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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808594/spontaneous-renal-allograft-rupture-caused-by-acute-tubular-necrosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Deepak Shankar Ray, Sharmila Thukral
Renal allograft rupture (RAR) is a rare but lethal complication of renal transplantation. It potentially threatens graft and patient survival. RAR is frequently associated with acute rejection, but other causes like renal vein thrombosis and acute tubular necrosis have also been observed. Most commonly a graft nephrectomy is required, but graft repair can also be attempted in selected cases to salvage the graft. Herein, we describe a rare case of spontaneous renal allograft rupture in the early posttransplant period due to acute tubular necrosis...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783665/structural-basis-for-potent-antibody-mediated-neutralization-of-human-cytomegalovirus
#2
Sumana Chandramouli, Enrico Malito, TuongVi Nguyen, Kate Luisi, Danilo Donnarumma, Yi Xing, Nathalie Norais, Dong Yu, Andrea Carfi
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects and organ transplant rejection. The HCMV gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A complex (Pentamer) is the main target of humoral responses and thus a key vaccine candidate. We report two structures of Pentamer bound to human neutralizing antibodies, 8I21 and 9I6, at 3.0 and 5.9 Å resolution, respectively. The HCMV gH/gL architecture is similar to that of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) except for amino-terminal extensions on both subunits. The extension of gL forms a subdomain composed of a three-helix bundle and a β hairpin that acts as a docking site for UL128/UL130/UL131A...
June 30, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777489/refinement-of-humoral-immune-monitoring-in-kidney-transplantation-the-role-of-hidden-alloreactive-memory-b-cells
#3
REVIEW
Sergi Luque, Marc Lúcia, Oriol Bestard
The advent of novel sensitive assays assessing circulating anti-HLA antibodies has allowed recognizing humoral alloimmunity as the main immune-mediated mechanism responsible of allograft rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation. However, current immune-monitoring techniques, exclusively focusing on circulating anti-HLA antibodies, may underestimate the magnitude of humoral immune response as they exclude the memory B-cell (mBC) pool. Different biological compartments are involved in the intricate mechanisms triggering humoral alloimmune responses even in absence of detectable circulating alloantbodies...
August 4, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761461/pcr-based-diagnosis-of-toxoplasma-parasite-in-ocular-infections-having-clinical-indications-of-toxoplasmosis
#4
Atieh Farhadi, Ali Haniloo, Asghar Fazaeli, Siamak Moradian, Mehdi Farhadi
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis is mainly based on clinical features. However, ocular fluid testing by PCR may be very helpful for approval or rejection of this etiology. In this study, we utilized a nested-PCR technique, targeting the B1 partial sequence to analyze the aqueous and vitreous samples for evaluating the presence of the Toxoplasma DNA. METHODS: Fifty aqueous or vitreous humor samples were obtained from patients with clinical features of ocular toxoplasmosis admitted to ophthalmology hospitals and clinics in Iran, within 2014...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740496/evaluation-of-antigen-specific-igm-and-igg-production-during-an-in-vitro-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-culture-assay
#5
Yoshiko Matsuda, Ryoichi Imamura, Shiro Takahara
The recent attention given to diseases associated with memory B-cell (mBC)-produced antibodies (Abs) suggests the need for a similar in vitro assay to evaluate the functions of mBCs. Here, we cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the intent to collect mBC-derived Abs in vitro and maintain their cell-cell contact-dependent interactions with helper T-cells. PBMCs were cultured with interleukin (IL)-21, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and phytohemagglutinin/leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) in 24-well flat-bottom plates (5 × 10(5) cells/well)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731207/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-treating-acute-rejection-episodes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#6
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Sunny Wu, Krishna Tallapragada, Min Young Park, Jeremy R Chapman, Sue J Carr
BACKGROUND: Registry data shows that the incidence of acute rejection has been steadily falling. Approximately 10% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Treatment options include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options. Over recent years, new treatment strategies have evolved, and in many parts of the world there has been an increase in use of tacrolimus and mycophenolate and a reduction in the use of cyclosporin and azathioprine use as baseline immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection...
July 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719723/de-novo-hhv-8-tumors-induced-by-rituximab-in-autoimmune-or-inflammatory-systemic-diseases
#7
Amandine Perier, Léa Savey, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Philippe Serve, David Saadoun, Stéphane Barete
OBJECTIVES: HHV-8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) associated herpesvirus is involved in KS and other tumors comprising multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). Rituximab is currently used for treatment of several autoimmune or inflammatory diseases and humoral organ rejection. De novo HHV-8 induced tumors by rituximab used for autoimmune or inflammatory diseases or humoral organ rejection have not been reported. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we report clinical, virological and pathology of five HIV-negative male patients with HHV-8-induced tumors following rituximab therapy...
