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Humoral rejection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339660/eculizumab-in-secondary-atypical-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome
#1
Teresa Cavero, Cristina Rabasco, Antía López, Elena Román, Ana Ávila, Ángel Sevillano, Ana Huerta, Jorge Rojas-Rivera, Carolina Fuentes, Miquel Blasco, Ana Jarque, Alba García, Santiago Mendizabal, Eva Gavela, Manuel Macía, Luis F Quintana, Ana María Romera, Josefa Borrego, Emi Arjona, Mario Espinosa, José Portolés, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio González-Parra, Pedro Aljama, Enrique Morales, Mercedes Cao, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Manuel Praga
Background.: Complement dysregulation occurs in thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) other than primary atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). A few of these patients have been reported previously to be successfully treated with eculizumab. Methods.: We identified 29 patients with so-called secondary aHUS who had received eculizumab at 11 Spanish nephrology centres. Primary outcome was TMA resolution, defined by a normalization of platelet count (>150 × 10 9 /L) and haemoglobin, disappearance of all the markers of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA), and improvement of renal function, with a ≥25% reduction of serum creatinine from the onset of eculizumab administration...
February 20, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318622/computer-assisted-topological-analysis-of-renal-allograft-inflammation-adds-to-risk-evaluation-at-diagnosis-of-humoral-rejection
#2
Antoine Sicard, Vannary Meas-Yedid, Maud Rabeyrin, Alice Koenig, Stephanie Ducreux, Frederique Dijoud, Valerie Hervieu, Lionel Badet, Emmanuel Morelon, Jean Christophe Olivo-Marin, Valerie Dubois, Olivier Thaunat
Antibody-mediated rejection is associated with heterogeneous kidney allograft outcomes. Accurate evaluation of risk for graft loss at time of diagnosis is necessary to offer personalized treatment. In contrast with serological and molecular assessment, morpho-histological evaluation of antibody-mediated rejection lesions has not significantly evolved. This relies on Banff classifications designed to be of diagnostic discriminatory power rather than prognostic and face quantitative and qualitative limitations...
March 15, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306593/current-concepts-for-sensitized-patients-before-transplantation
#3
Dael Geft, Jon Kobashigawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibody allosensitization poses a major immunologic challenge for patients awaiting heart transplantation. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for both pretransplant and posttransplant patients by prolonging wait times to transplant and increasing posttransplant rejection and vasculopathy. Many questions remain regarding methods and interpretation of antibody detection, the relevance of sensitization in specific patient populations such as those with mechanical circulatory support and the ideal strategies for desensitization...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297571/prolongation-of-cardiac-allograft-survival-by-endometrial-regenerative-cells-focusing-on-b-cell-responses
#4
Xiaoxi Xu, Xiaochun Li, Xiangying Gu, Bai Zhang, Weijun Tian, Hongqiu Han, Peng Sun, Caigan Du, Hao Wang
Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) have been recently evaluated as an attractive candidate source for emerging stem cell therapies in immunosuppression, but their role in immunoregulation is not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate their effects, especially on B-cell responses in heart transplantation. In this study, ERCs were noninvasively obtained from menstrual blood. Heart transplantation was performed between C57BL/6 (H-2(b) ) donor mice and BALB/c (H-2(d) ) recipients. B-cell activation and antibody levels were determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ELISpot...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293239/major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-chain-related-a-mica-molecules-relevance-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Ajay Kumar Baranwal, Narinder K Mehra
An ever growing number of reports on graft rejection and/or failure even with good HLA matches have highlighted an important role of non-HLA antigens in influencing allograft immunity. The list of non-HLA antigens that have been implicated in graft rejection in different types of organ transplantation has already grown long. Of these, the Major Histocompatibility Complex class I chain-related molecule A (MICA) is one of the most polymorphic and extensively studied non-HLA antigenic targets especially in the kidney transplantation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280691/old-game-new-players-linking-classical-theories-to-new-trends-in-transplant-immunology
#6
REVIEW
Marina Burgos da Silva, Flavia Franco da Cunha, Fernanda Fernandes Terra, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
The evolutionary emergence of an efficient immune system has a fundamental role in our survival against pathogenic attacks. Nevertheless, this same protective mechanism may also establish a negative consequence in the setting of disorders such as autoimmunity and transplant rejection. In light of the latter, although research has long uncovered main concepts of allogeneic recognition, immune rejection is still the main obstacle to long-term graft survival. Therefore, in order to define effective therapies that prolong graft viability, it is essential that we understand the underlying mediators and mechanisms that participate in transplant rejection...
