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Neural regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545516/improving-the-regenerative-potential-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-by-overexpressing-prostacyclin-synthetase-and-its-application-in-spinal-cord-repair
#1
May-Jywan Tsai, Chi-Ting Huang, Yong-San Huang, Ching-Feng Weng, Song-Kun Shyue, Ming-Chao Huang, Dann-Ying Liou, Yan-Ru Lin, Chu-Hsun Cheng, Huai-Sheng Kuo, Yilo Lin, Meng-Jen Lee, Wen-Hung Huang, Wen-Cheng Huang, Henrich Cheng
BACKGROUND: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), specialized glia that ensheathe bundles of olfactory nerves, have been reported as a favorable substrate for axonal regeneration. Grafting OEC to injured spinal cord appears to facilitate axonal regeneration although the functional recovery is limited. In an attempt to improve the growth-promoting properties of OEC, we transduced prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) to OEC via adenoviral (Ad) gene transfer and examined the effect of OEC with enhanced prostacyclin synthesis in co-culture and in vivo...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544974/cetuximab-modified-collagen-scaffold-directs-neurogenesis-of-injury-activated-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#2
Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Sufang Han, Muya Shu, Bing Chen, Xuyi Chen, Fengwu Tang, Nuo Wang, Yue Tu, Bin Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Studies have shown that endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) activated by spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily generate astrocytes to form glial scar. The NSCs do not differentiate into neurons because of the adverse microenvironment. In this study, we defined the activation timeline of endogenous NSCs in rats with severe SCI. These injury-activated NSCs then migrated into the lesion site. Cetuximab, an EGFR signaling antagonist, significantly increased neurogenesis in the lesion site. Meanwhile, implanting cetuximab modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) into SCI lesion sites in dogs resulted in neuronal regeneration, including neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelination, and synapse formation...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542923/the-polysialic-acid-mimetics-idarubicin-and-irinotecan-stimulate-neuronal-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth-and-signal-via-protein-kinase-c
#3
Gabriele Loers, Steven Astafiev, Yuliya Hapiak, Vedangana Saini, Bibhudatta Mishra, Sheraz Gul, Gurcharan Kaur, Melitta Schachner, Thomas Theis
Polysialic acid (PSA) is a large, negatively charged, linear homopolymer of alpha2-8-linked sialic acid residues. It is generated by two polysialyltransferases and attached to N- and/or O-linked glycans, and its main carrier is the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. PSA controls the development and regeneration of the nervous system by enhancing cell migration, axon pathfinding, synaptic targeting, synaptic plasticity, by regulating the differentiation of progenitor cells and by modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540772/management-of-glaucoma-as-a-neurodegenerative-disease
#4
Gurjeet Jutley, Sheila Mh Luk, Mohammad H Dehabadi, M Francesca Cordeiro
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease with an estimated prevalence of 60 million people, and the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The mainstay of treatment has been aimed at lowering intraocular pressure, currently the only modifiable risk factor. Unfortunately, despite adequate pressure control, many patients go on to suffer irreversible visual loss. We first briefly examine currently established intraocular pressure lowering-treatments, with a discussion of their roles in neuroprotection as demonstrated by both animal and clinical studies...
April 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540228/research-in-pharmacotherapy-for-erectile-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Ji-Kan Ryu, Jun-Kyu Suh, Arthur L Burnett
Although oral phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors are generally accepted as an effective therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED), men with ED from diabetes or radical prostatectomy respond poorly to these drugs. Many researchers have tried to develop novel therapeutics that target alternative molecular pathways. A group of therapeutics belongs to centrally acting agents that target dopamine and melanocortin receptors. The other one is the peripherally acting agents that target soluble guanylate cyclase, Rho-kinase pathway, and Maxi-K channel, etc...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536368/implications-of-a-multi-step-trigger-of-retinal-regeneration-in-the-adult-newt
#6
Hirofumi Yasumuro, Keisuke Sakurai, Fubito Toyama, Fumiaki Maruo, Chikafumi Chiba
The newt is an amazing four-limbed vertebrate that can regenerate various body parts including the retina. In this animal, when the neural retina (NR) is removed from the eye by surgery (retinectomy), both the NR and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) eventually regenerate through the process of reprogramming and proliferation of RPE cells. Thus far, we have pursued the onset mechanism of adult newt retinal regeneration. In this study, using an in vitro system, we found that both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK and β-catenin were involved in cell cycle re-entry of RPE cells...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532008/biomaterials-and-cells-for-neural-tissue-engineering-current-choices
#7
REVIEW
Prerana Sensharma, G Madhumathi, Rahul D Jayant, Amit K Jaiswal
