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Neural regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458076/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-improved-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury-partly-by-promoting-axonal-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Liya Lin, Hefeng Lin, Shi Bai, Lianshun Zheng, Xiaoming Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the spinal cord and results in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. The treatment of SCI became a challenge because the injured neurons fail to axon regenerate and repair after injury. Promoting axonal regeneration plays a key role in the treatment strategies for SCI. It would meet the goal of reconstruction the injured spinal cord and improving the functional recovery. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are attractive therapeutic potential cell sources for SCI, and it could rebuild the injured spinal cord through neuroprotection, neural regeneration and remyelinating...
February 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454014/detecting-structural-and-inflammatory-response-after-in-vivo-stretch-injury-in-the-rat-median-nerve-via-second-harmonic-generation
#2
Matthew J Gluck, Surabhi Vijayaraghavan, Elaine B Sinclair, Asad Ashraf, Michael R Hausman, Paul J Cagle
BACKGROUND: Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising method for visualizing the collagenous structure of peripheral nerves. Assessing collagen continuity and damage after a stretch injury provides inferential insight into the level of axonal damage present. NEW METHODS: This study utilizes SHG microscopy after a calibrated in vivo stretch injury of rat median nerves to evaluate collagen continuity at several time points throughout the recovery process...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453976/cell-type-specific-expression-of-constitutively-active-rheb-promotes-regeneration-of-bulbospinal-respiratory-axons-following-cervical-sci
#3
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451438/reinnervation-of-the-rectum-with-transfer-of-the-genital-branch-of-the-genitofemoral-nerve-to-the-pelvic-nerve-in-rats
#4
Chuanjiang Dong, Ping Zhu, Zonglan Xie, Zheqi Fan, Ziqiang Dong
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of rectum reinnervation with transfer of a primarily genitofemoral nerve to the pelvic nerve in the rat. METHODS Thirty-six male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: rats in the nerve transfer group (n = 12) were subjected to rectal denervation and then bilateral genitofemoral nerve-pelvic nerve transfer; rats in the nerve resection group (n = 12) underwent rectum denervation without nerve transfer; and rats in the control group (n = 12) underwent sham surgery...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451199/brain-injury-and-neural-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Parker E Ludwig, Finosh G Thankam, Arun A Patil, Andrea J Chamczuk, Devendra K Agrawal
Many therapies with potential for treatment of brain injury have been investigated. Few types of cells have spurred as much interest and excitement as stem cells over the past few decades. The multipotentiality and self-renewing characteristics of stem cells confer upon them the capability to regenerate lost tissue in ischemic or degenerative conditions as well as trauma. While stem cells have not yet proven to be clinically effective in many such conditions as was once hoped, they have demonstrated some effects that could be manipulated for clinical benefit...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449193/phase-i-trial-of-intrathecal-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Violaine K Harris, James Stark, Tamara Vyshkina, Leslie Blackshear, Gloria Joo, Valentina Stefanova, Gabriel Sara, Saud A Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is one of the leading causes of disability in young adults. Cell therapy is emerging as a therapeutic strategy to promote repair and regeneration in patients with disability associated with progressive MS. METHODS: We conducted a phase I open-label clinical trial investigating the safety and tolerability of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural progenitor (MSC-NP) treatment in 20 patients with progressive MS...
February 3, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449086/progress-in-the-use-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-in-regenerative-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Eduardo Anitua, María Troya, Mar Zalduendo
The field of tissue engineering is emerging as a multidisciplinary area with promising potential for regenerating new tissues and organs. This approach requires the involvement of three essential components: stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors. To date, dental pulp stem cells have received special attention because they represent a readily accessible source of stem cells. Their high plasticity and multipotential capacity to differentiate into a large array of tissues can be explained by its neural crest origin, which supports applications beyond the scope of oral tissues...
