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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683819/primary-and-metastatic-melanoma-with-ntrk-fusions
#1
Cecilia Lezcano, Alexander N Shoushtari, Charlotte Ariyan, Travis J Hollmann, Klaus J Busam
A number of oncogenic driver mutations have been identified in melanocytic nevi and melanoma, but translocations also play a role in tumorigenesis and provide potential therapeutic targets for malignant lesions. Various translocations, such as those involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase 1 (NTRK1), and NTRK3 have been reported in spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms leading to kinase-fusion proteins that result in immunohistochemically detectable ALK or NTRK expression...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683288/lentigo-maligna-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Erika V De Luca, Francesca Perino, Alessandro Di Stefani, Valeria Coco, Barbara Fossati, Ketty Peris
Lentigo maligna (LM) is an in situ subtype of melanoma, clinically presenting as a pigmented, asymmetric macule that originates mostly on the head and neck and spreads slowly. The diagnosis may be challenging both for clinicians and pathologists. Dermatoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy represent a useful tool in the differentiation of LM from other pigmented lesions, such as pigmented actinic keratosis, solar lentigines, seborrheic keratosis and lichen planus-like keratosis. Moreover, those non-invasive diagnostic technique may be crucial in the selection of optimal biopsy sites in equivocal lesions, in pre-surgical mapping and in evaluating and monitoring response to non-surgical treatments...
April 19, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681558/cutaneous-malignant-melanoma-in-two-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#3
Kengo Ueda, Akiko Ueda, Kiyokazu Ozaki
Despite being rarely reported, improved diagnostic and prognostic indicators are necessary for treating malignant melanoma in rabbits. In this study, two cases of primary skin lesions, on the scrotum and on eyelid, with systemic metastases, were examined. The tumors formed intra-dermally by sheet-like proliferation of polymorphic cells, with anisocytosis and varying amount of melanin granules. Tumors had displaced almost 50% of the lung and liver tissue, and tumor metastasis was the cause of early death in both rabbits...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679610/mutated-mitf-e87r-in-melanoma-enhances-tumor-progression-via-s100a4
#4
Alice Nordlinger, Shani Dror, Abdel Elkahloun, Justine Del Rio, Elisa Stubbs, Tami Golan, Hagar Malcov, Todd D Pricket, Julia C Cronin, Shivang Parikh, Sapir Labes, Laetitia Thomas, Gal Yankovitz, Yuval Tabach, Carmit Levy, Yardena Samuels, Mehdi Khaled
Melanoma, a melanocyte origin neoplasm, is the most lethal type of skin cancer and incidence is increasing. Several familial and somatic mutations have been identified in the gene encoding the melanocyte lineage master regulator, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF); however, the neoplastic mechanisms of these mutant MITF variants are mostly unknown. Here, by performing unbiased analysis of the transcriptomes in cells expressing mutant MITF, we identified calcium-binding protein S100A4, as a downstream target of MITF-E87R...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673774/clinical-features-and-prognosis-of-asian-patients-with-acral-lentiginous-melanoma-who-have-nodal-nevi-in-their-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-specimen
#5
Ho-Jin Kim, Jeong-Wan Seo, Mee-Sook Roh, Ji-Hyun Lee, Ki-Hoon Song
BACKGROUND: Nodal melanocytic nevi (NN) encountered during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLB) for malignant melanoma are usually difficult to distinguish from metastatic melanoma. However, NN have not been studied well in acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) in Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and significance of NN in SLBs from ALM patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 84 patients with ALM who underwent SLB between June 2010 and July 2017...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673028/cre-driver-lines-used-for-genetic-fate-mapping-of-neural-crest-cells-in-the-mouse-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Julien Debbache, Vadims Parfejevs, Lukas Sommer
The neural crest is one of the embryonic structures with the broadest developmental potential in vertebrates. Morphologically, neural crest cells emerge during neurulation in the dorsal folds of the neural tube before undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), delaminating from the neural tube, and migrating to multiple sites in the growing embryo. Neural crest cells generate cell types as diverse as peripheral neurons and glia, melanocytes, and so-called mesectodermal derivatives that include craniofacial bone and cartilage and smooth muscle cells in cardiovascular structures...