The treatment of nerve injuries has taken a new dimension with the development of tissue engineering techniques. Prior to tissue engineering, suturing and surgery were the only options for effective treatment. With the advent of tissue engineering, it is now possible to design a scaffold that matches the exact biological and mechanical properties of the tissue. This has led to substantial reduction in the complications posed by surgeries and suturing to the patients. New synthetic and natural polymers are being applied to test their efficiency in generating an ideal scaffold...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528968/amylin-and-its-g-protein-coupled-receptor-a-probable-pathological-process-and-drug-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Wei Qiao Qiu
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are shown to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, because GPCRs include a large family of membrane receptors, it is unclear which specific GPCR or pathway with rational ligands can become effective therapeutic targets for AD. Amylin receptor (AmR) is a GPCR that mediates several activities, such as improving glucose metabolism, relaxing cerebrovascular structure, modulating inflammatory reactions and potentially enhancing neural regeneration. Recent studies show that peripheral treatments with amylin or its clinical analog, pramlintide, reduced several components of AD pathology, including amyloid plaques, tauopathy, neuroinflammation and other components in the brain, corresponding with improved learning and memory in AD mouse models...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515689/current-experimental-studies-of-gene-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Jing-Ya Lin, Cheng-Long Xie, Su-Fang Zhang, Weien Yuan, Zhen-Guo Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) was characterized by late-onset, progressive dopamine neuron loss and movement disorders. The progresses of PD affected the neural function and integrity. To date, most researches had largely addressed the dopamine replacement therapies, but the appearance of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia hampered the use of the drug. And the mechanism of PD is so complicated that it's hard to solve the problem by just add drugs. Researchers began to focus on the genetic underpinnings of Parkinson's disease, searching for new method that may affect the neurodegeneration processes in it...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508994/disease-modifying-effects-of-neural-regeneration-peptide-2945-in-the-gaers-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#10
Gabi Dezsi, Frank Sieg, Mark Thomas, Terence J O'Brien, Marieke van der Hart, Nigel C Jones
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508358/degradomics-in-neurotrauma-profiling-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Fares Sukhon, Edwyn Jeremy Assaf, Hisham Bahmad, Hussein Abou-Abbass, Hussam Jourdi, Firas H Kobeissy
Degradomics has recently emerged as a subdiscipline in the omics era with a focus on characterizing signature breakdown products implicated in various disease processes. Driven by promising experimental findings in cancer, neuroscience, and metabolomic disorders, degradomics has significantly promoted the notion of disease-specific "degradome." A degradome arises from the activation of several proteases that target specific substrates and generate signature protein fragments. Several proteases such as calpains, caspases, cathepsins, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases that disturb the physiologic balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505150/a-question-of-fate
#12
Mirjana Maletic-Savatic
Ever since the discovery of neural stem cells in the mammalian brain, the possibility of brain tissue regeneration has captured the minds of scientists, clinicians, and the public. Neural stem cells have been envisioned as a source of donor cells for transplantation and vectors for the delivery of gene therapy. Over the past decade, many researchers have contributed to characterizing these cells and their lineages, providing the foundation for their utilization as therapeutic devices. In a new study, Azim and colleagues took a different approach: using pharmacogenomics to focus on neural stem cell lineage, they identified specific compounds that can direct neural stem cell fate toward a specific lineage in vivo, both in physiological and pathological conditions...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482588/neuronal-production-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-self-assembled-collagen-hyaluronic-acid-alginate-microgel-scaffolds-with-grafted-grgdsp-ln5-p4
#13
Yung-Chih Kuo, Cheng-Hong Hsueh
Self-assembled microgel functionalized with peptides was developed and applied to regenerate neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Collagen (COL), hyaluronic acid (HA), and alginate (ALG) were modified with methacrylic anhydride (MA), photocrosslinked for patterned particles, grafted with GRGDSP and Ln5-P4, and self-assembled to integrate the microgel into three-dimensional scaffolds. Physicochemical assessments revealed that the ternary microgel scaffolds had an optimal chemical composition at COLMA:HAMA:ALGMA=1:2:1...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482124/collagen-scaffold-combined-with-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-functional-recovery-after-scar-resection-in-rats-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Nuo Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Bin Wang, Xing Li, Jing Li, Jianwu Dai
