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Humoral rejection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405140/pre-transplant-cytomegalovirus-immunoglobulin-g-antibody-levels-could-prevent-severe-cytomegalovirus-infections-post-transplant-in-liver-transplant-recipients-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-liver-centre
#1
Ekta Gupta, Viniyendra Pamecha, Yogita Verma, Niteen Kumar, Archana Rastogi, Nadeem Hasnian, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria
BACKGROUND: Humoral immune responses in cytomegalovirus (CMV) are not studied well. Pre-transplant CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels (Pre-Tx IgG) could influence the occurrence of post-transplant CMV infections. OBJECTIVE: Correlation between pre-Tx IgG and post-Tx risk of acquiring CMV infection was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 146 liver Tx recipients, not on CMV prophylaxis, were included. Pre-Tx IgG in donor (D) and recipient (R) were estimated and all the recipients were followed up for 1 year for CMV infections...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399877/acute-humoral-rejection-in-an-infant-without-risk-factors-after-heart-transplantation
#2
Ziyad M Binsalamah, Juan Marcano, Rodrigo Zea-Vera, Hari Tunuguntla, Debra L Kearney, Jeffrey S Heinle, Charles D Fraser, Carlos M Mery
Graft rejection is the most common factor that limits graft survival after transplantation. During infancy, the humoral immune system is partially suppressed and humoral rejection of a cardiac allograft has not been reported in the absence of risk factors such as prior transplantation, blood transfusions, ventricular assist devices, and elevation of panel reactive antibodies. We present a case of an infant with dilated cardiomyopathy who developed multiple episodes of acute humoral rejection after heart transplantation in the absence of risk factors...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375217/candida-accommodates-non-culturable-helicobacter-pylori-in-its-vacuole-koch-s-postulates-aren-t-applicable
#3
COMMENT
Farideh Siavoshi, Parastoo Saniee
The following are the responses to the "letter to the editor" ("Helicobacter is preserved in yeast vacuoles! Does Koch's postulates confirm it?") authored by Nader Alipour and Nasrin Gaeini that rejected the methods, results, discussions and conclusions summarized in the review article authored by Siavoshi F and Saniee P. In the article, 7 papers, published between 1998 and 2013, were reviewed. The 7 papers had been reviewed and judged very carefully by the assigned expertise of the journals involved, including the reviewers of the World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG), before publication...
January 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374425/complement-system-in-lung-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
H A Ali, E N Pavlisko, L D Snyder, M Frank, S M Palmer
The complement system is a cascade of multiple proteins that have been known to mediate inflammatory response. This tightly regulated system has been recognized to play a role in adaptive immunity via humoral and cell mediated processes. There is evidence from animal and human studies that the complement system is involved in various outcomes of solid organ transplantation. Most of the studies have been done in the field of kidney transplantation. In this paper we review the studies looking at lung transplantation...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341290/early-failure-of-kidney-transplants-in-the-current-era-a-national-cohort-study
#5
Ilkka Helanterä, Juulia Räihä, Patrik Finne, Marko Lempinen
Although short-term outcome after kidney transplantation has improved, a small proportion of grafts are lost during the first year. We characterize in detail all early graft losses in the current era in a nationwide cohort of kidney transplant recipients. Altogether 2447 kidney transplantations, performed between June 2004 and October 2016, were included. All graft losses (return to dialysis or patient death) occurring during the first post-transplant year were characterized. During the first post-tranplant year, altogether 109 grafts were lost, 67 grafts failed, and 42 patients died...
January 16, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327261/chronic-rejection-after-intestinal-transplant-where-are-we-in-order-to-avert-it
#6
REVIEW
Augusto Lauro, Mihai Oltean, Ignazio R Marino
Chronic rejection affects the long-term survival of all solid organ transplants and, among intestinal allografts, occurs in up to 10% of the recipients. The insidious clinical evolution of the chronic allograft enteropathy, the absence of noninvasive biomarkers, and the late endoscopic findings delay its diagnosis. No pharmacological approach has been proven effective, and allograft removal nowadays still represents the only available therapy. The inclusion of the liver in the visceral allograft appears to be the only intervention affecting the development of chronic rejection, as revealed by large-center studies and registry reports...
