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Joaquín López-Robles, Alejandra Pérez-Plaza, Luis Requena, Carlos Santonja
Osteonevus of Nanta is a rare histopathologic variant of melanocytic nevus that results from ossification of the dermis between dermal nests of melanocytes. Most cases described in the literature have been associated with long-standing intradermal nevi and were often located in the upper part of the body. We report a lesion on the shoulder of an elderly man showing the association of a common blue nevus and osteoma cutis, an exceptional feature which has been previously reported in 2 instances. We also describe for the first time the dermoscopic appearance of this "blue osteonevus...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Ema Mataca, Mario Migaldi, Anna M Cesinaro
BACKGROUND: Equivocal pigmented lesions of the head are usually biopsied to avoid inappropriate treatment. Clinical approach has evolved from simple visual examination to sophisticated techniques for selecting the biopsy sites. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficiency of dermoscopy (DE) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in sampling a histopathologically representative focus of lentigo maligna/lentigo maligna melanoma. METHODS: Punch biopsies and surgical excisions of 72 patients, 37 men and 35 women (median age 70...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Jonathan Lans, Wouter van Leeuwen, Jesse B Jupiter, Kyle R Eberlin
BACKGROUND: Melanonychia of the digit is uncommon in the Caucasian population and is concerning because of potential malignant transformation. Several histologic changes occur prior to malignant transformation, including melanocytic atypia. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with melanonychia with melanocytic hyperplasia and determine the risk factors for malignant transformation. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records for patients above the age of 18 years that underwent biopsy for melanonychia...
June 20, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Jun Lai, Yun Wang, Shan-Shan Wu, Ding Ding, Ze-Yu Sun, Ying Zhang, Jie Zhou, Zhan Zhou, Ying-Chun Xu, Li-Qiang Pan, Shu-Qing Chen
Most tumor-associated proteins are located inside tumor cells and thus are not accessible to current marketed therapeutic monoclonal antibodies or their cytotoxic conjugates. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I can present peptides derived from intracellular tumor-associated proteins and somatically mutated proteins on the cell's surface, forming an HLA/peptide complex as tumor-specific antigens for T cell receptor (TCR) recognition. Therefore, HLA-mediated presentation of intracellular tumor antigen peptides provides a viable way to distinguish tumor cells from normal cells, which is important for broadening antigen selection, especially for antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) regarding their highly cytotoxic payload...
June 15, 2018: Biomaterials
Jun Du, Liang-Liang Huang, Ao Xu, An-Li Zhang, Xue Kong, Min Ding, Wen Hu, Zhen-Li Guo, Wen Zhong, Si-Bai Sun, Heng Li, Jie Chen, Qian Shen, Lu-Lu Xu, Hai-Bo Wu
Undifferentiated sinonasal malignant melanoma (MM) is a rare type of tumor, which can be easily misdiagnosed. The present study reports a 41-year-old male patient who presented with a 4-day history of epistaxis. Clinical examination and radiological imaging lead to the detection of a mass in the right sinonasal region. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass was composed of malignant epithelioid cells arranged in nests and sheets. These cells displayed a hemangiopericytoma-like pattern with antler-like branching vessels...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
L J Wang, Z Li, M Li, L Weng, W H Li, J DU, J Z Zhang
Pigmented extramammary Paget's disease (PEMPD) is an uncommon intraepithelial adenocarcinoma and a rare variant of Paget's disease, characterized as a superficial pigmented scaly macule clinically and an increased number of melanocytes scattered between the Paget's cells histologically. So it may be confused clinically and histologically with melanocytic tumors, dermatitis and other dermatoses. Different therapeutic attitudes are required in this case of adenocarcinoma in situ as opposed to melanoma and dermatitis...
