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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050206/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-promotes-aging-associated-hair-graying-in-mice
#1
Zhihui Zhang, Mingxing Lei, Haoran Xin, Chunyan Hu, Tian Yang, Yizhan Xing, Yuhong Li, Haiying Guo, Xiaohua Lian, Fang Deng
Canities is an obvious sign of aging in mouse and human, shown as hair graying. Melanocytes in the hair follicle show cyclic activity with hair cycling, which transitions from anagen, catagen to telogen. How the hairs turn gray during aging is not completely uncovered. Here, by using immunostaining and LacZ staining in Dct-LacZ mice, we show that β-catenin is expressed in melanocytes during hair cycling. RT-PCR, western blot and immunostaining show that β-catenin expression is significantly increased in both anagen and telogen skin of aged mice, when compared to the anagen and telogen skin of young mice, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048609/two-novel-atypical-pkc-inhibitors-acpd-and-dnda-effectively-mitigate-cell-proliferation-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-metastatic-melanoma-while-inducing-apoptosis
#2
Wishrawana S Ratnayake, André H Apostolatos, David A Ostrov, Mildred Acevedo-Duncan
Atypical protein kinase Cs (aPKC) are involved in cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, cell survival and migration in many cancers. We believe that aPKCs play an important role in cell motility of melanoma by regulating cell signaling pathways and inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have investigated the effects of two novel aPKC inhibitors; 2-acetyl-1,3-cyclopentanedione (ACPD) and 3,4-diaminonaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid (DNDA) on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of two malignant melanoma cell lines compared to normal melanocytes...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047416/lessons-learned-about-f-18-av-1451-off-target-binding-from-an-autopsy-confirmed-parkinson-s-case
#3
Marta Marquié, Eline E Verwer, Avery C Meltzer, Sally Ji Who Kim, Cinthya Agüero, Jose Gonzalez, Sara J Makaretz, Michael Siao Tick Chong, Prianca Ramanan, Ana C Amaral, Marc D Normandin, Charles R Vanderburg, Stephen N Gomperts, Keith A Johnson, Matthew P Frosch, Teresa Gómez-Isla
[F-18]-AV-1451 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with high affinity to neurofibrillary tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET studies have shown increased tracer retention in patients clinically diagnosed with dementia of AD type and mild cognitive impairment in regions that are known to contain tau lesions. In vivo uptake has also consistently been observed in midbrain, basal ganglia and choroid plexus in elderly individuals regardless of their clinical diagnosis, including clinically normal whose brains are not expected to harbor tau pathology in those areas...
October 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045013/is-there-a-relationship-between-melanocytes-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss-clinical-evaluation-of-fifthy-one-alopecia-areata-patients
#4
Hasan Emre Koçak, Ayşe Şermin Filiz Acıpayam, Harun Acıpayam, Bilgen Çakıl Erdoğan, Nimet Yeşim Yıldız, Levent Küfeciler, Mustafa Suphi Elbistanlı, Kamil Hakan Kaya
Melanocytes are located in both the cochlea and vestibular organ of the inner ear. They are present in the hearing organ, in the intermediate layer of stria vascularis in the cochlea. The most important task of the stria vascularis is to provide the endolymph production necessary for normal hearing levels, especially high K(+) concentration, and to protect the positive endocochlear potential. Specifically, intermediate layer melanocytes express ionic channels, such as inwardly rectifying K+ channels and voltage-dependent outwardly rectifying K+...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045012/photodynamic-therapy-inhibits-melanogenesis-through-paracrine-effects-by-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts
#5
Sue Kyung Kim, Seung-Jae Oh, Se-Yeon Park, Woo-Jung Kim, You-Sun Kim, You Chan Kim
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment option for skin cancer and premalignant skin diseases and exhibits rejuvenation effects, including reducing fine wrinkles and whitening, on aged skin. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the whitening effects of PDT on melanocytes in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of melanocytes to PDT in vitro reduced their melanin content and tyrosinase activity without, however, affecting cell survival. Interestingly, melanogenesis was also inhibited by exposing melanocytes to conditioned media of PDT-treated keratinocytes or dermal fibroblasts...