Effective therapeutic strategies for treating chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are currently unavailable. Scar tissue in the lesion area is a main inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration and repair of chronic SCI. In this study, scar tissue was surgically resected from adult rats with 12-week chronic SCI, and then collagen scaffold (named NeuroRegen Scaffold [NRS]) and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) were implanted into the resected cavity to repair chronic SCI. The results demonstrated that the locomotor function of rats was not affected by surgical scar resection, indicating its safety in treating chronic SCI...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480968/the-influence-of-raav2-mediated-sox2-delivery-into-neonatal-and-adult-human-rpe-cells-a-comparative-study
#15
Razie Ezati, Azadeh Etemadzadeh, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Shahram Samiei, Ehsan Ranaei Pirmardan, Malihe Davari, Hoda Shams Najafabadi
Cell replacement is a promising therapy for degenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since the human retina lacks regeneration capacity, much attention has been directed towards persuading for cells that can differentiate into retinal neurons. In this report we have investigated reprogramming of the human RPE cells and concerned the effect of donor age on the cellular fate as a critical determinant in reprograming competence. We evaluated the effect of SOX2 over-expression in human neonatal and adult RPE cells in cultures...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480563/cell-therapy-in-parkinson-s-disease-host-brain-repair-machinery-gets-a-boost-from-stem-cell-grafts
#16
Eleonora Napoli, Cesar V Borlongan
This commentary highlights the major findings and future research directions arising from the recent publication by Zuo and colleagues in Stem Cells (2017). Here, we discuss the novel observations that transplanted human neural stem cells can induce endogenous brain repair by specifically stimulating a host of regenerative processes in the neurogenic niche (i.e., subventricular zone or SVZ) in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. That the identified therapeutic proteomes, neurotrophic factors, and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the SVZ may facilitate brain regeneration and behavioral recovery open a new venue of research for our understanding of the pathology and treatment of Parkinson's disease...
May 8, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479032/taking-the-endochondral-route-to-craniomaxillofacial-bone-regeneration-a-logical-approach
#17
REVIEW
Elmer C Kruijt Spanjer, Gerhard K P Bittermann, Inge E M van Hooijdonk, Antoine J W P Rosenberg, Debby Gawlitta
The current golden standard for treatment of craniomaxillofacial critical size bone defects, autologous bone grafting, is associated with several disadvantages which have prompted an increased demand for alternatives. New solutions are emerging in the form of bone tissue engineering. This involves harvesting of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), after which they can be differentiated towards the osteogenic lineage mimicking intramembranous bone formation. However, translating this approach from laboratory to clinic has met with limited success...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469662/combination-therapy-using-evening-primrose-oil-and-electrical-stimulation-to-improve-nerve-function-following-a-crush-injury-of-sciatic-nerve-in-male-rats
#18
Omid Badri, Parviz Shahabi, Jalal Abdolalizadeh, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Hadi Veladi, Mehdi Farhoudi, Mohsen Sharif Zak
Peripheral nerve injuries with a poor prognosis are common. Evening primrose oil (EPO) has beneficial biological effects and immunomodulatory properties. Since electrical activity plays a major role in neural regeneration, the present study investigated the effects of electrical stimulation (ES), combined with evening primrose oil (EPO), on sciatic nerve function after a crush injury in rats. In anesthetized rats, the sciatic nerve was crushed using small haemostatic forceps followed by ES and/or EPO treatment for 4 weeks...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469658/neural-stem-cells-over-expressing-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promote-neuronal-survival-and-cytoskeletal-protein-expression-in-traumatic-brain-injury-sites
#19
Tao Chen, Yan Yu, Liu-Jiu Tang, Li Kong, Cheng-Hong Zhang, Hai-Ying Chu, Liang-Wei Yin, Hai-Ying Ma
Cytoskeletal proteins are involved in neuronal survival. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor can increase expression of cytoskeletal proteins during regeneration after axonal injury. However, the effect of neural stem cells genetically modified by brain-derived neurotrophic factor transplantation on neuronal survival in the injury site still remains unclear. To examine this, we established a rat model of traumatic brain injury by controlled cortical impact. At 72 hours after injury, 2 × 10(7) cells/mL neural stem cells overexpressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor or naive neural stem cells (3 mL) were injected into the injured cortex...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465021/morphology-based-non-invasive-quantitative-prediction-of-the-differentiation-status-of-neural-stem-cells
#20
Masaya Fujitani, Noor Safika Huddin, Shun Kawai, Kei Kanie, Yasujiro Kiyota, Kazunori Shimizu, Hiroyuki Honda, Ryuji Kato
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent and are considered ideal source for regenerating damaged neural cells for neurological disorders. During culture of NSCs, both the measurement and the evaluation of their differentiation potential are important to maintain stable quality-assured NSCs for regenerative treatments since the rate of differentiation into certain lineages from NSCs is still not fully controllable. However, conventional cell evaluation techniques using biological molecular are still invasive, costly, and time-consuming...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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