January 11, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316217/exosomes-expressing-the-self-antigens-myosin-and-vimentin-play-an-important-role-in-syngeneic-cardiac-transplant-rejection-induced-by-antibodies-to-cardiac-myosin
#7
Monal Sharma, Wei Liu, Sudhir Perincheri, Muthukumar Gunasekaran, T Mohanakumar
Long-term success of heart transplantation is hindered by humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. We studied preexisting antibodies to two cardiac self-antigens, myosin and vimentin, and exosomes induced by antibodies to self-antigens in eliciting immune responses to cardiac grafts. After syngeneic heterotopic murine heart transplantation, rabbit anti-myosin or normal rabbit immunoglobulin was administered at days 0 or 7. Sera were collected after heartbeat cessation and cellular infiltration was analyzed, and exosomes were isolated from sera...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312755/acute-rejection
#8
REVIEW
Mark Benzimra, Greg L Calligaro, Allan R Glanville
Despite induction immunosuppression and the use of aggressive maintenance immunosuppressive regimens, acute allograft rejection following lung transplantation is still a problem with important diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. As well as causing early graft loss and mortality, acute rejection also initiates the chronic alloimmune responses and airway-centred inflammation that predispose to bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), also known as chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which is a major source of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258420/renal-allograft-rejection-lymphocyte-infiltration-and-de-novo-donor-specific-antibodies-in-a-novel-model-of-non-adherence-to-immunosuppressive-therapy
#9
Louisa Kühne, Bettina Jung, Helen Poth, Antonia Schuster, Simone Wurm, Petra Ruemmele, Bernhard Banas, Tobias Bergler
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence has been associated with reduced graft survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanisms underlying chronic renal allograft rejection using a model of non-adherence to immunosuppressive therapy. We used a MHC (major histocompatibility complex) -mismatched rat model of renal transplantation (Brown Norway to Lewis), in which rats received daily oral cyclosporine A. In analogy to non-adherence to therapy, one group received cyclosporine A on alternating days only...
December 19, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246419/hla-epitope-matching-in-kidney-transplantation-an-overview-for-the-general-nephrologist
#10
REVIEW
Matthew Sypek, Joshua Kausman, Steve Holt, Peter Hughes
Rapid changes in tissue-typing technology, including the widespread availability of highly specific molecular typing methods and solid-phase assays for the detection of allele-specific anti-HLA antibodies, make it increasingly challenging to remain up to date with developments in organ matching. Terms such as epitopes and eplets abound in the transplantation literature, but often it can be difficult to see what they might mean for the patient awaiting transplantation. In this review, we provide the historical context for current practice in tissue typing and explore the potential role of HLA epitopes in kidney transplantation...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245962/associations-between-hvem-light-btla-cd160-polymorphisms-and-the-occurrence-of-antibody-mediate-rejection-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#11
Zijie Wang, Ke Wang, Haiwei Yang, Zhijian Han, Jun Tao, Hao Chen, Yuqiu Ge, Miao Guo, Chuanjian Suo, Ji-Fu Wei, Ruoyun Tan, Min Gu
Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a serious complications that can occur following renal transplantation. The production of donor-specific antibodies by the humoral immune response can trigger costimulatory signals, which are crucial in activating immune cells, and therefore, playing a potential role in ABMR. To investigate the role of HVEM/LIGHT/BTLA/CD160 polymorphisms in ABMR, we retrospectively analyzed 200 renal transplant recipients. We adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify HVEM/LIGHT/BTLA/CD160 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genotypes of these patients...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225601/anti-donor-immune-responses-elicited-by-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-extracellular-vesicles-are-we-still-learning
#12
REVIEW
Paul Lohan, Oliver Treacy, Matthew D Griffin, Thomas Ritter, Aideen E Ryan
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been used to treat a broad range of disease indications such as acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection due to their potent immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties. The breadth of their usage is due in no small part to the vast quantity of published studies showing their ability to modulate multiple immune cell types of both the innate and adaptive immune response. While patient-derived (autologous) MSC may be the safer choice in terms of avoiding unwanted immune responses, factors including donor comorbidities may preclude these cells from use...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218052/spoiling-for-a-fight-b-lymphocytes-as-initiator-and-effector-populations-within-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-in-autoimmunity-and-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Jawaher Alsughayyir, Gavin J Pettigrew, Reza Motallebzadeh
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) develop at ectopic sites within chronically inflamed tissues, such as in autoimmunity and rejecting organ allografts. TLOs differ structurally from canonical secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), in that they lack a mantle zone and are not encapsulated, suggesting that they may provide unique immune function. A notable feature of TLOs is the frequent presence of structures typical of germinal centers (GCs). However, little is known about the role of such GCs, and in particular, it is not clear if the B cell response within is autonomous, or whether it synergizes with concurrent responses in SLOs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215459/complete-b-cell-deficiency-reduces-allograft-inflammation-and-intragraft-macrophages-a-rat-kidney-transplant-model
#14
Sarah E Panzer, Nancy A Wilson, Bret M Verhoven, Ding Xiang, C Dustin Rubinstein, Robert R Redfield, Weixiong Zhong, Shannon R Reese
BACKGROUND: Increasingly it is being appreciated that B cells have broad roles beyond the humoral response, and are able to contribute to and regulate inflammation. The specific role of B cells in the pathogenesis of early allograft inflammation remains unclear. METHODS: To address this question, we generated B cell deficient Lewis rats via CRISPR technology. In a full mismatch transplant model, kidneys from Brown Norway donors were transplanted into B cell deficient Lewis recipients (B) or wild type Lewis recipients...
