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Neural regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046917/effects-of-an-injectable-functionalized-self-assembling-nanopeptide-hydrogel-on-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis-for-regeneration-of-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Tzu-Wei Wang, Kai-Chieh Chang, Liang-Hsin Chen, Shih-Yung Liao, Chia-Wei Yeh, Yung-Jen Chuang
Brain injury is a devastating medical condition and represents a major health problem. Tissue and organ reconstruction have been regarded as promising therapeutic strategies. Here, we propose a regenerative methodology focusing on the provision of functionalized nanopeptide scaffolds to facilitate angiogenesis and neurogenesis at the brain injury site. The peptide RADA16-SVVYGLR undergoes self-assembly to construct an interconnected network with intertwining nanofibers, and can be controlled to display various physicochemical properties by the adjustment of microenvironmental factors such as pH and ion concentration...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030146/salamander-spinal-cord-regeneration-the-ultimate-positive-control-in-vertebrate-spinal-cord-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Akira Tazaki, Elly M Tanaka, Jifeng Fei
Repairing injured tissues / organs is one of the major challenges for the maintenance of proper organ function in adulthood. In mammals, the central nervous system including the spinal cord, once established during embryonic development, has very limited capacity to regenerate. In contrast, salamanders such as axolotls can fully regenerate the injured spinal cord, making this a very powerful vertebrate model system for studying this process. Here we discuss the cellular and molecular requirements for spinal cord regeneration in the axolotl...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030050/neural-regeneration-a-century-after-ram%C3%A3-n-y-cajal-s-decree
#3
EDITORIAL
José J Otero
This Guest Editorial introduces this month’s special Neural Regeneration Theme Issue, a series of reviews intended to highlight the advances in modern neuroscience as well as to depict the chasms in our understanding of the brain.
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029631/neurotrophic-support-by-traumatized-muscle-derived-multipotent-progenitor-cells-role-of-endothelial-cells-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a
#4
Heidi R H Zupanc, Peter G Alexander, Rocky S Tuan
BACKGROUND: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to increase nerve regeneration in animal models of nerve injury. Traumatized muscle-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) share important characteristics with MSCs and are isolated from severely damaged muscle tissue following surgical debridement. Previous investigations have shown that MPCs may be induced to increase production of several neurotrophic factors, suggesting the possible utility of autologous MPCs in peripheral nerve regeneration following injury...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025656/dual-delivery-of-vegf-and-ngf-by-emulsion-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#5
Bin Xia, Yonggang Lv
Controlled delivery of multiple therapeutic agents can be considered an effective approach in nerve injury due to its multifunction. In this study, recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and recombinant human nerve growth factor (NGF) were loaded on the surface and in the core of emulsion electrospun poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffold, respectively. The in vitro studies showed that VEGF and NGF had a sequential release pattern in which most of the VEFG was released in the first few days but the NGF could be continuously released for >1month...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022921/current-progress-in-the-derivation-and-therapeutic-application-of-neural-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Yuewen Tang, Pei Yu, Lin Cheng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have a unique role in neural regeneration. Cell therapy based on NSC transplantation is a promising tool for the treatment of nervous system diseases. However, there are still many issues and controversies associated with the derivation and therapeutic application of these cells. In this review, we summarize the different sources of NSCs and their derivation methods, including direct isolation from primary tissues, differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and transdifferentiation from somatic cells...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022261/the-non-cardiomyocyte-cells-of-the-heart-their-possible-roles-in-exercise-induced-cardiac-regeneration-and-remodeling
#7
Ivan Varga, Jan Kyselovič, Paulina Galfiova, Lubos Danisovic
The non-cardiomyocyte cellular microenvironment of the heart includes diverse types of cells of mesenchymal origin. During development, the majority of these cells derive from the epicardium, while a subset derives from the endothelium/endocardium and neural crest derived mesenchyme. This subset includes cardiac fibroblasts and telocytes, the latter of which are a controversial type of "connecting cell" that support resident cardiac progenitors in the postnatal heart. Smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and endothelial cells are also present, in addition to adipocytes, which accumulate as epicardial adipose connective tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993834/ipsc-derived-neural-precursor-cells-potential-for-cell-transplantation-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury
#8
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
A number of studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the NPCs had been mostly harvested from embryonic stem cells or fetal tissue, raising the ethical concern. Yamanaka and his colleagues established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) which could be generated from somatic cells, and this innovative development has made rapid progression in the field of SCI regeneration. We and other groups succeeded in producing NPCs from iPSCs, and demonstrated beneficial effects after transplantation for animal models of SCI...