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044987/sticky-fingers-at-work-palmitoylation-dependent-mc1r-activation
#6
Jose Carlos Garcia-Borron, Celia Jimenez-Cervantes
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) positively coupled to the cAMP pathway. MC1R is expressed in melanocytes, where it is critically involved in the cutaneous responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The current paradigm posits that UVR-induced DNA damage in skin keratinocytes activates expression of the POMC gene encoding for the precursor of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH). The resulting paracrine release of αMSH activates MC1R in melanocytes and switches the production of melanin pigments from basal pheomelanogenesis to synthesis of eumelanins...
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044103/oct4-impedes-cell-fate-redirection-by-the-melanocyte-lineage-master-regulator-mitf-in-mouse-escs
#7
Danna Sheinboim, Itay Maza, Iris Dror, Shivang Parikh, Vladislav Krupalnik, Rachel E Bell, Asaf Zviran, Yusuke Suita, Ofir Hakim, Yael Mandel-Gutfreund, Mehdi Khaled, Jacob H Hanna, Carmit Levy
Ectopic expression of lineage master regulators induces transdifferentiation. Whether cell fate transitions can be induced during various developmental stages has not been systemically examined. Here we discover that amongst different developmental stages, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are resistant to cell fate conversion induced by the melanocyte lineage master regulator MITF. By generating a transgenic system we exhibit that in mESCs, the pluripotency master regulator Oct4, counteracts pro-differentiation induced by Mitf by physical interference with MITF transcriptional activity...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042315/-interleukin-1-beta-reduces-glua1-phosphorylation-and-its-surface-expression-during-memory-reconsolidation-and-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-can-modulate-these-effects
#8
Ivana Machado, Helgi B Schiöth, Mercedes Lasaga, Teresa Scimonelli
Pro-inflammatory cytokines can affect cognitive processes such as learning and memory. Particularly, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) influences hippocampus-dependent memories. We previously reported that administration of IL-1β in dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This effect was reversed by the melanocortin alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Our results also demonstrated that IL-1β produced a significant decrease in glutamate release from dorsal hippocampus synaptosomes after reactivation of the fear memory...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042215/a-novel-stilbene-like-compound-that-inhibits-melanoma-growth-by-regulating-melanocyte-differentiation-and-proliferation
#9
Noah A Stueven, Nicholas M Schlaeger, Aaron P Monte, Sheng-Ping L Hwang, Cheng-Chen Huang
Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Current challenges to melanoma therapy include the adverse effects from immunobiologics, resistance to drugs targeting the MAPK pathway, intricate interaction of many signal pathways, and cancer heterogeneity. Thus combinational therapy with drugs targeting multiple signaling pathways becomes a new promising therapy. Here, we report a family of stilbene-like compounds called A11 that can inhibit melanoma growth in both melanoma-forming zebrafish embryos and mouse melanoma cells...
October 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039047/the-expression-pattern-of-keratin-24-in-tissue-engineered-dermo-epidermal-human-skin-substitutes-in-an-in-vivo-model
#10
Agnes S Klar, Katarzyna Michalak, Sophie Böttcher-Haberzeth, Ernst Reichmann, Martin Meuli, Thomas Biedermann
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The use of autologous tissue-engineered skin substitutes is a promising approach to cover large skin defects in patients. Preclinical investigation is pivotal to test and improve the quality of these bio-engineered substitutes. In the skin, the epidermis, formed mainly by keratinocytes, provides the first physical barrier protecting from the environment. Proper keratinocyte differentiation and, thus, formation of a stratified epidermis is essential for this function...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038913/-ocular-melanomas-an-update
#11
REVIEW
H Kalirai, P L Müller, D Jaehne, S E Coupland
Melanoma is the most common type of primary cancer to affect the adult eye. Approximately 95% of ocular melanomas are intraocular and arise from the uvea (i. e. iris, ciliary body, and choroid), while the remaining 5% are located in the conjunctiva. Although both uveal and conjunctival melanomas are thought to derive from malignantly transformed melanocytes, uveal melanoma is clinically and biologically distinct from conjunctival melanoma, and indeed from its more common cutaneous counterpart. Intense efforts have been recently made to understand the molecular biology involved in the development of ocular melanomas, and in their progression...