February 12, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445893/nestin-expression-is-differently-regulated-between-odontoblasts-and-the-subodontoblastic-layer-in-mice
#8
Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Angela Quispe-Salcedo, Masaka Sakaguchi, Hiroko Ida-Yonemochi, Hideyuki Okano, Hayato Ohshima
The Nestin gene encodes type VI intermediate filament and is known to be expressed in undifferentiated cells during neurogenesis and myogenesis. To regulate Nestin expression, the first or second intron enhancer is activated in a tissue-dependent manner, for example, the former in mesodermal cells and the latter in neural stem cells. Although Nestin has also been used as a differentiation marker for odontoblasts during tooth development, how Nestin expression is regulated in odontoblasts remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the expression patterns of Nestin-GFP (green fluorescent protein) with that of endogenous Nestin in developing teeth of Nestin-EGFP (enhanced GFP) transgenic mice, in which the second intron enhancer is connected with the EGFP domain, at postnatal 7d, 3w, and 8w...
February 14, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434647/the-complex-simplicity-of-the-brittle-star-nervous-system
#9
Olga Zueva, Maleana Khoury, Thomas Heinzeller, Daria Mashanova, Vladimir Mashanov
Background: Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Results: Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433739/stem-cells-seen-through-the-foxo-lens-an-evolving-paradigm
#10
Raymond Liang, Saghi Ghaffari
Stem cells self-renew and differentiate to generate all tissues and cells in the body. Stem cell health promotes adaptive responses to tissue damage or loss and is essential for tissue regeneration with age. In the past decade, the evolutionarily conserved transcription factors FOXO with known functions in promoting healthy aging have emerged as key regulators of stem cell homeostasis in various tissues, including blood, neural, and muscle stem cells. Aberrant FOXO functions have been implicated in a variety of disorders including neurodegenerative, blood, cancer, and diabetes some of which are fostered by abnormal stem cell function...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424522/self-assembled-tetrahedral-dna-nanostructures-promote-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation
#11
Wenjuan Ma, Xiaoru Shao, Dan Zhao, Qianshun Li, Mengting Liu, Tengfei Zhou, Xueping Xie, Chenchen Mao, Yuxin Zhang, Yunfeng Lin
Stem cell-based therapy is considered a promising approach for repair of nervous tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs) cannot proliferate or differentiate efficiently; hence, different biomaterials have been explored to improve NSCs proliferation and differentiation. However, these agents either had low bioavailability or poor biocompatibility. In this work, our group investigated the effects of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs), a novel DNA biological material, on the self-renew and differentiation of neuroectodermal (NE-4C) stem cells...
February 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420785/interaction-of-receptor-type-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-sigma-rptp%C3%AF-with-a-glycosaminoglycan-library
#12
Kouki Tadai, Tatsumasa Shioiri, Jun Tsuchimoto, Naoko Nagai, Hideto Watanabe, Nobuo Sugiura
Receptor type of protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) functions as a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) receptor of neuronal cells in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Both chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) are important constituents of GAG ligands for RPTPσ, although they have opposite effects on neuronal cells. CS inhibits neurite outgrowth and neural regeneration through RPTPσ, whereas HS enhances them. We prepared recombinant RPTPσ N-terminal fragment containing the GAG binding site and various types of biotin-conjugated GAG (CS and HS) with chemical modification and chemo-enzymatic synthesis...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416127/neural-repair-tagging-mrna-drives-regeneration
#13
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411713/using-biomaterials-to-modulate-chemotactic-signaling-for-central-nervous-system-repair
#14
Kassondra Hickey, Sarah E Stabenfeldt
Chemotaxis enables cellular communication and movement within the body. This review focuses on exploiting chemotaxis as a tool for repair of the central nervous system (CNS) damaged from injury and/or degenerative diseases. Chemokines and factors alone may initiate repair following CNS injury/disease, but exogenous administration may enhance repair and promote regeneration. This review will discuss critical chemotactic molecules and factors that may promote neural regeneration. Additionally, this review highlights how biomaterials can impact the presentation and delivery of chemokines and growth factors to alter the regenerative response...