October 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990762/multichanneled-nerve-guidance-conduit-with-spatial-gradients-of-neurotrophic-factors-and-oriented-nanotopography-for-repairing-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#9
Yo-Cheng Chang, Ming-Hong Chen, Shih-Yung Liao, Hsi-Chin Wu, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Jui-Sheng Sun, Tzu-Wei Wang
Peripheral nerve injuries, causing sensory and motor impairment, affect a great number of patients annually. It is therefore important to incorporate different strategies to promote nerve healing. Among the treatment options, however, the efficacy of nerve conduits is often compromised by their lack of living cells, insufficient growth factors, and absence of the extracellular matrix (ECM)-like structure. To improve the functional recovery, we aimed to develop a natural biodegradable multichanneled scaffold characterized with aligned electrospun nanofibers and neurotrophic gradient (MC/AN/NG) to guide axon outgrowth...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986946/effect-of-decellularized-spinal-scaffolds-on-spinal-axon-regeneration-in-rats
#10
Junyi Zhu, Yingfeng Lu, Fangzheng Yu, Lebin Zhou, Jiawei Shi, Qihui Chen, Weili Ding, Xin Wen, Yu-Qiang Ding, Jin Mei, Jian Wang
A series of complex influencing factors lead to failure of neural regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Up to now, there is no robust treatment that can restore the loss of function caused by injury. Because damaged spinal axons do not spontaneously regenerate in their naturally inhibitory microenvironments, biomaterials that induce neural regeneration to appear as attractive treatments to improve the microenvironmental conditions after SCI. In this study, we report the novel use of decellularized (DC) scaffolds to provide contact guidance for axonal regrowth in vivo...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986688/unconventional-myosin-id-is-involved-in-remyelination-after-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#11
Reiji Yamazaki, Hiroko Baba, Yoshihide Yamaguchi
Myelin, which is a multilamellar structure that sheathes the axon, is essential for normal neuronal function. In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes (OLs), which wrap their plasma membrane around axons. The dynamic membrane trafficking system, which relies on motor proteins, is required for myelin formation and maintenance. Previously, we reported that myosin ID (Myo1d) is distributed in rat CNS myelin and is especially enriched in the outer and inner cytoplasm-containing loops...
October 6, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981095/rtn1-c-mediates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-er-stress-and-mitochondria-associated-apoptosis-pathways
#12
Lingli Gong, Yuewen Tang, Ran An, Muya Lin, Lijian Chen, Jian Du
The reticulon family has been found to induce apoptosis, inhibit axon regeneration and regulate protein trafficking. However, little is known about the mechanisms of how reticulon proteins are involved in neuronal death-promoting processes during ischemia. Here, we report that the expression of Reticulon Protein 1-C (RTN1-C) was associated with the progression of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Using a combination of rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke and oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R) models, we determined that the expression of RTN1-C was significantly increased during cerebral ischemic/reperfusion...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980312/neural-stem-progenitor-cells-are-activated-during-tail-regeneration-in-the-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius
#13
Eab Gilbert, M K Vickaryous
As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980161/sciatic-nerve-regeneration-by-transplantation-of-menstrual-blood-derived-stem-cells
#14
Saeed Farzamfar, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Alireza Ghanavatinejad, Ahmad Vaez, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Majid Salehi
This is the first study demonstrating the efficacy of menstrual blood-derived stem cell (MenSC) transplantation via a neural guidance conduit, for peripheral nerve regeneration. The synthesized poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/Gelatin conduit, filled with collagen type I and seeded with 3 × 10(4) MenSCs, was implanted into a rat's 10 mm sciatic nerve defect. The results of hot plate latency, sciatic functional index and weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that the MenSC transplantation had comparable nerve regeneration outcome to autograft, as the gold standard of nerve bridging...
