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Neural regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686468/autonomic-nervous-system-network-and-liver-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Kenya Kamimura, Ryosuke Inoue, Takuro Nagoya, Norihiro Sakai, Ryo Goto, Masayoshi Ko, Yusuke Niwa, Shuji Terai
To date, various signal transducers, cytokines, growth factors, and hormones have been reported to play an important role in homeostasis of various organs. Various cells and organs are involved in the hepatic regeneration process, which proceeds as a result of the coordination of many factors. While these factors are well known to be involved in the liver regeneration after the liver injury, however, as the details of such mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated, the practical applicability of hepatic regeneration based on the action of these and cytokines growth factors is still unclear...
April 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684787/the-body-electric-2-0-recent-advances-in-developmental-bioelectricity-for-regenerative-and-synthetic-bioengineering
#2
REVIEW
Juanita Mathews, Michael Levin
Breakthroughs in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering require predictive, rational control over anatomical structure and function. Recent successes in manipulating cellular and molecular hardware have not been matched by progress in understanding the patterning software implemented during embryogenesis and regeneration. A fundamental capability gap is driving desired changes in growth and form to address birth defects and traumatic injury. Here we review new tools, results, and conceptual advances in an exciting emerging field: endogenous non-neural bioelectric signaling, which enables cellular collectives to make global decisions and implement large-scale pattern homeostasis...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684268/conducting-polymers-for-tissue-engineering
#3
Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma
Electrically conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and their derivatives (mainly aniline oligomer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) with good biocompatibility find wide applications in biomedical fields including bioactuators, biosensors, neural implants, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering scaffolds. This review focuses on these conductive polymers for tissue engineering application. Conductive polymers exhibited promising conductivity as bioactive scaffolds for tissue regeneration and their conductive nature allows cells or tissue cultured on them to be stimulated by electrical signals...
April 23, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677113/growing-neural-pc-12-cell-on-crosslinked-silica-aerogels-increases-neurite-extension-in-the-presence-of-an-electric-field
#4
Kyle J Lynch, Omar Skalli, Firouzeh Sabri
Externally applied electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance the nerve regeneration process and to influence the directionality of neurite outgrowth. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of the substrate used for nerve-cell regeneration is critical in fostering regeneration. Previously, we have shown that polyurea-crosslinked silica aerogels (PCSA) exert a positive influence on the extension of neurites by PC-12 cells, a cell-line model widely used to study neurite extension and electrical excitability...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674963/a-bivalent-securinine-compound-sn3-l6-induces-neuronal-differentiation-via-translational-upregulation-of-neurogenic-transcription-factors
#5
Yumei Liao, Xiaoji Zhuang, Xiaojie Huang, Yinghui Peng, Xuanyue Ma, Zhi-Xing Huang, Feng Liu, Junyu Xu, Ying Wang, Wei-Min Chen, Wen-Cai Ye, Lei Shi
Developing therapeutic approaches that target neuronal differentiation will be greatly beneficial for the regeneration of neurons and synaptic networks in neurological diseases. Protein synthesis (mRNA translation) has recently been shown to regulate neurogenesis of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). However, it has remained unknown whether engineering translational machinery is a valid approach for manipulating neuronal differentiation. The present study identifies that a bivalent securinine compound SN3-L6, previously designed and synthesized by our group, induces potent neuronal differentiation through a novel translation-dependent mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#6
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667617/combination-of-stromal-vascular-fraction-and-ad-comp-ang1-gene-therapy-improves-long-term-therapeutic-efficacy-for-diabetes-induced-erectile-dysfunction
#7
Guo-Nan Yin, Lin Wang, Xiang-Nan Lin, Lei Shi, Zhen-Lin Gao, Feng-Chan Han, Ping Li, Yin-Chuan Jin, Jun-Kyu Suh, Ji-Kan Ryu, Xiong Wang, Hai-Rong Jin
Men with diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) respond poorly to the currently available oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Therefore, functional therapies for diabetic ED are needed. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and the adenovirus-mediated cartilage oligomeric matrix angiopoietin-1 (Ad-COMP-Ang1) gene are known to play critical roles in penile erection. We previously reported that SVF and Ad-COMP-Ang1 have only a short-term effect in restoring erectile function. Further improvements to ED therapy are needed for long-lasting effects...
