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Neural regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823058/polyurethane-gelatin-nanofibrils-neural-guidance-conduit-containing-platelet-rich-plasma-and-melatonin-for-transplantation-of-schwann-cells
#1
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Arash Khojasteh, Saeed Farzamfar, Korosh Mansouri, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit as a carrier to transplant allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was prepared from polyurethane (PU) and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) using thermally induced phase separation technique and filled with melatonin (MLT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The prepared conduit had the porosity of 87.17 ± 1.89%, the contact angle of 78.17 ± 5.30° and the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of 5...
August 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821138/biocompatible-chitin-carbon-nanotubes-composite-hydrogels-as-neuronal-growth-substrates
#2
Shuangquan Wu, Bo Duan, Ang Lu, Yanfeng Wang, Qifa Ye, Lina Zhang
In the past decades, extensive studies have demonstrated that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could promote cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of neuronal cells. However, the potential cytotoxicity in biological systems severely restricted the utilization of CNTs as substrates for neural growth. In this study, biocompatible chitin/carbon nanotubes (Ch/CNT) composite hydrogels were developed via blending modified CNTs with chitin solution in 11wt% NaOH/4wt% urea aqueous system, and subsequently regenerating in ethanol...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816099/sex-differences-of-steroid-receptor-coactivator-1-expression-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#3
Jiayu Xiao, Jiqiang Zhang, Yangang Zhao, Wenjie Huang, Zhikai Guo, Bingyin Su, Qiang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The neural functional recovery of female is often better than that of male after spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidences show that estrogen can attenuate inflammation and promote the neural survival and regeneration after SCI. SRC-1 is an essential initiation factor for the estrogen-regulated target gene transcription and plays a key role in regulating estrogen activity. However, it is not known whether and how SRC-1 mediates the neural regeneration promoted by estrogen after SCI...
August 17, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814279/musashi-1-is-the-candidate-of-the-regulator-of-hair-cell-progenitors-during-inner-ear-regeneration
#4
Takahiro Wakasaki, Hiroaki Niiro, Siamak Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Mitsuru Ohashi, Takashi Kimitsuki, Takashi Nakagawa, Shizuo Komune, Koichi Akashi
BACKGROUND: Hair cell loss in the cochlea is caused by ototoxic drugs, aging, and environmental stresses and could potentially lead to devastating pathophysiological effects. In adult mammals, hair cell loss is irreversible and may result in hearing and balance deficits. In contrast, nonmammalian vertebrates, including birds, can regenerate hair cells through differentiation of supporting cells and restore inner ear function, suggesting that hair cell progenitors are present in the population of supporting cells...
August 16, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807895/the-mir-124-family-of-micrornas-is-critical-for-regeneration-of-the-brain-and-visual-system-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#5
Sasidharan Vidyanand, Srujan Marepally, Sarah A Elliott, Srishti Baid, Vairavan Lakshmanan, Nishtha Nayyar, Dhiru Bansal, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado, Praveen Kumar Vemula, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
Brain regeneration in planarians is mediated by precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression and is critical for multiple aspects of neurogenesis. However, the mechanisms underpinning the gene regulation essential for brain regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the miR-124 family of microRNAs in planarian brain regeneration. The miR-124 family (miR-124) is highly conserved in animals and it regulates neurogenesis by facilitating neural differentiation. Yet, its role in neural wiring and brain organization is not known...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807156/metabolic-factors-and-adult-neurogenesis-impacts-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-brain-repair-in-neurological-diseases
#6
Chong Gao, Jiangang Shen
Adult neurogenesis plays the important roles in animal cognitive and emotional behaviors. Abnormal proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) usually associate with the neural dysfunctions induced by different brain disorders. Therefore, targeting neurogenic factors could be a promoting strategy for neural regeneration and brain repair. Importantly, epidemiological studies suggest metabolism disorders like diabetes and obesity significantly increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric diseases...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#7
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801522/vascular-niche-contribution-to-age-associated-neural-stem-cell-dysfunction
#8
Deana Marie Apple, Erzsebet Kokovay
Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist throughout life in the dentate gyrus and the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), where they continuously provide new neurons and some glia. These cells are found in specialized niches that regulate quiescence, activation, differentiation, and cell fate choice. A key aspect of the regulatory niche is the vascular plexus, which modulates NSC behavior during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. During aging, NSCs become depleted and dysfunctional, resulting in reduced neurogenesis and poor brain repair...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781092/properties-of-dental-pulp-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-effects-of-culture-conditions