April 19, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672900/metastatic-melanoma-with-balloon-histiocytoid-cytomorphology-after-treatment-with-immunotherapy-a-histologic-mimic-and-diagnostic-pitfall
#7
Maya Farah, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Jonathan L Curry, Rodabe N Amaria, Jennifer Wargo, Hussein Tawbi, Doina Ivan, Victor G Prieto, Michael T Tetzlaff, Phyu P Aung
Epithelioid cells with foamy cytoplasm (histiocytoid features) are typical histopathologic findings among benign and malignant histiocytic neoplasms such as xanthoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. However, these changes are unusual in melanoma, which is typically composed of nested and variably pigmented atypical epithelioid cells. Here, we report a patient with metastatic melanoma in lymph nodes presenting with prominent balloon cell/histiocytoid features expressing melanocytic markers, after treatment with nivolumab...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672361/oncocytic-metaplasia-in-melanocytic-tumors
#8
Christine Ahn, Emily DeSantis, Timothy McCalmont
Oncocytic metaplasia represents a histopathologic feature that can be observed in normal tissue such as salivary and lacrimal glands but may also constitute a degenerative metaplastic process as a result of repeated oxidative damage during cellular aging. Although cutaneous oncocytic metaplasia has been considered rare, the finding was seen in over one-third of melanocytic nevi prospectively evaluated, in one study. This case series reports on a small series of oncocytic melanocytic tumors, with the aim of describing this phenomenon in varied contexts and also describing the use of a mitochondrial antigen immunostain, which has not been previously reported...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670475/investigation-the-relationship-between-skin-involvement-severity-and-hearing-loss-severity-in-vitiligo-patients
#9
Ahmad Yeganeh Moghaddam, Mansour Sayyah, Elham Alian Fini, Rezvan Talaee
Introduction: Vitiligo is a common acquired depigmented systemic disorder influencing the entire pigmentary system including Cochlear melanocytes and vestibular system in the inner ear. Vitiligo can leads to social negative impact and poorer quality of life among these patients. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between skin involvement severity and hearing loss severity among vitiligo patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 98 patients with vitiligo referred to the dermatology clinic of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan during 2012-2014...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670146/crocodiles-alter-skin-color-in-response-to-environmental-color-conditions
#10
Mark Merchant, Amber Hale, Jen Brueggen, Curt Harbsmeier, Colette Adams
Many species alter skin color to varying degrees and by different mechanisms. Here, we show that some crocodylians modify skin coloration in response to changing light and environmental conditions. Within the Family, Crocodylidae, all members of the genus Crocodylus lightened substantially when transitioned from dark enclosure to white enclosures, whereas Mecistops and Osteolaemus showed little/no change. The two members of the Family Gavialidae showed an opposite response, lightening under darker conditions, while all member of the Family Alligatoridae showed no changes...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666359/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamics-of-self-assembled-cubic-liquid-crystalline-nanoparticle-gel-after-transdermal-administration
#11
Na Zhu, Xiao-Xiang Wu, Yong Tian, Jin-Xiu Zhu, Jian-Chun Li
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics after transdermal administration by a novel skin microdialysis technology in rats. The guinea pig model was established by investigating the pharmacodynamics. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three different agents were given after hair removal, and the samples were extracted by microdialysis and detected by HPLC. Subcutaneous/plasma concentration-time curves of the 3 different agents were analyzed and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The SS-04B UV light therapy instrument was used in the modeling...
April 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666124/generation-of-a-double-binary-transgenic-zebrafish-model-to-study-myeloid-gene-regulation-in-response-to-oncogene-activation-in-melanocytes
#12
Amy Kenyon, Daria Gavriouchkina, Jernej Zorman, Vanessa Chong-Morrison, Giorgio Napolitani, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler
A complex network of inflammatory genes is closely linked to somatic cell transformation and malignant disease. Immune cells and their associated molecules are responsible for detecting and eliminating cancer cells as they establish themselves as the precursors of a tumour. By the time a patient has a detectable solid tumour, cancer cells have escaped the initial immune response mechanisms. Here, we describe the development of a double binary zebrafish model that enables regulatory programming of the myeloid cells as they respond to oncogene-activated melanocytes to be explored, focussing on the initial phase when cells become the precursors of cancer...
April 6, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665239/fbxw7-regulates-a-mitochondrial-transcription-program-by-modulating-mitf
#13
Franco Abbate, Brateil Badal, Karen Mendelson, Iraz Toprak Aydin, Madhavika N Serasinghe, Ramiz Iqbal, Jarvier Mohammed, Alexander Solovyov, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Jerry E Chipuk, Julide Tok Celebi
FBXW7 is well characterized as a tumor suppressor in many human cancers including melanoma; however, the mechanisms of tumor suppressive function have not been fully elucidated. We leveraged two distinct RNA sequencing datasets: human melanoma cell lines (n=10) with control versus silenced FBXW7 and a cohort of human melanoma tumor samples (n=51) in order to define the transcriptomic fingerprint regulated by FBXW7. Here, we report that loss of FBXW7 enhances a mitochondrial gene transcriptional program that is dependent on MITF in human melanoma and confers poor patient outcomes...