April 17, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#8
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664414/enhanced-total-neurite-outgrowth-and-secondary-branching-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-elicited-by-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#9
Daniel Michael Ventre, Marissa Puzan, Emily Ashbolt, Abigail Koppes
OBJECTIVE: Despite the prevalence of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), challenges remain in restoring full functionality to those afflicted. For recovery to occur, axons must extend across the injury site to connect with distal targets, where injury gap size is a critical factor in the probability of restoration of function. Current clinical therapies often achieve limited neural regeneration, motivating the development of new therapeutic interventions such as biophysical stimulation. APPROACH: To investigate the potential for low intensity, pulsed ultrasonic simulation (LIPUS) to impact peripheral nerve regeneration, primary neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were examined in vitro in response to ultrasound (US)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663842/mir-7-inhibited-peripheral-nerve-injury-repair-by-affecting-neural-stem-cells-migration-and-proliferation-through-cdc42
#10
Nan Zhou, Shuang Hao, Zongqiang Huang, Weiwei Wang, Penghui Yan, Wei Zhou, Qihang Zhu, Xiaokang Liu
Objective Neural stem cells play an important role in the recovery and regeneration of peripheral nerve injury, and the microRNA-7 (miR-7) regulates differentiation of neural stem cells. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-7 in neural stem cells homing and proliferation and its influence on peripheral nerve injury repair. Methods The mice model of peripheral nerve injury was created by segmental sciatic nerve defect (sciatic nerve injury), and neural stem cells treatment was performed with a gelatin hydrogel conduit containing neural stem cells inserted into the sciatic nerve injury mice...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660252/encapsulated-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-fate-is-dependent-on-pdgf-aa-release-kinetics-in-a-3d-microparticle-hydrogel-drug-delivery-system
#11
Meghan R Pinezich, Lauren N Russell, Nicholas P Murphy, Kyle J Lampe
Biomaterial drug delivery systems (DDS) can be used to regulate growth factor release and combat the limited intrinsic regeneration capabilities of central nervous system (CNS) tissue following injury and disease. Of particular interest are systems that aid in oligodendrocyte regeneration, as oligodendrocytes generate myelin which surrounds neuronal axons and helps transmit signals throughout the CNS. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are found in small numbers in the adult CNS, but are unable to effectively differentiate following CNS injury...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652609/an-optimized-collagen-fibrin-blend-engineered-neural-tissue-promotes-peripheral-nerve-repair
#12
Christina Maria Anna Pia Schuh, Adam George Edward Day, Heinz Redl, James Phillips
Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration often aim to improve results by bridging nerve defects with conduits that mimic key features of the nerve autograft. One such approach uses Schwann cell self-alignment and stabilisation within collagen gels to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT). Here we investigated whether a novel blend of fibrin and collagen could be used to form EngNT, as prior to EngNT design a beneficial effect of fibrin on Schwann cell proliferation was observed. A range of blend formulations was tested in terms of mechanical behavior (gel formation, stabilisation, swelling, tensile strength and stiffness) and lead formulations were assessed in vitro...
March 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649641/hydrogel-derived-from-porcine-decellularized-nerve-tissue-as-a-promising-biomaterial-for-repairing-peripheral-nerve-defects
#13
Tao Lin, Sheng Liu, Shihao Chen, Shuai Qiu, Zilong Rao, Jianghui Liu, Shuang Zhu, Liwei Yan, Haiquan Mao, Qingtang Zhu, Daping Quan, Xiaolin Liu
Decellularized matrix hydrogels derived from tissues or organs have been used for tissue repair due to their biocompatibility, tunability, and tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, the preparation of decellularized peripheral nerve matrix hydrogels and their use to repair nerve defects have not been reported. Here, we developed a hydrogel from porcine decellularized nerve matrix (pDNM-G), which was confirmed to have minimal DNA content and retain collagen and glycosaminoglycans content, thereby allowing gelatinization...
April 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649632/identification-of-runt-family-genes-involved-in-planarian-regeneration-and-tissue-homeostasis
#14
Zimei Dong, Yibo Yang, Guangwen Chen, Dezeng Liu
The runt family genes play important roles in physiological processes in eukaryotic organisms by regulation of protein transcription, such as hematopoietic system, proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and neural development. However, it remains unclear about the specific functions of these genes. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of two runt genes are first cloned from Dugesia japonica, and their roles are investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results show that: (1) the Djrunts are conserved during evolution; (2) the Djrunts mRNA are widely expressed in intact and regenerative worms, and their expression levels are up-regulated significantly on day 1 after amputation; (3) loss of Djrunts function lead to lysis or regeneration failure in the intact and regenerating worms...