#9
Nobuyuki Kawashima, Sonoko Noda, Mioko Yamamoto, Takashi Okiji
Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) highly express mesenchymal stem cell markers and possess the potential to differentiate into neural cells, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Thus, DPMSCs are considered suitable for tissue regeneration. The colony isolation method has commonly been used to collect relatively large amounts of heterogeneous DPMSCs. Homogenous DPMSCs can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using antibodies against mesenchymal stem cell markers, although this method yields a limited number of cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781091/dental-pulp-stem-cells-their-potential-in-reinnervation-and-angiogenesis-by-using-scaffolds
#10
Ivo Lambrichts, Ronald B Driesen, Yörg Dillen, Pascal Gervois, Jessica Ratajczak, Tim Vangansewinkel, Esther Wolfs, Annelies Bronckaers, Petra Hilkens
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized and innervated tissue containing a heterogeneous stem cell population with multilineage differentiation potential. Current endodontic treatments focus on the preservation of the pulp tissue and the regeneration of dental pulp after pathological insults. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are currently investigated as stem cell-based therapy for pulp regeneration and for peripheral nerve injury in which neurons and Schwann cells display limited regenerative capacity. We have developed a neuronal differentiation protocol for hDPSCs that requires neurosphere formation before neuronal maturation...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780695/quantitative-multimodal-evaluation-of-passaging-human-neural-crest-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#11
Jian Du, Huanwen Chen, Kailiang Zhou, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve injury is a major burden to societies worldwide, however, current therapy options (e.g. autologous nerve grafts) are unable to produce satisfactory outcomes. Many studies have shown that stem cell transplantation holds great potential for peripheral nerve repair, and human neural crest stem cells (hNCSCs), which give rise to a variety of tissues in the peripheral nervous system, are particularly promising. NCSCs are one of the best candidates for clinical translation, however, to ensure the viability and quality of NCSCs for research and clinical use, the effect of in vitro cell passaging on therapeutic effects needs be evaluated given that passaging is required to expand NCSCs to meet the demands of transplantation in preclinical research and clinical trials...
August 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771534/neural-stem-cell-mediated-recovery-is-enhanced-by-chondroitinase-abc-pretreatment-in-chronic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Hidenori Suzuki, Christopher S Ahuja, Ryan P Salewski, Lijun Li, Kajana Satkunendrarajah, Narihito Nagoshi, Shinsuke Shibata, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) affect millions of people worldwide; the majority of whom are in the chronic phase of their injury. Unfortunately, most current treatments target the acute/subacute injury phase as the microenvironment of chronically injured cord consists of a well-established glial scar with inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) which acts as a potent barrier to regeneration. It has been shown that CSPGs can be degraded in vivo by intrathecal Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to produce a more permissive environment for regeneration by endogenous cells or transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subacute phase of injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766845/neural-stem-cell-therapy-aiming-at-better-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
REVIEW
Yicheng Zhu, Naohiro Uezono, Tetsuro Yasui, Kinichi Nakashima
Injury to the spinal cord causes transection of axon fibers and neural cell death, resulting in disruption of the neural network and severe functional loss. Reconstruction of the damaged neural circuits was once considered to be hopeless as the adult mammalian central nervous system has very poor ability to regenerate. For this reason, there is currently no effective therapeutic treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, with recent developments in stem cell research and cell culture technology, regenerative therapy using neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has rapidly been developed, and this therapeutic strategy makes it possible to rebuild the destroyed neural circuits...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762648/directed-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-to-neural-crest-stem-cells-functional-peripheral-neurons-and-corneal-keratocytes
#14
Qian Zhu, Mingming Li, Chuan Yan, Qiqi Lu, Shunhui Wei, Rong Gao, Mengfei Yu, Yu Zou, Gopu Sriram, Huei Jinn Tong, Walter Hunziker, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne, Zhiyuan Gong, Bjorn R Olsen, Tong Cao
Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are a transient and multipotent cell population giving rise to various cell types with clinical importance. Isolation of human NCSCs is extremely challenging that limits our knowledge about neural crest development and application. Here, we present a defined protocol to efficiently direct human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to NCSCs and multiple neural crest lineages. A unique combination of small molecule inhibitors and growth factors was employed to generate NCSCs from hESCs through a neuroectoderm stage...