February 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260477/doppler-ultrasonography-findings-during-recovery-period-of-transplanted-kidney-after-infarction-and-necrosis-due-to-renal-vein-thrombosis-a-case-report
#7
Funda Ulu Ozturk, Nihal Uslu, Eda Yilmaz Akcay, Mehmet Haberal
A 47-year-old male patient underwent living-related renal transplant. On day 3 posttransplant, without evidence of associated clinical symptoms, the patient's serum creatinine levels had increased. The patient was given immunosuppressive medication, and a followup Doppler ultrasonography revealed hypoechoic areas in the inferior pole of the renal parenchyma. Eventually, on day 25, there was no perfusion in the superior and inferior poles of the transplanted kidney. No venous flow was shown in the middle segment, and only arterial vascularization with a high resistive index and negative diastolic phase was observed...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255564/endothelial-cells-in-antibody-mediated-rejection-of-kidney-transplantation-pathogenesis-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-implications
#8
REVIEW
Shuo Wang, Chao Zhang, Jina Wang, Cheng Yang, Ming Xu, Ruiming Rong, Tongyu Zhu, Dong Zhu
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been identified as a main obstacle for stable immune tolerance and long survival of kidney allografts. In spite of new insights into the underlying mechanisms of AMR, accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment are still challenges in clinical practice. Endothelium is the first barrier between recipients' immune systems and grafts in vascularized organ transplants. Considering that endothelial cells express a number of antigens that can be attacked by various allo- and autoantibodies, endothelial cells act as main targets for the recipients' humoral immune responses...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236143/c3-glomerulopathy-and-eculizumab-a-report-on-four-paediatric-cases
#9
Célia Lebreton, Justine Bacchetta, Frédérique Dijoud, Lucie Bessenay, Véronique Fremeaux-Bacchi, Anne Laure Sellier-Leclerc
BACKGROUND: Eculizumab may be used to treat C3-glomerulopathy (C3G), a rare but severe glomerular disease. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: Patients 1, 2 and 3 were diagnosed with nephritic syndrome with alternative complement pathway activation (low C3, C3Nef-positive) and C3G at the age of 9, 13 and 12 years, respectively. Treatment with eculizumab normalized proteinuria within 1, 2 and 7 months, respectively. Proteinuria relapsed when eculizumab was withdrawn, but the re-introduction of eculizumab normalized proteinuria...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207638/association-of-local-intrapulmonary-production-of-antibodies-specific-to-donor-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-with-the-progression-of-chronic-rejection-of-lung-allografts
#10
Ei Miyamoto, Hideki Motoyama, Masaaki Sato, Akihiro Aoyama, Toshi Menju, Kei Shikuma, Terumasa Sowa, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Masao Saito, Akihiro Takahagi, Satona Tanaka, Mamoru Takahashi, Keiji Ohata, Takeshi Kondo, Kyoko Hijiya, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection may lead to chronic lung allograft dysfunction, but antibody-mediated rejection may develop in the absence of detectable donor-specific antibody (DSA) in recipient serum. This study investigated whether humoral immune responses develop not only systemically but locally within rejected lung allografts, resulting in local production of DSA. METHODS: Lewis rats received orthotopic left lung transplantation from Lewis (syngeneic control) or Brown-Norway (major histocompatibility complex-mismatched allogeneic) donor rats...
February 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182088/renal-transplant-patients-biopsied-for-cause-and-tested-for-c4d-dsa-and-igg-subclasses-and-c1q-which-humoral-markers-improve-diagnosis-and-outcomes
#11
James C Cicciarelli, Nathan A Lemp, Youngil Chang, Michael Koss, Katrin Hacke, Noriyuki Kasahara, Kevin M Burns, David I Min, Robert Naraghi, Tariq Shah
The association between donor specific antibodies (DSA) and renal transplant rejection has been generally established, but there are cases when a DSA is present without rejection. We examined 73 renal transplant recipients biopsied for transplant dysfunction with DSA test results available: 23 patients diffusely positive for C4d (C4d+), 25 patients focally positive for C4d, and 25 patients negative for C4d (C4d-). We performed C1q and IgG subclass testing in our DSA+ and C4d+ patient group. Graft outcomes were determined for the C4d+ group...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166181/dna-vaccine-encoding-hpv16-oncogenes-e6-and-e7-induces-potent-cell-mediated-and-humoral-immunity-which-protects-in-tumor-challenge-and-drives-e7-expressing-skin-graft-rejection
#12
Janin Chandra, Julie L Dutton, Bo Li, Wai-Ping Woo, Yan Xu, Lynn K Tolley, Michelle Yong, James W Wells, Graham R Leggatt, Neil Finlayson, Ian H Frazer
We have previously shown that a novel DNA vaccine technology of codon optimization and the addition of ubiquitin sequences enhanced immunogenicity of a herpes simplex virus 2 polynucleotide vaccine in mice, and induced cell-mediated immunity when administered in humans at relatively low doses of naked DNA. We here show that a new polynucleotide vaccine using the same technology and encoding a fusion protein of the E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is immunogenic in mice. This vaccine induces long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects mice from establishment of HPV16-E7-expressing tumors...
