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Alexander Hamilton, Quan Zhang, Albert Salehi, Mara Willems, Jakob G Knudsen, Anna K Ringgaard, Caroline E Chapman, Alejandro Gonzalez-Alvarez, Nicoletta C Surdo, Manuela Zaccolo, Davide Basco, Paul R V Johnson, Reshma Ramracheya, Guy A Rutter, Antony Galione, Patrik Rorsman, Andrei I Tarasov
Adrenaline is a powerful stimulus of glucagon secretion. It acts by activation of β-adrenergic receptors but the downstream mechanisms have only been partially elucidated. Here we have examined the effects of adrenaline in mouse and human α-cells by a combination of electrophysiology, imaging of Ca2+ and PKA activity and hormone release measurements. We found that stimulation of glucagon secretion correlated with a PKA- and EPAC2-dependent (inhibited by PKI and ESI-05, respectively) elevation of [Ca2+ ]i in α-cells, which occurred without stimulation of electrical activity, persisted in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ but was sensitive to ryanodine, bafilomycin and thapsigargin...
March 21, 2018: Diabetes
Jade Leahy, Schohraya Spahis, Eric Bonneil, Carole Garofalo, Guy Grimard, Sophia Morel, Caroline Laverdière, Maja Krajinovic, Simon Drouin, Edgard Delvin, Daniel Sinnett, Valérie Marcil, Emile Levy
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) is the most prevalent form of cancer in children. Due to advances in treatment and therapy, young cALL subjects now achieve a 90% survival rate. However, this tremendous advance does not come without consequence since ~2/3 of cALL survivors are affected by long-term and late, severe complications. Although the metabolic syndrome is a very serious sequel of cALL, the mechanisms remain undefined. It is also surprising to note that the mitochondrion, a central organelle in metabolic functions and the main cellular energy generator, have not yet been explored...
March 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Nimrod Marom, Baruch Rosen, Yotam Tepper, Guy Bar-Oz
Metric data of 6th century CE pigeons from the Negev Desert, Israel, are employed to test competing hypotheses on flock management strategies: that directed selection for size or shape took place under intensive management; or, alternatively, that stabilizing selection was a stronger determinant of size and shape under extensive management conditions. The results of the analysis support the second hypothesis by demonstrating that the Byzantine Negev pigeons were like wild pigeon (Columba livia) in shape, albeit small-sized...
2018: PloS One
Paul Glue, Shona M Neehoff, Natalie J Medlicott, Andrew Gray, Guy Kibby, Neil McNaughton
OBJECTIVE: In this maintenance treatment study, we sought to evaluate the effect on anxiety ratings, safety and tolerability of 3 months of weekly ketamine in 20 patients with treatment-refractory DSM IV generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and/or social anxiety disorder (SAD), and subsequent assessment of remission post-treatment. METHODS: This was an uncontrolled open-label study in 20 patients who had been responders in an ascending dose ketamine study. The study was undertaken in a university clinic...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Gino Vissers, Arno Talboom, Ben Gys, Damien Desbuquoit, Niels Komen, Guy Hubens
BACKGROUND: An internal abdominal hernia is defined as the protrusion of a viscus through a mesenteric or peritoneal aperture within the peritoneal cavity. A less common type of internal herniation is a small bowel herniation through a defect in the falciform ligament of the liver. This defect can be congenital or iatrogenic after penetration of the falciform ligament with a trocar during laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: We present a case report illustrating an internal herniation through an iatrogenic defect in the falciform ligament of the liver...
March 21, 2018: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Yongwoog Andrew Jeon, Brent Hale, Eric Knackmuhs, Michael Mackert
BACKGROUND: Anonymous verbal attacks against overweight individuals on social media are common and widespread. These comments often use negative, misogynist, or derogatory words, which stigmatize the targeted individuals with obesity. These verbal attacks may cause depression in overweight individuals, which could subsequently promote unhealthy eating behavior (ie, binge eating) and further weight gain. To develop an intervention policy and strategies that tackle the anonymous, Web-based verbal attacks, a thorough understanding of the comments is necessary...
