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Cell plasticity

Norihiro Mizoshita, Hiromitsu Tanaka
Antireflection (AR) coating for transparent plastic substrates is constructed by partially embedding mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) onto the surface of the substrates. Simulation of optical properties of polymer substrates coated with a single-particle MSN layer indicates that the surface has a low and graded refractive index in the direction of the thickness and effectively decreases the reflectance of visible light. The MSN-coated surfaces can be prepared by exposure of the MSN-painted substrates to a solvent vapor, irrespective of the shape of the polymer substrates...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
James E Baily, William C W Chen, Nusrat Khan, Iain R Murray, Zaniah N González Galofre, Johnny Huard, Bruno Péault
Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were conventionally isolated, through their plastic adherence, from primary tissue digests whilst their anatomical tissue location remained unclear. The recent discovery of defined perivascular and MSC cell marker expression by perivascular cells in multiple tissues by our group and other researchers has provided an opportunity to prospectively isolate and purify specific homogenous subpopulations of multipotent perivascular precursor cells. We have previously demonstrated the use of fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify microvascular CD146(+)CD34(-) pericytes and vascular CD34(+)CD146(-) adventitial cells from human skeletal muscle...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sara S Franco, Karolina Szczesna, Maria S Iliou, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Ali Mobasheri, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Cancer cells, stem cells and cancer stem cells have for a long time played a significant role in the biomedical sciences. Though cancer therapy is more effective than it was a few years ago, the truth is that still none of the current non-surgical treatments can cure cancer effectively. The reason could be due to the subpopulation called "cancer stem cells" (CSCs), being defined as those cells within a tumour that have properties of stem cells: self-renewal and the ability for differentiation into multiple cell types that occur in tumours...
September 30, 2016: BMC Cancer
Thomas J Younts, Hannah R Monday, Barna Dudok, Matthew E Klein, Bryen A Jordan, István Katona, Pablo E Castillo
Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Hong-Ju Wang, Meng-Qi Li, Wei-Wei Liu, Toshihiko Hayashi, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
PURPOSE: Type I collagen is one of the most abundant components of extracellular matrix. We previously illustrated that murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells grew well on type I collagen gel and escaped from TNFα-induced cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of collagen gel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used western blot, confocal microscopy, MTT assay and flow cytometry by introducing fluorescence staining to determine the expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory ratio and autophagy...
October 20, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
Sylwia Szotek, Joanna Dawidowicz, Brian Eyden, Natalia Matysiak, Aleksander Czogalla, Grzegorz Dudzik, Anna Leśniewicz, Krzysztof Maksymowicz
Fascia lata is an important element of the fascial system, which forms the continuum of connective tissue throughout the body. This deep fascia envelops the entire thigh and hip area and its main function is to transmit mechanical forces generated by the musculoskeletal system of the lower extremities. Fascia lata is also known as a useful and easily harvested graft material. Despite its crucial role in lower extremity biomechanics and wide-ranging applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery, both the structure of fascia lata and particularly the cells populating this tissue are relatively unexplored and therefore poorly understood...
October 20, 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Megan Allen, Suhasini Ghosh, Gerard P Ahern, Sonia Villapol, Kathleen A Maguire-Zeiss, Katherine Conant
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of secreted endopeptidases expressed by neurons and glia. Regulated MMP activity contributes to physiological synaptic plasticity, while dysregulated activity can stimulate injury. Disentangling the role individual MMPs play in synaptic plasticity is difficult due to overlapping structure and function as well as cell-type specific expression. Here, we develop a novel system to investigate the selective overexpression of a single MMP driven by GFAP expressing cells in vivo...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Antonia Piazzesi, Dražen Papić, Fabio Bertan, Paolo Salomoni, Pierluigi Nicotera, Daniele Bano
Chromatin structure orchestrates the accessibility to the genetic material. Replication-independent histone variants control transcriptional plasticity in postmitotic cells. The life-long accumulation of these histones has been described, yet the implications on organismal aging remain elusive. Here, we study the importance of the histone variant H3.3 in Caenorhabditis elegans longevity pathways. We show that H3.3-deficient nematodes have negligible lifespan differences compared to wild-type animals. However, H3...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Prabesh Bhattarai, Alvin Kuriakose Thomas, Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak, Christos Papadimitriou, Violeta Mashkaryan, Cynthia Froc, Susanne Reinhardt, Thomas Kurth, Andreas Dahl, Yixin Zhang, Caghan Kizil
Human brains are prone to neurodegeneration, given that endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) fail to support neurogenesis. To investigate the molecular programs potentially mediating neurodegeneration-induced NSPC plasticity in regenerating organisms, we generated an Amyloid-β42 (Aβ42)-dependent neurotoxic model in adult zebrafish brain through cerebroventricular microinjection of cell-penetrating Aβ42 derivatives. Aβ42 deposits in neurons and causes phenotypes reminiscent of amyloid pathophysiology: apoptosis, microglial activation, synaptic degeneration, and learning deficits...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Ellen Van Damme, Kim Thys, Marianne Tuefferd, Carl Van Hove, Jeroen Aerssens, Marnix Van Loock
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs). This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Krisztián A Kovács, Joseph O'Neill, Philipp Schoenenberger, Markku Penttonen, Damaris K Ranguel Guerrero, Jozsef Csicsvari
During hippocampal sharp wave/ripple (SWR) events, previously occurring, sensory input-driven neuronal firing patterns are replayed. Such replay is thought to be important for plasticity-related processes and consolidation of memory traces. It has previously been shown that the electrical stimulation-induced disruption of SWR events interferes with learning in rodents in different experimental paradigms. On the other hand, the cognitive map theory posits that the plastic changes of the firing of hippocampal place cells constitute the electrophysiological counterpart of the spatial learning, observable at the behavioral level...
