Blobner, Terry K Means, Stephen Henderson, Daniel H Kaplan, Matthew Collin, Vincent Plagnol, Clare L Bennett, Ronjon Chakraverty
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation induced by the influx of donor-derived effector T cells (TE) into peripheral tissues. Current treatment strategies rely on targeting systemic T cells; however, the precise location and nature of instructions that program TE to become pathogenic and trigger injury are unknown. We therefore used weighted gene coexpression network analysis to construct an unbiased spatial map of TE differentiation during the evolution of GVHD and identified wide variation in effector programs in mice and humans according to location...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Brinda Bhatt, Peng Zeng, Huabin Zhu, Sathish Sivaprakasam, Siyi Li, Haiyan Xiao, Lixin Dong, Pamela Shiao, Ravindra Kolhe, Nikhil Patel, Honglin Li, Daniel Levy-Bercowski, Vadivel Ganapathy, Nagendra Singh
A set of coordinated interactions between gut microbiota and the immune cells surveilling the intestine play a key role in shaping local immune responses and intestinal health. Gpr109a is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed at a very high level on innate immune cells and previously shown to play a key role in the induction of colonic regulatory T cells. In this study, we show that Gpr109a-/- Rag1-/- mice exhibit spontaneous rectal prolapse and colonic inflammation, characterized by the presence of an elevated number of IL-17-producing Rorγt+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs; ILC3)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Eryn Blass, Malika Aid, Amanda J Martinot, Rafael A Larocca, Zi Han Kang, Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh, Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster, R Keith Reeves, Dan H Barouch
Natural killer (NK) cells respond rapidly as a first line of defense against infectious pathogens. In addition, NK cells may provide a "rheostat" function and have been shown to reduce the magnitude of antigen-specific T cell responses following infection to avoid immunopathology. However, it remains unknown whether NK cells similarly modulate vaccine-elicited T cell responses following viral challenge. We used the LCMV clone 13 infection model to address whether NK cells regulate T cell responses in adenovirus vector vaccinated mice following challenge...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sharmila Nair, Jeremy P Huynh, Vicky Lampropoulou, Ekaterina Loginicheva, Ekaterina Esaulova, Anshu P Gounder, Adrianus C M Boon, Elizabeth A Schwarzkopf, Tara R Bradstreet, Brian T Edelson, Maxim N Artyomov, Christina L Stallings, Michael S Diamond
Immune-Responsive Gene 1 (Irg1) is a mitochondrial enzyme that produces itaconate under inflammatory conditions, principally in cells of myeloid lineage. Cell culture studies suggest that itaconate regulates inflammation through its inhibitory effects on cytokine and reactive oxygen species production. To evaluate the functions of Irg1 in vivo, we challenged wild-type (WT) and Irg1 -/- mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) and monitored disease progression. Irg1 -/- , but not WT, mice succumbed rapidly to Mtb , and mortality was associated with increased infection, inflammation, and pathology...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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