March 20, 2018: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Keith T Chan, Adam M Alessio, Guy E Johnson, Sandeep Vaidya, Sharon W Kwan, Wayne Monsky, Ann E Wilson, David H Lewis, Siddharth A Padia
PURPOSE: To prospectively assess the threshold dose for objective response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), using90 Y internal pair-production positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify the radiation dose delivered to hepatic tumors after radioembolization. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A prospective study was performed under institutional review board approval from 2012 to 2014. Thirty-five patients with primary and secondary liver tumors undergoing90 Y treatment were recruited...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Sean S Rajaee, Joshua C Campbell, James Mirocha, Guy D Paiement
BACKGROUND: This study provides a comprehensive analysis of total hip arthroplasty (THA) revisions in the U.S. from 2007 to 2013. METHODS: International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify all THA revisions in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2007 to 2013. The diagnoses leading to the revisions, types of revisions, major inpatient complications, and hospital and patient characteristics were compared between 2007 and 2013...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Thomas Castelein, Frank Van Praet, Kris Van Der Steen, Guy Van Camp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
Jonathan E Freise, Elizabeth E McCarthy, Michelle Guy, Scott Steiger, Leslie Sheu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Jale Tosun, B Guy Peters
This article describes data for 78 intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) working on topics related to energy governance, environmental protection, and the economy. The number of IGOs covered also includes organizations active in other sectors. The point of departure for data construction was the Correlates of War dataset, from which we selected this sample of IGOs. We updated and expanded the empirical information on the IGOs selected by manual coding. Most importantly, we collected the primary law texts of the individual IGOs in order to code whether they commit themselves to environmental policy integration (EPI), climate policy integration (CPI) and/or energy policy integration (EnPI)...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Jacques Rottembourg, Guy Rostoker
Generic immunosuppressive drugs are available in Europe Canada and the United States. Between countries, there are large differences in penetration of generic drugs in general, and for immunosuppressive drugs in particular. The registration for generic immunosuppressive drugs are slightly different, but the criteria for registration of narrow therapeutic index drugs and bioequivalence studies, performed only in healthy volunteers, will remain in the medical landscape. About 50 studies compare the clinical efficacy and bioequivalence of the generic immunosuppressive drugs in patients with solid organ transplants...
March 16, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Guy Slonimsky, Aaron Baker, Henry Crist, David Goldenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Elizabeth A Middleton, Matthew T Rondina, Hansjorg Schwertz, Guy A Zimmerman
Platelets are essential cellular effectors of hemostasis and contribute to disease as circulating effectors of pathologic thrombosis. These are their most widely known biologic activities. Nevertheless, recent observations demonstrate that platelets have a much more intricate repertoire beyond these traditional functions, and are specialized for contributions to vascular barrier integrity, organ repair, antimicrobial host defense, inflammation, and activities across the immune continuum. Paradoxically, some of these newly-discovered activities of platelets appear to contribute to tissue injury based on clinical investigations and animal models of disease...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Nguyen To Anh, Le Nguyen Truc Nhu, Hoang Minh Tu Van, Nguyen Thi Thu Hong, Tran Tan Thanh, Vu Thi Ty Hang, Nguyen Thi Han Ny, Lam Anh Nguyet, Tran Thi Lan Phuong, Le Nguyen Thanh Nhan, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Truong Huu Khanh, Ha Manh Tuan, Ho Lu Viet, Nguyen Tran Nam, Do Chau Viet, Phan Tu Qui, Bridget Wills, Sarawathy Sabanathan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Louise Thwaites, H Rogier van Doorn, Guy Thwaites, Maia A Rabaa, Le Van Tan
