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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859566/does-the-body-survive-death-cultural-variation-in-beliefs-about-life-everlasting
#1
Rachel E Watson-Jones, Justin T A Busch, Paul L Harris, Cristine H Legare
Mounting evidence suggests that endorsement of psychological continuity and the afterlife increases with age. This developmental change raises questions about the cognitive biases, social representations, and cultural input that may support afterlife beliefs. To what extent is there similarity versus diversity across cultures in how people reason about what happens after death? The objective of this study was to compare beliefs about the continuation of biological and psychological functions after death in Tanna, Vanuatu (a Melanesian archipelago), and the United States (Austin, Texas)...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274955/did-john-b-watson-really-found-behaviorism
#2
John C Malone
Developments culminating in the nineteenth century, along with the predictable collapse of introspective psychology, meant that the rise of behavioral psychology was inevitable. In 1913, John B. Watson was an established scientist with impeccable credentials who acted as a strong and combative promoter of a natural science approach to psychology when just such an advocate was needed. He never claimed to have founded "behavior psychology" and, despite the acclaim and criticism attending his portrayal as the original behaviorist, he was more an exemplar of a movement than a founder...
May 2014: Behavior Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251641/a-plea-for-scientific-ambitions-reply-to-commentaries-from-martin-wieser-nikolai-veresov-asger-neumann-and-peter-kr%C3%A3-jgaard
#3
Jens Mammen
The paper is a reply to commentaries to "Activity theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences" (Mammen and Mironenko 2015). At the same time it is an attempt to reply to more general issues raised by the commentators and an attempt to further develop some general ideas from our paper with a focus on the introduction of the new analytical concepts sense and choice categories. These concepts have been elaborated in an axiomatic frame in (Mammen 2016) and the present paper is thus also pointing forwards to that and supporting it with examples from research on adult human relations of love and affection and on infant cognitive development...
September 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26796559/-malaise-in-psychiatry-and-its-history
#4
S Chebili
The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry...
April 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573257/-intersubjectivity-between-explanation-and-understanding
#5
Flor Emilce Cely Ávila
The discussion on explanation and understanding has led to a division in the sciences, based on what is considered to be inherent to each of the domains. The task of the natural sciences would be the explanation, while that of the social sciences would be understanding or interpretation.There is a line of work that currently seeks to overcome the methodological dualism and to propose more interdisciplinary studies, such as the studies on emergence of the mental in the framework of intersubjective relationships...
March 2014: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26444361/world-time-and-anxiety-heidegger-s-existential-analytic-and-psychiatry
#6
Francesca Brencio
Martin Heidegger was one of the most influential but also criticized philosophers of the XX century. With Being and Time 1927 he sets apart his existential analytic from psychology as well as from anthropology and from the other human sciences that deny the ontological foundation, overcoming the Cartesian dualism in search of the ontological unit of an articulated multiplicity, as human being is. Heidegger's Dasein Analytic defines the fundamental structures of human being such as being-in-the-world, a unitary structure that discloses the worldhood of the world; the modes of being (Seinsweisen), such as fear (Furcht) and anxiety (Angst); and the relationship between existence and time...
October 2014: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26400181/duality-of-categories-or-dialectical-concepts
#7
COMMENT
Nikolai Veresov
The paper explores that CHT contains at least three dialectical concepts and principles; (1) development as drama (dialectical contradiction) and the principle of dramatic construction of the personality, (2) the concept of mediating activity and the principle of qualitative transition and reorganisation and (3) the concept of perezhivanie and the principle of refraction. Rethinking the status of "the social" creates opportunities to overcome a dualism of two groups of factors (biological and social) and introduces the principle of dramatic construction of the personality, which is an intrapsychological result of overcoming social dramatical interpsychological collisions (dramas of life)...
June 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26391234/on-the-heart-the-mind-and-how-inflammation-killed-the-cartesian-dualism-commentary-on-the-2015-named-series-psychological-risk-factors-and-immune-system-involvement-in-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M Pariante
The 2015 Named Series on "Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease" was conceived with the idea of drawing attention to the interdisciplinary work aimed at investigating the relationships between the heart, metabolic system, brain, and mental health. In this commentary, we provide a brief overview of the manuscripts included in this Named Series and highlight how a better understanding of immune regulation will help us to move forward from the current "dualistic" perspective of the heart as separate from the mind to a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological links between cardiovascular and mental disorders...
November 2015: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26321981/pedagogical-tools-to-explore-cartesian-mind-body-dualism-in-the-classroom-philosophical-arguments-and-neuroscience-illusions
#9
Scott Hamilton, Trevor J Hamilton
A fundamental discussion in lower-level undergraduate neuroscience and psychology courses is Descartes's "radical" or "mind-body" dualism. According to Descartes, our thinking mind, the res cogitans, is separate from the body as physical matter or substance, the res extensa. Since the transmission of sensory stimuli from the body to the mind is a physical capacity shared with animals, it can be confused, misled, or uncertain (e.g., bodily senses imply that ice and water are different substances). True certainty thus arises from within the mind and its capacity to doubt physical stimuli...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26203543/pain-history-culture-and-philosophy
#10
Murad Ahmad Khan, Fauzia Raza, Iqbal Akhtar Khan
Pain, one of the universals of existence, has a long and venerable history, its origin initially attributed to godly punishment for disbelievers; and, with improved understanding, to physical and psycho-social factors. "Pain is emotion or sensation?" has been a debatable issue. Razes developed pleasure-pain theory, founded on the theories of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Epicurus. Descartes' Dualism shifted the centre of pain from the heart to the brain but negated the psychological contribution to its pathogenesis...