December 5, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210728/are-donor-lymphocytes-a-barrier-to-transplantation-tolerance
#15
Jawaher Alsughayyir, Reza Motallebzadeh, Gavin J Pettigrew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following solid organ transplantation (SOT), populations of donor lymphocytes are frequently found in the recipient circulation. Their impact on host alloimmunity has long been debated but remains unclear, and it has been suggested that transferred donor lymphocytes may either promote tolerance to the graft or hasten its rejection. We discuss possible mechanisms by which the interaction of donor passenger lymphocytes with recipient immune cells may either augment the host alloimmune response or inhibit it...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202467/endothelial-chimerism-and-vascular-sequestration-protect-pancreatic-islet-grafts-from-antibody-mediated-rejection
#16
Chien-Chia Chen, Eric Pouliquen, Alexis Broisat, Francesco Andreata, Maud Racapé, Patrick Bruneval, Laurence Kessler, Mitra Ahmadi, Sandrine Bacot, Carole Saison-Delaplace, Marina Marcaud, Jean-Paul Duong Van Huyen, Alexandre Loupy, Jean Villard, Sandrine Demuylder-Mischler, Thierry Berney, Emmanuel Morelon, Meng-Kun Tsai, Marie-Nathalie Kolopp-Sarda, Alice Koenig, Virginie Mathias, Stéphanie Ducreux, Catherine Ghezzi, Valerie Dubois, Antonino Nicoletti, Thierry Defrance, Olivier Thaunat
Humoral rejection is the most common cause of solid organ transplant failure. Here, we evaluated a cohort of 49 patients who were successfully grafted with allogenic islets and determined that the appearance of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) did not accelerate the rate of islet graft attrition, suggesting resistance to humoral rejection. Murine DSAs bound to allogeneic targets expressed by islet cells and induced their destruction in vitro; however, passive transfer of the same DSAs did not affect islet graft survival in murine models...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194971/the-causes-significance-and-consequences-of-inflammatory-fibrosis-in-kidney-transplantation-the-banff-i-ifta-lesion
#17
Brian J Nankivell, Meena Shingde, Karen L Keung, Caroline L-S Fung, Richard J Borrows, Philip J O'Connell, Jeremy R Chapman
Inflammation within areas of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (i-IFTA) is associated with adverse outcomes in kidney transplantation. We evaluated i-IFTA in 429 indication- and 2052 protocol-biopsies from a longitudinal cohort of 362 kidney-pancreas recipients to determine its prevalence, time-course, and relationships with T cell mediated rejection (TCMR), immunosuppression, and outcome. Sequential histology demonstrated that i-IFTA was preceded by cellular interstitial inflammation, and followed by IF/TA...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163552/t-follicular-helper-cells-as-a-new-target-for-immunosuppressive-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Lin Yan, Kitty de Leur, Rudi W Hendriks, Luc J W van der Laan, Yunying Shi, Lanlan Wang, Carla C Baan
Over the past decade, antibody-mediated (humoral) rejection has been recognized as a common cause of graft dysfunction after organ transplantation and an important determinant for graft loss. In humoral alloimmunity, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a crucial role, because they help naïve B cells to differentiate into memory B cells and alloantibody-producing plasma cells within germinal centers. In this way, they contribute to the induction of donor-specific antibodies, which are responsible for the humoral immune response to the allograft...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160947/thymic-function-is-a-major-determinant-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-onset-in-heart-transplantation
#19
A Sannier, N Stroumza, G Caligiuri, M Le Borgne-Moynier, F Andreata, J Senemaud, L Louedec, G Even, A T Gaston, C Deschildre, A Couvelard, P Ou, R Cheynier, P Nataf, R Dorent, A Nicoletti
Thymic function progressively decreases with age but may be boosted in certain circumstances. We questioned whether heart transplantation was such a situation and whether the thymic function was related to the onset of rejection. Twenty-eight antithymocyte globulin-treated heart transplant recipients were included. Patients diagnosed for an antibody-mediated rejection on endomyocardial biopsy had higher proportion of circulating recent thymic emigrant CD4+ T cells and T cell receptor excision circle levels than other transplanted subjects...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146891/heart-transplantation-and-risk-of-cardiac-vasculopathy-development-what-factors-are-important
#20
Małgorzata Sobieszczańska-Małek, Jerzy Korewicki, Krzysztof Komuda, Małgorzata Karczmarz, Sylwia Szymańska, Alicja Cicha-Mikołajczyk, Paweł Bekta, Adam Parulski, Maciej Pronicki, Wiesława Grajkowska, Grzegorz Małek, Przemysław Leszek, Maria Kaczorowska, Mariusz Kuśmierczyk, Tomasz Zieliński
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to find the main risk factors for development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), especially factors identified before the surgical procedure and factors related to the recipient profile and the medical history of the donor. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 147 patients who had heart transplantation (HT) included in this study: mean age was 45.8±15.3 years. All study patients had coronary angiography after HT. Analyzed risk factors were: non-immunologic recipient risk factors (age of transplantation, smoking, hypertension, lipids, diabetes, obesity and weight gain after HT), immunologic recipient risk factors (acute cellular rejection (ACR), acute humoral rejection (AMR), cytomegalovirus (CMV) episodes), and donor-related risk factors (age, sex, catecholamine usage, ischemic time, compatibility of sex and blood groups, cause of death, cardiac arrest)...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
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