February 7, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411422/wnt-signaling-regulates-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-radial-glia-in-regenerative-processes-after-stab-injury-in-the-optic-tectum-of-adult-zebrafish
#15
Yuki Shimizu, Yuto Ueda, Toshio Ohshima
Zebrafish have superior abilities to generate new neurons in the adult brain and to regenerate brain tissue after brain injury compared with mammals. There exist two types of neural stem cells (NSCs): neuroepithelial-like stem cells (NE) and radial glia (RG) in the optic tectum. We established an optic tectum stab injury model to analyze the function of NSCs in the regenerative condition and confirmed that the injury induced the proliferation of RG, but not NE and that the proliferated RG differentiated into new neurons after the injury...
February 7, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408940/regulation-of-neuritogenesis-in-hippocampal-neurons-using-stiffness-of-extracellular-microenvironment
#16
Aya Tanaka, Yuki Fujii, Nahoko Kasai, Takaharu Okajima, Hiroshi Nakashima
The mechanosensitivity of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is an interesting issue as regards understanding neuronal development and designing compliant materials as neural interfaces between neurons and external devices for treating CNS injuries and disorders. Although neurite initiation from a cell body is known to be the first step towards forming a functional nervous network during development or regeneration, less is known about how the mechanical properties of the extracellular microenvironment affect neuritogenesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408605/nf2-mutation-in-schwann-cells-delays-functional-neural-recovery-following-injury
#17
Kristy Truong, Iram Ahmad, J Jason Clark, Alison Seline, Tyler Bertroche, Brian Mostaert, Douglas J Van Daele, Marlan R Hansen
Merlin is the protein product of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. Germline NF2 mutation leads to neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), characterized by multiple intracranial and spinal schwannomas. Patients with NF2 also frequently develop peripheral neuropathies. While the role of merlin in SC neoplasia is well established, its role in SC homeostasis is less defined. Here we explore the role of merlin in SC responses to nerve injury and their ability to support axon regeneration. We performed sciatic nerve crush in wild type (WT) and in P0SchΔ39-121 transgenic mice that express a dominant negative Nf2 isoform in SCs...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405296/comparative-analysis-of-the-transcriptome-of-injured-nerve-segments-reveals-spatiotemporal-responses-to-neural-damage-in-mice
#18
Jung Eun Shin, Hongseok Ha, Eun Hye Cho, Yoon Ki Kim, Yongcheol Cho
Nerves are particularly vulnerable to damage due to their unique structure with meter-long axons. In the peripheral nervous system neurons and Schwann cells can activate the injury-response program that directs axons to either regenerate or degenerate after traumatic nerve injury. However, the differences between the genetic programs driving nerve regeneration and degeneration have not yet been described extensively. To understand these differences, in this study we have compared the injury-induced transcriptomic changes between the regenerating proximal segment and the degenerating distal segment of a transected nerve, at different post-injury time points...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402798/transplanted-dental-pulp-stem-cells-migrate-to-injured-area-and-express-neural-markers-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#19
Xuemei Zhang, Yinglian Zhou, Hulun Li, Rui Wang, Dan Yang, Bing Li, Xiaofang Cao, Jin Fu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, while effective restorative treatments are limited at present. Stem cell transplantation holds therapeutic potential for ischemic vascular diseases and may provide an opportunity for neural regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) origin from neural crest and have neuro-ectodermal features including proliferation and multilineage differentiation potentials. METHODS: The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to evaluate whether intravenous administration of DPSCs can reduce infarct size and to estimate the migration and trans-differentiation into neuron-like cells in focal cerebral ischemia models...
January 22, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400947/toward-the-development-of-an-artificial-brain-on-a-micropatterned-and-material-regulated-biochip-by-guiding-and-promoting-the-differentiation-and-neurite-outgrowth-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#20
Yung-Chiang Liu, I-Chi Lee, Kin Fong Lei
An in vitro model mimicking the in vivo environment of the brain must be developed to study neural communication and regeneration and to obtain an understanding of cellular and molecular responses. In this work, a multilayered neural network was successfully constructed on a biochip by guiding and promoting neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and network formation. The biochip consisted of 3 × 3 arrays of cultured wells connected with channels. Neurospheroids were cultured on polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films in the culture wells...
February 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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