2016: PloS One
Clara Lopes Novo, Peter J Rugg-Gunn
Pluripotent cells are characterized by a globally open and accessible chromatin organization that is thought to contribute to cellular plasticity and developmental decision-making. We recently identified the pluripotency factor Nanog as a key regulator of this form of chromatin architecture in mouse embryonic stem cells. In particular, we demonstrated that the transcription factors Nanog and Sall1 co-dependently mediate the epigenetic state of pericentromeric heterochromatin to reinforce a more open and accessible organization in pluripotent cells...
October 19, 2016: Nucleus
Michael Poteser, Gerd Leitinger, Elisabeth Pritz, Dieter Platzer, Irene Frischauf, Christoph Romanin, Klaus Groschner
Nanometer-spaced appositions between endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane (ER-PM junctions) stabilized by membrane-joining protein complexes are critically involved in cellular Ca(2+)-handling and lipid trafficking. ER-PM junctional architecture and plasticity associated with inter-membrane communication are as yet barely understood. Here, we introduce a method to precisely characterize ER-PM junction morphology and dynamics with high temporal resolution and minimal disturbance of junctional intermembrane communication...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Yu-Ting Chou, Shih-Sheng Jiang, Junn-Liang Chang, Chih-Hung Chung, Yu-Rung Kao, I-Shou Chang, Cheng-Wen Wu
Cell differentiation within stem cell lineages can check proliferative potential but nodal pathways that can limit tumor growth are obscure. Here we report that lung cancer cell populations generate phenotypic and oncogenic plasticity via a switch between differentiation programs controlled by SOX2 and SOX9, thus altering proliferative and invasive capabilities. In lung cancer cells, SOX2 bound the EPCAM promoter to induce EpCAM-p21Cip1-cyclin A2 signaling, encouraging cell proliferation as well as barrier properties...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Research
Theerawut Chanmee, Pawared Ontong, Tomomi Izumikawa, Miho Higashide, Nobutoshi Mochizuki, Chatchadawalai Chokchaitaweesuk, Manatsanan Khansai, Kazuki Nakajima, Ikuko Kakizaki, Prachya Kongtawelert, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Naoki Itano
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of self-renewing oncogenic cells. Like many other stem cells, metabolic reprogramming has been implicated to be a key characteristic of CSCs. However, little is known on how the metabolic features of cancer cells are controlled to orchestrate their CSC-like properties. We recently demonstrated that hyaluronan (HA) overproduction allowed plastic cancer cells to revert to stem-cell states. Here, we adopted stable isotope-assisted tracing and mass spectrometry profiling to elucidate the metabolic features of HA-overproducing breast cancer cells...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yingjiao Xue, Shenda Hou, Hongbin Ji, Xiangkun Han
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Targeted therapy is beneficial in most cases, but the development of drug resistance stands as an obstacle to good prognosis. Multiple mechanisms were explored such as genetic alterations, activation of bypass signaling, and phenotypic transition. These intrinsic and/or extrinsic dynamic regulations facilitate tumor cell survival in meeting the demands of signaling under different stimulus. This review introduces lung cancer plasticity and heterogeneity and their correlation with drug resistance...
October 18, 2016: Protein & Cell
Hamid Karimi, Seyed-Abolhassan Emami, Mohammad-Kazem Olad-Gubad
BACKGROUND: Repair of total human ear loss or congenital lack of ears is one of the challenging issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was 3D reconstruction of the human ear with cadaveric ear cartilages seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells. METHOD: We used cadaveric ear cartilages with preserved perichondrium. The samples were divided into 2 groups: group A (cartilage alone) and group B (cartilage seeded with a mixture of fibrin powder and mesenchymal stem cell [1,000,000 cells/cm] used and implanted in back of 10 athymic rats)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Christian J Stoeckert, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Hemodynamics creates a constantly changing physical and chemical environment to which the arterial endothelium is exquisitely sensitive. Biomechanical stresses are intrinsic to blood flow characteristics and blood pressure and therefore are important considerations in hypertension. Near branching anatomical sites in arteries, blood flow separates from the main flow to undergo complex multi-directional characteristics for a part of each cardiac cycle (collectively referred to as disturbed flow). Atherosclerosis and aneurysmal pathology develop preferentially at disturbed flow locations, particularly when an additional cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure are present...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Asad Jan, Brandon Jansonius, Alberto Delaidelli, Syam Prakash Somasekharan, Forum Bhanshali, Milène Vandal, Gian Luca Negri, Don Moerman, Ian MacKenzie, Frédéric Calon, Michael R Hayden, Stefan Taubert, Poul H Sorensen
Soluble oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) impair synaptic plasticity, perturb neuronal energy homeostasis, and are implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Therefore, significant efforts in AD drug discovery research aim to prevent the formation of Aβ oligomers or block their neurotoxicity. The eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity, and couples neurotransmission to local dendritic mRNA translation. Recent evidence indicates that Aβ oligomers activate neuronal eEF2K, suggesting a potential link to Aβ induced synaptic dysfunction...
October 17, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
George S Vidal, Maja Djurisic, Kiana Brown, Richard W Sapp, Carla J Shatz
Synapse density on cortical pyramidal neurons is modulated by experience. This process is highest during developmental critical periods, when mechanisms of synaptic plasticity are fully engaged. In mouse visual cortex, the critical period for ocular dominance (OD) plasticity coincides with the developmental pruning of synapses. At this time, mice lacking paired Ig-like receptor B (PirB) have excess numbers of dendritic spines on L5 neurons; these spines persist and are thought to underlie the juvenile-like OD plasticity observed in adulthood...
September 2016: ENeuro
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