July 18, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701473/zbtb7a-induction-in-alveolar-macrophages-is-implicated-in-anti-hla-mediated-lung-allograft-rejection
#8
Deepak K Nayak, Fangyu Zhou, Min Xu, Jing Huang, Moriya Tsuji, Jinsheng Yu, Ramsey Hachem, Andrew E Gelman, Ross M Bremner, Michael A Smith, Thalachallour Mohanakumar
Chronic rejection significantly limits long-term success of solid organ transplantation. De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to mismatched donor human leukocyte antigen after human lung transplantation predispose lung grafts to chronic rejection. We sought to delineate mediators and mechanisms of DSA pathogenesis and to define early inflammatory events that trigger chronic rejection in lung transplant recipients and obliterative airway disease, a correlate of human chronic rejection, in mouse. Induction of transcription factor zinc finger and BTB domain containing protein 7a (Zbtb7a) was an early response critical in the DSA-induced chronic rejection...
July 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686681/kir-and-their-hla-class-i-ligands-two-more-pieces-towards-completing-the-puzzle-of-chronic-rejection-and-graft-loss-in-kidney-transplantation
#9
Roberto Littera, Gianbenedetto Piredda, Davide Argiolas, Sara Lai, Elena Congeddu, Paola Ragatzu, Maurizio Melis, Elisabetta Carta, Maria Benigna Michittu, Donatella Valentini, Luisella Cappai, Rita Porcella, Francesco Alba, Maria Serra, Valentina Loi, Roberta Maddi, Sandro Orrù, Giorgio La Nasa, Giovanni Caocci, Roberto Cusano, Marcella Arras, Mauro Frongia, Antonello Pani, Carlo Carcassi
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation is a life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. However, despite progress in surgical techniques and patient management, immunological rejection continues to have a negative impact on graft function and overall survival. Incompatibility between donors and recipients for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) generates a series of complex cellular and humoral immune response mechanisms that are largely responsible for rejection and loss of graft function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628770/a-comparative-analysis-between-proteasome-and-immunoproteasome-inhibition-in-cellular-and-humoral-alloimmunity
#10
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Triggered by the successful administration of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in kidney transplant recipients with acute or chronic antibody-mediated rejection, we evaluated the effect of the proteasome inhibitor CEP-18770 and of the selective immunoproteasome inhibitor ONX-0914 on cellular and humoral alloimmunity. Cellular alloimmunity was assessed by cell proliferation in a two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). For assessing humoral alloimmunity we developed a method, where humoral alloimmunity was induced in one-way MLR...
June 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626773/hla-epitopes-the-targets-of-monoclonal-and-alloantibodies-defined
#11
REVIEW
Nadim El-Awar, Vadim Jucaud, Anh Nguyen
Sensitization to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in organ transplant patients causes graft rejection, according to the humoral theory of transplantation. Sensitization is almost ubiquitous as anti-HLA antibodies are found in almost all sera of transplant recipients. Advances in testing assays and amino acid sequencing of HLA along with computer software contributed further to the understanding of antibody-antigen reactivity. It is commonly understood that antibodies bind to HLA antigens. With current knowledge of epitopes, it is more accurate to describe that antibodies bind to their target epitopes on the surface of HLA molecular chains...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573911/framing-the-transit-expeditionary-culture-and-identities-in-lieutenant-e-j-w-noble-s-caricatures-of-the-1874-transit-of-venus-expedition-to-honolulu
#12
Rebekah Higgitt
Making use of a source previously unknown to historians, this article sheds new light on the British expedition to the Sandwich Islands to observe the 1874 transit of Venus. This source, a series of caricature drawings that follow the expedition from departure to return, gives insight into expeditionary culture and the experience of a previously unremarked member of this astronomical expedition, Evelyn J.W. Noble, a career officer of the Royal Marine Artillery. It also reveals overlapping military, scientific and masculine identities, developed in dialogue with, and often deliberately subverting, more public accounts...
July 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508247/in-human-cell-cultures-everolimus-is-inferior-to-tacrolimus-in-inhibiting-cellular-alloimmunity-but-equally-effective-as-regards-humoral-alloimmunity
#13
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Georgia Antoniadi, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
PURPOSE: Acute cellular rejection is the major cause of immune-mediated graft failure early in the course of kidney transplantation, whereas chronic antibody-mediated rejection is a major contributor to graft loss in the late post-transplant phase. Based mainly on the results of short-term studies, the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus prevails over the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. However, the toxicity profile of the two drug categories differs, making the interchange between them appealing...