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health issue in Asia and has global pandemic potential. Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was detected in 514/2,230 (23%) of HFMD patients admitted to 3 major hospitals in southern Vietnam during 2011-2015. Of these patients, 93 (18%) had severe HFMD. Phylogenetic analysis of 98 genome sequences revealed they belonged to cluster A and had been circulating in Vietnam for 2 years before emergence. CV-A6 movement among localities within Vietnam occurred frequently, whereas viral movement across international borders appeared rare...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Luisa Flohr, Shaylene Beaudry, K Taneille Johnson, Nicholas West, Catherine M Burns, J Mark Ansermino, Guy A Dumont, David Wensley, Peter Skippen, Matthias Gorges
The pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex environment, in which a multidisciplinary team of clinicians (registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians) continually observe and evaluate patient information. Data are provided by multiple, and often physically separated sources, cognitive workload is high, and team communication can be challenging. Our aim is to combine information from multiple monitoring and therapeutic devices in a mobile application, the VitalPAD , to improve the efficiency of clinical decision-making, communication, and thereby patient safety...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Vincent-Philippe Lavallée, Jalila Chagraoui, Tara MacRae, Miriam Marquis, Arnaud Bonnefoy, Jana Krosl, Sébastien Lemieux, Anne Marinier, Caroline Pabst, Georges-Étienne Rivard, Josée Hébert, Guy Sauvageau
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a medical emergency because of associated lethal early bleeding, a condition preventable by prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The mechanisms underlying the hemostatic anomalies of APL are not completely elucidated. RNA-sequencing-based characterization of APL (n = 30) was performed and compared to that of other acute myeloid leukemia (n = 400) samples and normal promyelocytes. Perturbations in the transcriptome of coagulation and fibrinolysis-related genes in APL extend beyond known culprits and now include Thrombin, Factor X and Urokinase Receptor...
February 23, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Elia Wyverkens, Marieke Dewitte, Ellen Deschepper, Joke Corneillie, Lien Van der Bracht, Dina Van Regenmortel, Kim Van Cleempoel, Noortje De Boose, Petra Prinssen, Guy T'Sjoen
INTRODUCTION: 10 years ago, Meston and Buss (Arch Sex Behav 2007;36:477-507) identified 237 reasons for having sex. Since then, only a few studies have built on the analyses of differences in sexual motivation. AIM: To replicate the YSEX? in a broader sample of women and men of different ages. METHODS: Women and men younger than 18 (n = 141), 18 to 22 (n = 1,039), 22 to 55 (n = 2,804), and at least 55 (n = 667) years old completed an online survey about their reasons for engaging in sex during the past year...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Robert Sidney Cox, Curtis Madsen, James McLaughlin, Tramy Nguyen, Nicholas Roehner, Bryan Bartley, Swapnil Bhatia, Mike Bissell, Kevin Clancy, Thomas Gorochowski, Raik Grünberg, Augustin Luna, Nicolas Le Novere, Matthew Pocock, Herbert Sauro, John T Sexton, Guy-Bart Stan, Jeffrey J Tabor, Christopher A Voigt, Zach Zundel, Chris Myers, Jacob Beal, Anil Wipat
People who are engineering biological organisms often find it useful to communicate in diagrams, both about the structure of the nucleic acid sequences that they are engineering and about the functional relationships between sequence features and other molecular species. Some typical practices and conventions have begun to emerge for such diagrams. The Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) has been developed as a standard for organizing and systematizing such conventions in order to produce a coherent language for expressing the structure and function of genetic designs...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Sherly X Li, Fumiaki Imamura, Matthias B Schulze, Jusheng Zheng, Zheng Ye, Antonio Agudo, Eva Ardanaz, Dagfinn Aune, Heiner Boeing, Miren Dorronsoro, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Sara Grioni, Marc J Gunter, José María Huerta, Daniel B Ibsen, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Cecilie Kyrø, Francesca Romana Mancini, Elena Molina-Portillo, Neil Murphy, Peter M Nilsson, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Alaitz Poveda, J Ramón Quirós, Fulvio Ricceri, Ivonne Sluijs, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Anna Winkvist, Claudia Langenberg, Stephen J Sharp, Elio Riboli, Robert A Scott, Nita G Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases)...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
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