August 1, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754648/microtopographical-cues-promote-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-via-transient-mtorc2-activation
#15
Suzanne E Thomson, Chloe Charalambous, Carol-Anne Smith, Penelope M Tsimbouri, Theophile Déjardin, Paul J Kingham, Andrew M Hart, Mathis O Riehle
Despite microsurgical repair, recovery of function following peripheral nerve injury is slow and often incomplete. Outcomes could be improved by an increased understanding of the molecular biology of regeneration and by translation of experimental bioengineering strategies. Topographical cues have been shown to be powerful regulators of the rate and directionality of neurite regeneration, and in this study we investigated the downstream molecular effects of linear micropatterned structures in an organotypic explant model...
July 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754612/differentiation-potential-of-human-cd133-positive-hematopoietic-stem-cells-into-motor-neuron-like-cells-in-vitro
#16
Sepideh Alavi Moghaddam, Behnam Yousefi, Davood Sanooghi, Faezeh Faghihi, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Nikoo Bana, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Paria Pooyan, Babak Arjmand
Spinal cord injuries and motor neuron-related disorders impact on life of many patients around the world. Since pharmacotherapy and surgical approaches were not efficient to regenerate these types of defects; stem cell therapy as a good strategy to restore the lost cells has become the focus of interest among the scientists. Umbilical cord blood CD133(+) hematopoietic stem cells (UCB- CD133(+) HSCs) with self- renewal property and neural lineage differentiation capacity are ethically approved cell candidate for use in regenerative medicine...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753740/photopolymerized-micropatterns-with-high-feature-frequencies-overcome-chemorepulsive-borders-to-direct-neurite-growth
#17
Bradley W Tuft, Linjing Xu, Braden Leigh, Daniel Lee, C Allan Guymon, Marlan R Hansen
Developing and regenerating neurites respond to a variety of biophysical and biochemical cues in their microenvironment to reach target cells and establish appropriate synapses. Defining the hierarchal relationship of both types of cues to direct neurite growth carries broad significance for neural development, regeneration, and, in particular, engineering of neural prostheses that improve tissue integration with native neural networks. In this work, chemorepulsive biochemical borders are established on substrates with a range of surface microfeatures to determine the potential of physical cues to overcome conflicting biochemical cues...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753439/quo-vadis-tracing-the-fate-of-neural-crest-cells
#18
REVIEW
Luis Zurkirchen, Lukas Sommer
The neural crest is a transient structure in vertebrate embryos that produces migratory cells with an astonishing developmental potential. While neural crest fate maps have originally been established through interspecies transplantation assays, dye labeling, and retroviral infection, more recent methods rely on approaches involving transgenesis and genome editing. These technologies allowed the identification of minor neural crest-derived cell populations in tissues of non-neural crest origin. Furthermore, in vivo multipotency at the single cell level and stage-dependent fate acquisitions were demonstrated using genetic technologies...
July 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751711/evidence-linking-microrna-suppression-of-essential-prosurvival-genes-with-hippocampal-cell-death-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Deborah Kennedy Boone, Harris A Weisz, Min Bi, Michael T Falduto, Karen E O Torres, Hannah E Willey, Christina M Volsko, Anjali M Kumar, Maria-Adelaide Micci, Douglas S Dewitt, Donald S Prough, Helen L Hellmich
The underlying molecular mechanisms of how dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) cause neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain elusive. Here we analyzed the biological roles of approximately 600 genes - we previously found these dysregulated in dying and surviving rat hippocampal neurons - that are targeted by ten TBI-altered miRNAs. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that neurodegeneration results from a global miRNA-mediated suppression of genes essential for maintaining proteostasis; many are hub genes - involved in RNA processing, cytoskeletal metabolism, intracellular trafficking, cell cycle progression, repair/maintenance, bioenergetics and cell-cell signaling - whose disrupted expression is linked to human disease...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751200/gene-regulation-in-adult-neural-stem-cells-current-challenges-and-possible-applications
#20
Juan Manuel Encinas, Carlos P Fitzsimons
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) offer a unique opportunity for neural regeneration and niche modification in physiopathological conditions, harnessing the capability to modify from neuronal circuits to glial scar. Findings exposing the vast plasticity and potential of NSPCs have accumulated over the past years and we currently know that adult NSPCs can naturally give rise not only to neurons but also to astrocytes and reactive astrocytes, and eventually to oligodendrocytes through genetic manipulation...
July 25, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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