October 16, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037804/fluorescence-in-situ-hybridisation-as-an-ancillary-tool-in-the-diagnosis-of-acral-melanoma-a-review-of-44-cases
#12
Jing Su, Wenjuan Yu, Jianying Liu, Jie Zheng, Sixia Huang, Yuchen Wang, Shuangshuang Qi, Xiaolong Ma, Jian Chen, Yan Zhang
Acral melanoma is associated with outcomes which are more unfavourable than those of other melanoma subtypes, and acral melanoma has higher mortality. However, histological distinction of acral melanoma from acral naevi may be difficult. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) targeting specific genes has been used as an ancillary method for differential diagnosis of melanocytic tumours, but most previous studies have focused on non-acral lesions which may have genetic alterations different from acral lesions...
October 13, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036251/an-adhesive-patch-based-skin-biopsy-device-for-molecular-diagnostics-and-skin-microbiome-studies
#13
Zuxu Yao, Ronald Moy, Talisha Allen, Burkhard Jansen
INTRODUCTION: A number of diagnoses in clinical dermatology are currently histopathologically confirmed and this image recognition-based confirmation generally requires surgical biopsies. The increasing ability of molecular pathology to corroborate or correct a clinical diagnosis based on objective gene expression, mutation analysis, or molecular microbiome data is on the horizon and would be further supported by a tool or procedure to collect samples non-invasively. This study characterizes such a tool in form of a 'bladeless' adhesive patch-based skin biopsy device...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036014/a-family-with-two-cases-of-melanocytic-tumors-and-fragile-x-syndrome
#14
Candice Lesage, Isabelle Coupier, Bernard Guillot
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, most commonly results from an expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene to more than 200 copies (full mutation). The FXS phenotype differs by sex and is associated with intellectual and cognitive impairment, characteristic physical features, epilepsy, and/or behavioral challenges including autism spectrum disorder. In this patient population, tumors involving blood cells, digestive organs, the central nervous system, and testes have been described, but melanocytic tumors have not been reported...
October 13, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034590/bimatoprost-ophthalmic-solution-in-facial-vitiligo
#15
Abhijeet K Jha, Smita Prasad, Rajesh Sinha
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is one of the commonest pigmentary disorders characterized by destruction of melanocytes. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of topical bimatoprost ophthalmic solution in stable facial vitiligo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight cases of stable facial vitiligo were treated with bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution once daily for 12 weeks. Photographic records were taken at 2 weeks follow-up along with dermoscopic (Polarized, 10×) evaluation...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034279/rare-and-extensive-malignant-melanoma-of-the-oral-cavity-report-of-two-cases
#16
Parviz Deyhimi, Sayed Mohammad Razavi, Shirin Shahnaseri, Saeedeh Khalesi, Solmaz Homayoni, Payam Tavakoli
Primary oral melanomas are uncommon malignant neoplasm of melanocytes origin. The most common site of oral melanoma is maxillary gingiva and hard palate. Oral mucosal melanoma exhibit a pathobiological behavior and clinical features different from cutaneous melanomas. Oral melanomas are often clinically silent which may consequently result in delayed diagnosis; thus, making the prognosis extremely poor. This case report presents clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of two cases of advanced oral melanoma, one pigmented or melanotic melanoma in a 46-year-old female and another amelanotic melanoma in a 59-year-old male patient, with chief complaint of swelling in oral mucosa...