February 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164136/the-role-of-humoral-alloreactivity-in-liver-transplantation-lessons-learned-and-new-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Elaine Y Cheng
More than ten years after the initial description of the humoral theory of transplantation by Dr. Paul I. Terasaki, the significance of humoral alloimmunity in liver transplantation has yet to be clearly defined. The liver allograft has an inherent tolerogenic capacity which confers its resistance to cell-mediated as well as antibody-mediated rejection. Nevertheless, the protection against alloimmunity is not complete, and antibody-mediated tissue injury can occur in the liver graft under specific circumstances...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159698/serum-immune-response-of-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-to-xenografts-and-allografts
#14
Jinfen Wei, Baosuo Liu, Sigang Fan, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
The mantle piece from the donor pearl oyster would be rejected by the immune system of recipient oyster in pearl culture practice, especially in the case that the donor and receptor are different species. Thus, investigation of the immune response of recipient oyster to grafted mantle pieces, particularly to xenografts, is of importance in creating xenograft transplantation technology for pearl culture industry. The humoral immune responses of P. fucata to allograft (mantle piece of P. fucata) and xenografts (mantle pieces of P...
January 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144069/a-severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-inducing-an-acute-antibody-mediated-pulmonary-graft-rejection
#15
Sarah Démir, Julien Saison, Agathe Sénéchal, Jean-Francois Mornex
A 40-year-old cystic fibrosis woman with a history of double-lung transplantation 2 years previously was admitted for a progressive respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed fever (39°C) and diffuse bilateral lung crackles. Laboratory findings included severe hypoxemia and inflammatory syndrome. Bronchoalveolar lavage and serological test were positive for mycoplasma pneumonia. As the patient did not improve after 3 days of antibiotics and donor-specific HLA antibodies had been detected, an acute antibody-mediated graft rejection was treated with high-dose corticosteroids, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab...
January 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133619/from-humoral-theory-to-performant-risk-stratification-in-kidney-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
C Lefaucheur, D Viglietti, M Mangiola, A Loupy, A Zeevi
The purpose of the present review is to describe how we improve the model for risk stratification of transplant outcomes in kidney transplantation by incorporating the novel insights of donor-specific anti-HLA antibody (DSA) characteristics. The detection of anti-HLA DSA is widely used for the assessment of pre- and posttransplant risks of rejection and allograft loss; however, not all anti-HLA DSA carry the same risk for transplant outcomes. These antibodies have been shown to cause a wide spectrum of effects on allografts, ranging from the absence of injury to indolent or full-blown acute antibody-mediated rejection...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130190/the-immunologic-considerations-in-human-head-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Mark A Hardy, Allen Furr, Juan P Barret, John H Barker
The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft)...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127210/vanishing-bile-duct-syndrome-in-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Mena Bakhit, Thomas R McCarty, Sunhee Park, Basile Njei, Margaret Cho, Raffi Karagozian, AnnMarie Liapakis
Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) has been described in different pathologic conditions including infection, ischemia, adverse drug reactions, autoimmune diseases, allograft rejection, and humoral factors associated with malignancy. It is an acquired condition characterized by progressive destruction and loss of the intra-hepatic bile ducts leading to cholestasis. Prognosis is variable and partially dependent upon the etiology of bile duct injury. Irreversible bile duct loss leads to significant ductopenia, biliary cirrhosis, liver failure, and death...
January 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122021/the-effect-of-tacrolimus-and-mycophenolic-acid-on-cd14-monocyte-activation-and-function
#19
Nynke M Kannegieter, Dennis A Hesselink, Marjolein Dieterich, Rens Kraaijeveld, Ajda T Rowshani, Pieter J M Leenen, Carla C Baan
Monocytes and macrophages play key roles in many disease states, including cellular and humoral rejection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). To suppress alloimmunity after SOT, immunosuppressive drug therapy is necessary. However, little is known about the effects of the immunosuppressive drugs tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid (MPA) on monocyte activation and function. Here, the effect of these immunosuppressants on monocytes was investigated by measuring phosphorylation of three intracellular signaling proteins which all have a major role in monocyte function: p38MAPK, ERK and Akt...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110970/-plasma-exchange-in-nephrology-indications-and-technique
#20
Christophe Ridel, Sébastien Kissling, Laurent Mesnard, Alexandre Hertig, Éric Rondeau
Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive...
January 16, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
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