April 9, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649499/the-spinal-ependymal-zone-as-a-source-of-endogenous-repair-cells-across-vertebrates
#15
REVIEW
Catherina G Becker, Thomas Becker, Jean-Philippe Hugnot
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of neurons and axonal connections. In mammals, including humans, this loss is permanent, but is repaired in other vertebrates, such as salamanders and fishes. Cells in the ependymal niche play a pivotal role for the outcome after injury. These cells initiate proliferation and generate new neurons of different types in regenerating species, but only glial cells, contributing to the glial scar, in mammals. Here we compare the cellular and molecular properties of ependymal zone cells and their environment across vertebrate classes...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627682/electrically-polarized-plla-nanofibers-as-neural-tissue-engineering-scaffolds-with-improved-neuritogenesis
#16
Nathalie Barroca, Ana Marote, Sandra I Vieira, Abílio Almeida, Maria H V Fernandes, Paula M Vilarinho, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Tissue engineering is evolving towards the production of smart platforms exhibiting stimulatory cues to guide tissue regeneration. This work explores the benefits of electrical polarization to produce more efficient neural tissue engineering platforms. Poly (l-lactic) acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds were prepared as solvent cast films and electrospun aligned nanofibers, and electrically polarized by an in-lab built corona poling device. The characterization of the platforms by thermally stimulated depolarization currents reveals a polarization of 60 × 10-10 C cm-2 that is stable on poled electrospun nanofibers for up to 6 months...
March 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623926/the-protocadherin-alpha-cluster-is-required-for-axon-extension-and-myelination-in-the-developing-central-nervous-system
#17
Wen-Cheng Lu, Yu-Xiao Zhou, Ping Qiao, Jin Zheng, Qiang Wu, Qiang Shen
In adult mammals, axon regeneration after central nervous system injury is very poor, resulting in persistent functional loss. Enhancing the ability of axonal outgrowth may be a potential treatment strategy because mature neurons of the adult central nervous system may retain the intrinsic ability to regrow axons after injury. The protocadherin (Pcdh) clusters are thought to function in neuronal morphogenesis and in the assembly of neural circuitry in the brain. We cultured primary hippocampal neurons from E17...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623916/roles-of-neural-regeneration-in-memory-pharmacology
#18
Miao-Kun Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615798/aligned-laminin-core-polydioxanone-collagen-shell-fiber-matrices-effective-for-neuritogenesis
#19
Su-Jin Song, Yong Cheol Shin, Sung Eun Kim, Il Keun Kwon, Jong-Ho Lee, Suong-Hyu Hyon, Dong-Wook Han, Bongju Kim
Neural tissue regeneration is a significant challenge, because severe nerve injury is quite difficult to regenerate spontaneously. Although, many studies have been devoted to promote nerve regeneration, there are still many technical challenges to achieve satisfactory results. In this study, we designed biomimetic matrices composed of aligned laminin core-polydioxanone/collagen shell (Lam-PDO/Col) fibers, which can provide both topographical and biochemical cues for promoting neuritogenesis. The aligned Lam-PDO/Col core-shell fiber matrices were fabricated by magnetic field-assisted electrospinning with the coaxial system, and their potential as biofunctional scaffolds for promoting neuritogenesis was explored...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615517/the-nociceptin-receptor-inhibits-axonal-regeneration-and-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Yuichi Sekine, Chad S Siegel, Tomoko Sekine-Konno, William B J Cafferty, Stephen M Strittmatter
Axonal growth after traumatic spinal cord injury is limited by endogenous inhibitors, selective blockade of which promotes partial neurological recovery. The partial repair phenotypes suggest that compensatory pathways limit improvement. Gene expression profiles of mice deficient in Ngr1 , which encodes a receptor for myelin-associated inhibitors of axonal regeneration such as Nogo, revealed that trauma increased the mRNA expression of ORL1 , which encodes the receptor for the opioid-related peptide nociceptin...
April 3, 2018: Science Signaling
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