June 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Laura Polledo, Guy C M Grinwis, Peter Graham, Mark Dunning, Kerstin Baiker
With the exception of classic functional adenomas in dogs and horses, pituitary lesions are infrequently described in the veterinary literature. Approximately 10% of pituitary glands from asymptomatic humans contain abnormalities, but the equivalent proportion in small animals is unknown. Pituitary glands from 136 dogs and 65 cats collected during routine necropsies were examined to determine the prevalence of pituitary lesions and their histopathological diagnosis. Lesions were characterized in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Gordon and Sweet's and reticulin stains, and immunohistochemistry for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone-α, and prolactin...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Margaret A Miller, Tina Jo Owen, David S Bruyette, J Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, José A Ramos-Vara, Hsin-Yi Weng, Annie V Chen, Linda G Martin, Deidre M DuSold
Hypophysectomy specimens from 16 dogs with pituitary adenoma were evaluated with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), reticulin, and immunohistochemistry for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), growth hormone (GH), and Ki-67. The reticulin network was obliterated in all adenomas. One adenoma expressed ACTH and GH. Eight corticotroph adenomas were basophilic to chromophobic, and PAS- and ACTH-positive. Seven melanotroph adenomas were distinguished from corticotroph adenomas by expression of MSH...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Andrew L J Dunn, Jerad M Gardner, Jennifer R Kaley, William Bellamy, Sara C Shalin
Recent studies have identified kinase fusions in Spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms, and approximately 10% of Spitzoid neoplasms harbor anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements and corresponding ALK immunoreactivity. Deep penetrating nevi (DPN), a subset of melanocytic neoplasms, have histologic and immunohistochemical overlap that have historically supported classification of DPN with blue/cellular blue nevi (CBN). However, HRAS mutations have rarely been detected in DPN, thereby also linking them to Spitz nevi...
July 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Beatriz Domingues, José Manuel Lopes, Paula Soares, Helena Pópulo
Melanoma represents the most aggressive and the deadliest form of skin cancer. Current therapeutic approaches include surgical resection, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, immunotherapy, biochemotherapy, and targeted therapy. The therapeutic strategy can include single agents or combined therapies, depending on the patient's health, stage, and location of the tumor. The efficiency of these treatments can be decreased due to the development of diverse resistance mechanisms. New therapeutic targets have emerged from studies of the genetic profile of melanocytes and from the identification of molecular factors involved in the pathogenesis of the malignant transformation...
2018: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Ahmed A Abd El-Ghany, Refaat R Mohamed
The etiology of vitiligo is still unclear. The aim is to investigate a neural and hormonal etio-pathology of vitiligo. Sixty acrofacial vitiligo patients were divided into two subgroups as active vitiligo patients group (AVPs; n  = 35) and stable vitiligo patients group (SVP; n  = 25). Forty healthy subjects without any systemic or dermatological disease were used as controls. Blood samples were collected, and the samples were used for measurement of free triiodothyronine (fT3 ), free thyroxine (fT4 ), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, melatonin, and prolactin levels by ELISA, while norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), dopamine (DA), homo-vanillic acid (HVA), serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) by high-pressure liquid chromatography...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jina Kim, Sujin Kang, HanJin Kwon, HoSang Moon, Min Chul Park
BACKGROUND: Human skin aging is caused by several factors, such as UV irradiation, stress, hormone, and pollution. Wrinkle formation and skin pigmentation are representative features of skin aging. Although EGF and arbutin are used as anti-wrinkle and skin whitening agents, respectively, they have adverse effects on skin. When more cosmeceutical ingredients are added to cosmetic product, adverse effects are also accumulated. For these reasons, multifunctional and safe cosmetic ingredients are in demand...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Toshihiko Fukuzawa
The periodic albino mutant of Xenopus laevis has been used to study the development of pigment cells because both the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and melanophores are affected. In this mutant, "white pigment cells" containing both melanophore-specific and iridophore-specific pigment organelles appear. The present experiments were designed to investigate the structural organization and expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) in the mutant since Mitf is known to regulate the development of melanocytes and RPE...