April 17, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665123/pilot-study-on-the-correlation-between-dermoscopic-patterns-and-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-findings-using-whole-slide-digital-imaging-for-acral-volar-melanocytic-lesions
#14
Dai Ogata, Eiichi Arai, Yoshiya Goto, Tetsuya Tsuchida
Dermoscopic evaluation of acral volar skin is helpful in differentiating malignant melanomas (MM) from benign melanocytic nevi. However, histological diagnosis remains difficult because sufficient evidence of histopathological changes to establish a diagnosis of MM are not easily obtained. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effective use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the diagnosis of acral volar melanocytic lesions, and to determine whether acral volar melanocytic lesions show characteristic molecular biological features of malignant melanoma via FISH...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664513/vitiligo-type-cutaneous-manifestation-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-case-report
#15
Karla Gálvez, Paula Muñoz, Valentina Vera, Claudio Arce
INTRODUCTION: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is caused by a pathologic and destructive response of the organism as a result of the interaction between donor immunocompetent T lymphocytes and the recipient tisular antigens. It's considered the most serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, most frequently described after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The skin is usually the first and most commonly affected organ, in both acute and chronic, with a variable clinical spectrum of presentation...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662661/targeting-oncogenic-ras-by-the-clostridium-perfringens-toxin-tpel
#16
Björn Schorch, Hannah Heni, Nour-Imene Zahaf, Tilman Brummer, Marina Mione, Gudula Schmidt, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Klaus Aktories
Clostridium perfringens toxin TpeL belongs to the family of large clostridial glycosylating toxins. The toxin causes N-acetylglucosaminylation of Ras proteins at threonine35 thereby inactivating the small GTPases. Here, we show that all main types of oncogenic Ras proteins (H-Ras, K-Ras and N-Ras) are modified by the toxin in vitro and in vivo . Toxin-catalyzed modification of Ras was accompanied by inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway. Importantly, TpeL inhibited the paradoxical activation of the MAP kinase pathway induced by the BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib in the human melanoma cell line SBCL2...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660504/idh2-deficiency-accelerates-skin-pigmentation-in-mice-via-enhancing-melanogenesis
#17
Jung Hyun Park, Hyeong Jun Ku, Jin Hyup Lee, Jeen-Woo Park
Melanogenesis is a complex biosynthetic pathway regulated by multiple agents, which are involved in the production, transport, and release of melanin. Melanin has diverse roles, including determination of visible skin color and photoprotection. Studies indicate that melanin synthesis is tightly linked to the interaction between melanocytes and keratinocytes. α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is known as a trigger that enhances melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes through paracrine effects. Accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin affects both keratinocytes and melanocytes by causing DNA damage, which eventually leads to the stimulation of α-MSH production...
April 6, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659163/synthesis-characterization-and-initial-biological-evaluation-of-99mtc-tc-tricarbonyl-labeled-dpa-%C3%AE-msh-peptide-derivatives-for-potential-melanoma-imaging
#18
Feng Gao, Wiebke Sihver, Ralf Bergmann, Birgit Belter, Cristina Bolzati, Nicola Salvarese, Jörg Steinbach, Jens Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch
α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) derivatives target the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) specifically and selectively. In this study, the α-MSH derived peptide NAP-NS1 (Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-NH2) with and without linkers was conjugated with 5-(bis(pyridin-2-yl)methyl)amino)pentanoic acid (DPA-COOH) and labeled with [99mTc]Tc-tricarbonyl by two methods. With the one-pot method the labeling was faster than with the two-pots method, however obtaining similarly high yields. Negligible transchelation and high stability in physiological solutions was determined for the [99mTc]Tc-tricarbonyl-peptide conjugates...
April 16, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657669/dual-effect-of-photobiomodulation-on-melasma-downregulation-of-hyperpigmentation-and-enhanced-solar-resistance-a-pilot-study
#19
Daniel Barolet
Overview. Melasma is a resistant, sun-induced facial hyperpigmentation capable of remaining present for decades with ensuing psychological distress. Treatment is difficult and focuses on an array of measures to reduce skin hyperpigmentation resulting from triggered hyperactive melanocytes. The pathogenesis of melanoma is not clearly understood but it has been reported that some growth factors and specific cell-signaling pathways are involved. Objective. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of pulsed photobiomodulation to modulate melasma via the regulation of gene expression pertaining to skin pigmentation...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657541/gingival-melanin-depigmentation-by-810-nm-diode-laser
#20
Eser Elemek
The color of gingiva is determined by number and size of blood vessels, thickness of epithelium, keratinization degree, and melanin pigments present in epithelium. Melanocytes, located in basal and suprabasal layers of epithelium, are the cells that produce melanin pigments which play a main role for pigmentation of gingiva. In this case series, the use of 810 nm diode laser for depigmentation of gingiva is presented. Two female patients applied with a chief complaint of "darkened gums" due to heavy smoking...
January 2018: European Journal of Dentistry
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