October 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977718/sustained-cell-body-reactivity-and-loss-of-neun-in-a-subset-of-axotomized-bulbospinal-neurons-after-a-chronic-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Fannie Darlot, Stéphane Vinit, Valéry Matarazzo, Anne Kastner
Following central nervous system lesion, the ability of injured axons to regrowth may depend on the level and duration of the injured cell body response (CBR). Therefore, in order to investigate whether axotomized brainstem neurons maintain a durable growth-competent state after spinal cord injury, we studied the effect of a chronic C2 hemisection in rats on the expression of various CBR markers involved in axon regeneration, such as c-Jun, ATF-3, HSP27, NO synthase (NOS), and also of the neural mature phenotype marker NeuN, in the bulbospinal respiratory neurons as compared to the Gigantocellularis nucleus...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975768/a-physicochemically-optimized-and-neuroconductive-biphasic-nerve-guidance-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#16
Alan J Ryan, William A Lackington, Alan J Hibbitts, Austyn Matheson, Tijna Alekseeva, Anna Stejskalova, Phoebe Roche, Fergal J O'Brien
Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates...
October 4, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967299/a-new-electrospun-graphene-silk-fibroin-composite-scaffolds-for-guiding-schwann-cells
#17
Yahong Zhao, Jiahuan Gong, Changmei Niu, Ziwei Wei, Jiaqi Shi, Guohui Li, Yumin Yang, Hongbo Wang
Graphene (Gr) has been made of various forms used for repairing peripheral nerve injury with favorable electroactivity, however, graphene-based scaffolds in peripheral nerve regeneration are still rarely reported due to the difficulty of realizing uniform dispersion of graphene and electroactive materials at nanoscale as well as lacking biocompatibility. In this paper, graphene-silk fibroin (SF) composite nanofiber membranes with different mass ratios were prepared via electrospinning. Microscopic observation revealed that electrospun Gr/SF membranes had a nanofibrous structure...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966633/transcriptional-inhibition-in-schwann-cell-development-and-nerve-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
Susanne Quintes, Bastian G Brinkmann
Schwann cells, the myelinating glial cells of the peripheral nervous system are remarkably plastic after nerve trauma. Their transdifferentiation into specialized repair cells after injury shares some features with their development from the neural crest. Both processes are governed by a tightly regulated balance between activators and inhibitors to ensure timely lineage progression and allow re-maturation after nerve injury. Functional recovery after injury is very successful in rodents, however, in humans, lack of regeneration after nerve trauma and loss of function as the result of peripheral neuropathies represents a significant problem...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966628/optogenetics-and-its-application-in-neural-degeneration-and-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Josue D Ordaz, Wei Wu, Xiao-Ming Xu
Neural degeneration and regeneration are important topics in neurological diseases. There are limited options for therapeutic interventions in neurological diseases that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal control of neurons. This drawback increases side effects due to non-specific targeting. Optogenetics is a technology that allows precise spatial and temporal control of cells. Therefore, this technique has high potential as a therapeutic strategy for neurological diseases. Even though the application of optogenetics in understanding brain functional organization and complex behaviour states have been elaborated, reviews of its therapeutic potential especially in neurodegeneration and regeneration are still limited...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965180/effects-of-aspirin-and-clopidogrel-on-neural-stem-cells
#20
Mina Hwang, Hyun-Hee Park, Hojin Choi, Kyu-Yong Lee, Young Joo Lee, Seong-Ho Koh
Cerebral infarction causes severe morbidity and mortality. Most patients with cerebral infarction should take antiplatelet drugs daily, so the effects of those drugs on the regeneration of the brain need to be investigated. Aspirin and clopidogrel are the most widely used antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of ischemic stroke. We investigated the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel on neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs were dissociated from fetal rat cortex and cultured with basic fibroblast growth factor and N2 medium...
September 30, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
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