May 15, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477373/uric-acid-increases-cellular-and-humoral-alloimmunity-in-primary-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#14
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Georgia Antoniadi, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is common among kidney transplant recipients and has been associated with worse graft outcome. Since episodes of acute cellular rejection and chronic humoral rejection contribute to decreased graft survival, in this study the effect of uric acid on cellular and humoral alloimmunity was evaluated. METHODS: Cellular alloimmunity was assessed by cell proliferation in two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
May 5, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465534/low-proportion-of-follicular-regulatory-t-cell-in-renal-transplant-patients-with-chronic-antibody-mediated-rejection
#15
Wen Chen, Jian Bai, Haiyan Huang, Lili Bi, Xiangrui Kong, Yu Gao, Yong Han, Li Xiao, Bingyi Shi
Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cell can effectively regulate humoral immunity, but its function and mechanism in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after organ transplantation remains unclear. Here we detected follicular helper T (Tfh) cell subsets in 88 renal transplant patients with chronic renal allograft dysfunction (40 with AMR and 48 without AMR). The ratio of Tfr cells in renal graft tissues and peripheral blood of AMR patients significantly decreased, while the ratio of IL-21-producing Tfh cells (Tfh2 and Tfh17) significantly increased, compared to non-AMR patients...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446536/donor-specific-antibodies-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#16
REVIEW
Rubin Zhang
Donor-specific antibodies have become an established biomarker predicting antibody-mediated rejection. Antibody-mediated rejection is the leading cause of graft loss after kidney transplant. There are several phenotypes of antibody-mediated rejection along post-transplant course that are determined by the timing and extent of humoral response and the various characteristics of donor-specific antibodies, such as antigen classes, specificity, antibody strength, IgG subclasses, and complement binding capacity...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402253/immunoregulatory-role-of-b-lymphocytes-in-alloresponse-to-kidney-transplant
#17
REVIEW
Tomasz Baran, Maria Boratyńska
B cells are a group of diverse phenotype and function subsets, which can both stimulate and inhibit the immune response to an allograft. They participate in the rejection process by influencing differentiation, proliferation and effector functions of T lymphocytes. B cells injure the graft via the ADCC (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity) reaction and humoral rejection through plasmocyte production of donor-specific antibodies. A converse, suppressive mode of B cells can attribute to the development of tolerance and protect the graft from rejection...
April 12, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393447/anti-cd40-antibody-mediated-costimulation-blockade-promotes-long-term-survival-of-deep-lamellar-porcine-corneal-grafts-in-non-human-primates
#18
Jaeyoung Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Hyuk Jin Choi, Hyun Ju Lee, Hee Jung Kang, Chung-Gyu Park, Eung-Soo Hwang, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee
BACKGROUND: Corneal xenotransplantation is an effective solution for the shortage of human donor corneas, and the porcine cornea may be a suitable candidate for the donor cornea because of its optical similarity with humans. However, it is necessary to administer additional immunosuppressants to overcome antigenic differences. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of porcine corneas with anti-CD40 antibody-mediated costimulation blockade in a clinically applicable pig-to-non-human primate corneal xenotransplantation model...
May 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373996/not-all-antibodies-are-created-equal-factors-that-influence-antibody-mediated-rejection
#19
REVIEW
Carrie L Butler, Nicole M Valenzuela, Kimberly A Thomas, Elaine F Reed
Consistent with Dr. Paul Terasaki's "humoral theory of rejection" numerous studies have shown that HLA antibodies can cause acute and chronic antibody mediated rejection (AMR) and decreased graft survival. New evidence also supports a role for antibodies to non-HLA antigens in AMR and allograft injury. Despite the remarkable efforts by leaders in the field who pioneered single antigen bead technology for detection of donor specific antibodies, a considerable amount of work is still needed to better define the antibody attributes that are associated with AMR pathology...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360912/exosomes-isolated-from-ascites-of-t-cell-lymphoma-bearing-mice-expressing-surface-cd24-and-hsp-90-induce-a-tumor-specific-immune-response
#20
Florencia Menay, Leticia Herschlik, Julieta De Toro, Federico Cocozza, Rodrigo Tsacalian, María José Gravisaco, María Paula Di Sciullo, Alejandrina Vendrell, Claudia I Waldner, Claudia Mongini
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including endosome-derived nanovesicles (exosomes), are involved in cell-cell communication. Through transfer of their molecular contents, extracellular nanovesicles can alter the function of recipient cells. Due to these characteristics, EVs have shown potential as a new alternative for cancer immunotherapy. Tumor exosomes isolated from malignant ascites can activate dendritic cells, thereby priming the immune system to recognize and kill cancer cells. However, a suppressive role on tumor immune response has also been reported, suggesting that the neoplastic stage of carcinogenesis and the microenvironment where tumor cells grow may influence the amount of EVs released by the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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