2015: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26001990/activity-theories-and-the-ontology-of-psychology-learning-from-danish-and-russian-experiences
#11
REVIEW
Jens Mammen, Irina Mironenko
Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs...
December 2015: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25563567/moral-engagement-combat-trauma-and-the-lure-of-psychiatric-dualism-why-psychiatry-is-more-than-a-technical-discipline
#12
Warren Kinghorn
Psychiatry is not only a technical discipline concerned with matching appropriate means to pre-specified ends; it is also a discipline of moral engagement and discernment in which clinicians and patients explore the ends that patients will pursue. Moral engagement is intrinsic to psychiatric practice, particularly when psychiatrists engage issues such as combat trauma in which patients' moral self-evaluations are relevant to the perpetuation of psychological distress. Relative to technical models of practice, however, the space of moral engagement and discernment conveys risk for psychiatrists as it is less "scientific," more prone to exploitation and abuse, and the occasion for social-political critiques of psychiatry...
January 2015: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25536996/psychological-and-somatic-health-problems-in-bosnian-refugees-a-three-year-follow-up
#13
Iris Sarajlić Vuković, Nikolina Jovanović, Branko Kolarić, Vesna Vidović, Richard Francis Mollica
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to explore association between psychiatric disorders (PTSD and depression) and chronic medical illnesses in a group of Bosnian refugees followed up for three years (1996-1999). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Study was conducted in refugee camps in Varaždin, Nbaseline=534, Nendpoint=376 (70.4%). The interviews were conducted in Bosnian, data on depression and PTSD were collected using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, respectively...
December 2014: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25494547/adults-are-intuitive-mind-body-dualists
#14
Matthias Forstmann, Pascal Burgmer
In the present research, we tested the hypotheses that (a) adults are intuitive mind-body dualists, (b) that this belief can be considered a default, and (c) that it is partially explained by essentialistic reasoning about the nature of the mind. Over 8 studies, using various thought experiment paradigms, participants reliably ascribed to a physically duplicated being a greater retention of physical than of mental properties. This difference was unrelated to whether or not this being was given a proper name (Study 1b) and was only found for entities that were considered to actually possess a mind (Study 1c)...
February 2015: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25468003/a-sociohistorical-examination-of-george-herbert-mead-s-approach-to-science-education
#15
Michelle L Edwards
Although George Herbert Mead is widely known for his social psychological work, his views on science education also represent a significant, yet sometimes overlooked contribution. In a speech delivered in March 1906 entitled "The Teaching of Science in College," Mead calls for cultural courses on the sciences, such as sociology of science or history of science courses, to increase the relevancy of natural and physical science courses for high school and university students. These views reflect Mead's perspective on a number of traditional dualisms, including objectivity versus subjectivity and the social sciences versus natural and physical sciences...
July 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25390208/superfluous-neuroscience-information-makes-explanations-of-psychological-phenomena-more-appealing
#16
Diego Fernandez-Duque, Jessica Evans, Colton Christian, Sara D Hodges
Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences...
May 2015: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25247011/conceptions-about-the-mind-body-problem-and-their-relations-to-afterlife-beliefs-paranormal-beliefs-religiosity-and-ontological-confusions
#17
Tapani Riekki, Marjaana Lindeman, Jari Lipsanen
We examined lay people's conceptions about the relationship between mind and body and their correlates. In Study 1, a web survey (N = 850) of reflective dualistic, emergentistic, and monistic perceptions of the mind-body relationship, afterlife beliefs (i.e., common sense dualism), religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and ontological confusions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena was conducted. In Study 2 (N = 73), we examined implicit ontological confusions and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity...
2013: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25244112/-me-my-brain-exposing-neuroscience-s-closet-dualism
#18
Liad Mudrik, Uri Maoz
Our intuitive concept of the relations between brain and mind is increasingly challenged by the scientific world view. Yet, although few neuroscientists openly endorse Cartesian dualism, careful reading reveals dualistic intuitions in prominent neuroscientific texts. Here, we present the "double-subject fallacy": treating the brain and the entire person as two independent subjects who can simultaneously occupy divergent psychological states and even have complex interactions with each other-as in "my brain knew before I did...
February 2015: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25017116/exaltation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-neuropsychiatric-symptom-or-portal-to-the-divine
#19
REVIEW
Niall McCrae, Rob Whitley
Religiosity is a prominent feature of the Geschwind syndrome, a behavioural pattern found in some cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. Since the 1950s, when Wilder Penfield induced spiritual feelings by experimental manipulation of the temporal lobes, development of brain imaging technology has revealed neural correlates of intense emotional states, spurring the growth of neurotheology. In their secular empiricism, psychiatry, neurology and psychology are inclined to pathologise deviant religious expression, thereby reinforcing the dualism of objective and phenomenal worlds...
September 2014: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24904486/the-mind-body-relationship-in-psychotherapy-grounded-cognition-as-an-explanatory-framework
#20
REVIEW
Nuwan D Leitan, Greg Murray
As a discipline, psychology is defined by its location in the ambiguous space between mind and body, but theories underpinning the application of psychology in psychotherapy are largely silent on this fundamental metaphysical issue. This is a remarkable state of affairs, given that psychotherapy is typically a real-time meeting between two embodied agents, with the goal of facilitating behavior change in one party. The overarching aim of this paper is to problematize the mind-body relationship in psychotherapy in the service of encouraging advances in theory and practice...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
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