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treatment epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#1
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147777/how-i-do-it-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy-via-a-navigated-temporobasal-approach-when-veins-forbid-elevation-of-the-temporal-lobe
#2
Daniel Delev, Johannes Schramm, Hans Clusmann
BACKGROUND: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy is an effective treatment option for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS: To describe and emphasize potential pitfalls during selective amygdalohippocampectomy via a modified navigated temporobasal approach, in cases, where temporal basal veins hinder the required elevation of the temporal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via navigated temporobasal approach is a safe procedure that can reduce the rate of visual field deficits by avoiding damage of optic radiation...
November 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146047/maternal-immune-activation-delays-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-switch-in-offspring
#3
Irene Corradini, Elisa Focchi, Marco Rasile, Raffaella Morini, Genni Desiato, Romana Tomasoni, Michela Lizier, Elsa Ghirardini, Riccardo Fesce, Diego Morone, Isabella Barajon, Flavia Antonucci, Davide Pozzi, Michela Matteoli
BACKGROUND: The association between maternal infection and neurodevelopmental defects in progeny is well established, although the biological mechanisms and the pathogenic trajectories involved have not been defined. METHODS: Pregnant dams were injected intraperitoneally at gestational day 9 with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Neuronal development was assessed by means of electrophysiological, optical, and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid causes an imbalanced expression of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 and the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
November 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145183/catastrophe-reaction-and-emotionalism
#4
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
The catastrophic reaction (CR; a disruptive and uncontrolled behavior triggered by anger, irritability, and hostility) and emotionalism (a condition of uncontrolled crying or laughing) are disorders of the emotional regulation and expression, the prevalence of which is underestimated in neurology. Their occurrence is an additional factor of poor outcome for neurologic patients. Although they have been recognized and completely described in their clinical manifestations more than a century ago, many issues remain unsolved regarding their pathogenesis and the respective role of the brain damage and psychological factors...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145182/pathological-yawning-laughing-and-crying
#5
Olivier Walusinski
Yawning, laughing, and crying are normal physiological behaviors of humans in good health. As with all physiological behaviors, their deregulation can reveal disorders. Pathological yawning occurs in salvos of 10-20 successive yawns, and the number of yawns per day can exceed one hundred. After listing the functional etiologies, we will give the clinical keys for differentiating the most serious causes: iatrogenic, tumors, strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and intracranial hypertension. Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of emotional display involving pathological laughing and crying (PLC) may be encountered in various neurological diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy (cerebellar), cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injuries, mass lesions in the cerebellopontine junction, and epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144993/evaluate-the-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-reproductive-endocrine-system-in-newly-diagnosed-female-epileptic-patients-receiving-either-valproate-or-lamotrigine-monotherapy-a-prospective-study
#6
Harpreet Singh Sidhu, R Srinivasa, Akshay Sadhotra
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the development of reproductive endocrine changes in Indian women with epilepsy initiating on either Valproate (VPA) or Lamotrigine (LTG) monotherapy. METHODS: Reproductive hormonal profiles, hirsutism, ovarian morphology by ultrasonography and menstrual cycle data in newly diagnosed women with epilepsy taking VPA (n=34) or LTG (n=32) monotherapy were compared. None of the women were receiving hormonal contraception. Patients gave details of seizure type and frequency, medical and drug history...
October 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144716/mechanism-of-action-of-non-invasive-cervical-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-primary-headaches
#7
Bruce Simon, Justyna Blake
Stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve with implanted vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) has been used clinically for more than 20 years to treat patients with epilepsy. More recently, a non-invasive cervical vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS), gammaCore, was developed, which has been purported to also stimulate the vagus nerve without the cost and morbidity associated with an iVNS system. gammaCore has been used to acutely treat various types of primary headaches, including migraine and cluster headaches (CH), and for the prevention of episodic, chronic, and menstrual migraines and CH...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141638/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-brains-of-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#8
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141532/seizures-and-antiepileptic-drugs-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#9
Nihan CarCaka, Cigdem Ozkara
Recurrent, spontaneous seizure activity caused by abnormal neuronal firing in the brain is a hallmark of epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder. Recent research that has expanded the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that modulate neuronal excitability and network activity in the brain provides the development and discovery of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AED therapy starts with the selection of the most appropriate drug for individual patient on the basis of strategic decision of the risk-benefit ratio...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141310/-analysis-of-gene-mutation-of-early-onset-epileptic-spasm-with-unknown-reason
#10
X Yang, G Pan, W H Li, L M Zhang, B B Wu, H J Wang, P Zhang, S Z Zhou
Objective: To summarize the gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason. Method: In this prospective study, data of patients with early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason were collected from neurological department of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between March 2016 and December 2016. Patients with known disorders such as infection, metabolic, structural, immunological problems and known genetic mutations were excluded. Patients with genetic disease that can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and phenotypic characteristics were also excluded...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140463/anatomic-investigation-of-the-trajectory-for-stereotactic-laser-amygdalohippocampectomy
#11
Vanessa M Holanda, Abuzer Gungor, Serhat Baydin, Erik H Middlebrooks, Shabbar F Danish
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has emerged as a promising treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Surgeons must understand the relevant anatomy that is traversed by the catheter and affected by ablation. OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomic structures crossed by the LITT catheter until it reaches the amygdala. METHODS: Three human cadaveric heads were implanted with catheters using a frameless stereotactic technique...