September 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033353/melanocyte-stem-cell-activation-and-translocation-initiate-cutaneous-melanoma-in-response-to-uv-exposure
#17
Hyeongsun Moon, Leanne R Donahue, Eunju Choi, Philip O Scumpia, William E Lowry, Jennifer K Grenier, Jerry Zhu, Andrew C White
Melanoma is one of the deadliest cancers, yet the cells of origin and mechanisms of tumor initiation remain unclear. The majority of melanomas emerge from clear skin without a precursor lesion, but it is unknown whether these melanomas can arise from melanocyte stem cells (MCSCs). Here we employ mouse models to define the role of MCSCs as melanoma cells of origin, demonstrate that MCSC quiescence acts as a tumor suppressor, and identify the extrinsic environmental and molecular factors required for the critical early steps of melanoma initiation...
October 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033351/mouse-cutaneous-melanoma-induced-by-mutant-braf-arises-from-expansion-and-dedifferentiation-of-mature-pigmented-melanocytes
#18
Corinna Köhler, David Nittner, Florian Rambow, Enrico Radaelli, Fabio Stanchi, Niels Vandamme, Arianna Baggiolini, Lukas Sommer, Geert Berx, Joost J van den Oord, Holger Gerhardt, Cedric Blanpain, Jean-Christophe Marine
To identify the cells at the origin of melanoma, we combined single-cell lineage-tracing and transcriptomics approaches with time-lapse imaging. A mouse model that recapitulates key histopathological features of human melanomagenesis was created by inducing a BRafV600E-driven melanomagenic program in tail interfollicular melanocytes. Most targeted mature, melanin-producing melanocytes expanded clonally within the epidermis before losing their differentiated features through transcriptional reprogramming and eventually invading the dermis...
October 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031731/evaluation-of-a-melanocortin-4-receptor-mc4r-agonist-setmelanotide-in-mc4r-deficiency
#19
Tinh-Hai Collet, Béatrice Dubern, Jacek Mokrosinski, Hillori Connors, Julia M Keogh, Edson Mendes de Oliveira, Elana Henning, Christine Poitou-Bernert, Jean-Michel Oppert, Patrick Tounian, Florence Marchelli, Rohia Alili, Johanne Le Beyec, Dominique Pépin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Andrew Gottesdiener, Rebecca Bounds, Shubh Sharma, Cathy Folster, Bart Henderson, Stephen O'Rahilly, Elizabeth Stoner, Keith Gottesdiener, Brandon L Panaro, Roger D Cone, Karine Clément, I Sadaf Farooqi, Lex H T Van der Ploeg
OBJECTIVE: Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides act on neurons expressing the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) to reduce body weight. Setmelanotide is a highly potent MC4R agonist that leads to weight loss in diet-induced obese animals and in obese individuals with complete POMC deficiency. While POMC deficiency is very rare, 1-5% of severely obese individuals harbor heterozygous mutations in MC4R. We sought to assess the efficacy of Setmelanotide in human MC4R deficiency. METHODS: We studied the effects of Setmelanotide on mutant MC4Rs in cells and the weight loss response to Setmelanotide administration in rodent studies and a human clinical trial...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028122/atypical-alk-positive-spitz-tumors-with-9p21-homozygous-deletion-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Andrew J Rand, Wendy L Flejter, Christopher A Dowling, Linda M Brooke, Genevieve M Boland, Daniela Kroshinsky, Isaac R Rosenblum, Marier Hernandez-Perez, Julie D R Reimann
ALK rearrangements occur in up to 10% of spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms. No reported cases have shown homozygous deletion of 9p21 (CDKN2A) or gains of 6p25 (RREB1) or 11q13 (CCND1), which have been associated with aggressive clinical behavior. Here we report two unique cases. Case 1 occurred in a 9-year-old male with a 14-mm nodule on the anterior left thigh. Biopsy revealed an ALK-positive Spitz tumor containing an irregular nodule of densely packed melanocytes with increased mitoses and loss of p16 immunoreactivity...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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