June 19, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Claire Theillac, Elisa Cinotti, Josep Malvehy, Sandra R Savle, Brigitte Balme, Philip Robinson, Jean Luc Perrot, Catherine Douchet, Anne C Biron Schneider, Llucia Alos, Adriana Garcia, Alicia Barreiro, Bruno Labeille, Gérard Duru, Stéphane Dalle, Luc Thomas, Sébastien Debarbieux
BACKGROUND: Vulvar melanosis can occasionally be clinically challenging by mimicking an early melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To report our experience of initial evaluation and follow-up in this peculiar subset of vulvar melanosis using Reflectance Confocal Microscopy (RCM). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 18 consecutive cases referred for atypical vulvar pigmentations and for which melanoma was considered that underwent RCM examination and histopathological assessment...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Yuna Park, Dayoung Kim, Inho Yang, Bomee Choi, Jin Woo Lee, Seung Namkoong, Hyun Jung Koo, Sung Ryul Lee, Myung Rye Park, Hyosun Lim, Youn Kyu Kim, Sang Jip Nam, Eun-Hwa Sohn
The anti-melanogenic effects of the extract of A. tenuissima (AT) root and the extract of A. tenuissima root fermented by A.oryzae (FAT)were investigated.These effects were determined by measuring the inhibitory activity of AT and FAT on melanin production in B16F10 melanocytes and with in vitro tyrosinase-activity assays. TheAT extract inhibited melanin production at concentrations above 250μg/mL, and this inhibitory effect was significantly enhanced by fermentation process with A. oryzae . HPLC analysis resulted in the isolation of two active compounds from both the AT and FAT extracts...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Anissa Zaouak, Houda Hammami, Raja Jouini, Mariem Belhaj Salah, Achraf Debbiche, Samy Fenniche
78-year-old man presented with complaints of progressive nasal blockage and epistaxis over the previous 2 months. Clinical examination revealed a nodular, polypoid, ulcerated nonpigmented tumor filling the right nasal cavity (Figure 1). A punch biopsy was taken from the mass for histopathologic examination, which revealed many melanocytes in the submucosa. The stroma contained large numbers of spindle-shaped cells with hyperchromatic spindleoid nuclei (Figure 2), confirming the diagnosis of malignant melanoma...
2018: Skinmed
Andreia Hanada Otake, Renata de Freitas Saito, Ana Paula Marques Duarte, Alexandre Ferreira Ramos, Roger Chammas
Melanomas often accumulate gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids found in the outer leaflet of plasma membranes, as disialoganglioside GD3 and its derivatives. Here, we have transfected the GD3 synthase gene (ST8Sia I) in a normal melanocyte cell line in order to evaluate changes in the biological behavior of non-transformed cells. GD3 -synthase expressing cells converted GM3 into GD3 and accumulated both GD3 and its acetylated form, 9-O-acetyl-GD3 . Melanocytes were rendered more migratory on laminin-1 surfaces...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
G Brancaccio, B Brunetti, E Fulgione, E Moscarella, R Alfano, G Argenziano
Spitz nevi (SN) are benign melanocytic lesions typical of childhood/adolescence that can mimic melanoma on a clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic level. Moreover, SN are often characterized by rapid growth and worrisome changes. Thus, their diagnosis and management may be challenging. The knowledge on prognosis and natural history of SN improved substantially in the last few years thanks to dermoscopy and a better understanding of clinic-pathologic correlations. This article is protected by copyright...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Reid Green, Meghan Woody, Anthony C Soldano, Erin Madden
Malignant tumors composed of both epithelial and melanocytic populations are exceedingly rare. Because the etiology of these malignant tumors is not yet defined, several authors have argued for the continued cataloging of these lesions. We present a 67-year-old man with a suspicious-appearing lesion on the right forearm; initial biopsy was consistent with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma. On re-excision, a collision of malignant melanoma and basal cell was identified.
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Alessandra Lo Cicero, Manoubia Saidani, Jennifer Allouche, Anne Laure Egesipe, Lucile Hoch, Celine Bruge, Sabine Sigaudy, Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli, Nicolas Levy, Christine Baldeschi, Xavier Nissan
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder that leads to premature aging. In this study, we used induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate the hypopigmentation phenotypes observed in patients with progeria. Accordingly, two iPS cell lines were derived from cells from HGPS patients and differentiated into melanocytes. Measurements of melanin content revealed a lower synthesis of melanin in HGPS melanocytes as compared to non-pathologic cells. Analysis of the melanosome maturation process by electron microscopy revealed a lower percentage of mature, fully pigmented melanosomes...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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