November 11, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140112/a-2017-review-of-pharmacotherapy-for-treating-focal-epilepsy-where-are-we-now-and-how-will-treatment-develop
#12
Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
Focal epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy with approximately 30 million patients affected worldwide. There is a major challenge to develop new antiepileptic treatments as currently approximately one third of patients remain uncontrolled under our best standards of care. Areas covered: An overview is given on first- and second generation antiepileptic drugs and their mechanisms of action, and on recent new strategies for antiepileptic targets, including drugs aiming at disease modification. Expert opinion: Newer antiepileptic drugs have enabled a better tolerated and individualized treatment for many patients...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139152/giant-intracranial-arteriovenous-malformation-as-the-focus-of-epileptic-seizures
#13
Mio Takayama, Kenji Hara, Aya Matsusue, Brian Waters, Natsuki Ikematsu, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A man in his late thirties was found in a supine position in the hallway of his house. He had been diagnosed with epilepsy at approximately 20 years old. Since stopping treatment, epileptic events occurred more frequently and his condition deteriorated in the past 2 years. Autopsy revealed that head injuries were found on the left side of his head. A fracture from the left parietal bone to the anterior cranial fossa was also detected. A subdural hemorrhage (hematoma) spanned a wide range. A subarachnoid hemorrhage was also identified in the left parietal region...
November 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138107/effect-of-low-frequency-electrical-stimulation-on-the-high-k-induced-neuronal-hyperexcitability-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#14
Zahra Ghasemi, Nima Naderi, Amir Shojaei, Mohammad Reza Raoufy, Nooshin Ahmadirad, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh
Low frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) is a potential therapeutic method for epilepsy treatment. However, the effect of different LFS characteristics including the number of pulses, intensity and the time of application on its antiepileptic action has not been completely determined. In the present study, epileptiform activity (EA) was induced in hippocampal slices by high-K(+) solution which washed out after 20 min. The changes in the electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons were measured during and 30 min after EA using whole cell patch clamp recording...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134855/model-based-sensitivity-analysis-for-outcome-reporting-bias-in-the-meta-analysis-of-benefit-and-harm-outcomes
#15
John Copas, Anthony Marson, Paula Williamson, Jamie Kirkham
Outcome reporting bias occurs when outcomes in research studies are selectively reported, the selection being influenced by the study results. For benefit outcomes, we have shown how risk assessments using the Outcome Reporting Bias in Trials risk classification scale can be used to calculate bias-adjusted treatment effect estimates. This paper presents a new and simpler version of the benefits method, and shows how it can be extended to cover the partial reporting and non-reporting of harm outcomes. Our motivating example is a Cochrane systematic review of 12 studies of Topiramate add-on therapy for drug-resistant partial epilepsy...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134342/an-introduction-and-overview-of-machine-learning-in-neurosurgical-care
#16
REVIEW
Joeky T Senders, Mark M Zaki, Aditya V Karhade, Bliss Chang, William B Gormley, Marike L Broekman, Timothy R Smith, Omar Arnaout
BACKGROUND: Machine learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn from large complex datasets without being explicitly programmed. Although ML is already widely manifest in our daily lives in various forms, the considerable potential of ML has yet to find its way into mainstream medical research and day-to-day clinical care. The complex diagnostic and therapeutic modalities used in neurosurgery provide a vast amount of data that is ideally suited for ML models...
November 13, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133852/nitrosynapsin-therapy-for-a-mouse-mef2c-haploinsufficiency-model-of-human-autism
#17
Shichun Tu, Mohd Waseem Akhtar, Rosa Maria Escorihuela, Alejandro Amador-Arjona, Vivek Swarup, James Parker, Jeffrey D Zaremba, Timothy Holland, Neha Bansal, Daniel R Holohan, Kevin Lopez, Scott D Ryan, Shing Fai Chan, Li Yan, Xiaofei Zhang, Xiayu Huang, Abdullah Sultan, Scott R McKercher, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Huaxi Xu, Yuqiang Wang, Daniel H Geschwind, Amanda J Roberts, Alexey V Terskikh, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah, Stuart A Lipton, Nobuki Nakanishi
Transcription factor MEF2C regulates multiple genes linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and human MEF2C haploinsufficiency results in ASD, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MEF2C haploinsufficiency syndrome remain poorly understood. Here we report that Mef2c (+/-)(Mef2c-het) mice exhibit behavioral deficits resembling those of human patients. Gene expression analyses on brains from these mice show changes in genes associated with neurogenesis, synapse formation, and neuronal cell death...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133176/effect-of-zonisamide-on-refractory-epilepsy-during-pregnancy-in-lamotrigine-resistant-kindled-rats
#18
Reza Narenji Sani, Keivan Keramati, Niloufar Saberi, Melika Moezifar, Ali Mahdavi
Drug-resistant epilepsy with uncontrolled severe seizures despite state-of-the-art medical treatment continues to be a major clinical problem. Pregnancy is a state where drug pharmacokinetic changes are more pronounced and more rapid than any other period of life. The current study investigated the effect of zonisamide (ZNS) on refractory epilepsy during pregnancy in lamotrigine-resistant kindled rats. Fifty-six lamotrigine (LTG)-resistant kindled Wistar rats were divided into five experimental (four pregnant and one non-pregnant) and 2 positive controls (pregnant and non-pregnant) groups and eight intact Wistar rats were put in the negative pregnant control group...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#19
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130289/development-and-pilot-testing-of-a-parent-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-measure-for-children-on-the-ketogenic-diet-the-ketoqol
#20
Katie Barwick, Tamara Parker, Nicole Murphy, Alwyn Todd, Michael Leveritt, Shelley A Wilkinson
AIM: The aim of the present study was to develop a parent-reported tool that will measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children following ketogenic diet (KD) therapies for refractory epilepsy once it has been pilot tested and analysed. METHODS: Parents of children following KD therapies for epilepsy were recruited through a public hospital in Queensland, Australia, in 2012 and 2014. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted in 2012 with 13 parents who described changes seen in their child's HRQoL while on the KD...
November 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
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