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Pediatric Testis cancer

Guillermo Galdon, Anthony Atala, Hooman Sadri-Ardekani
Male infertility affects 7 % of the male population, and 10 % of infertile men are azoospermic. In these instances, using microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (m-TESE) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) helps a significant number of patients. However, in vitro differentiation of diploid germ cells to mature haploid germ cell has the potential to benefit many others, including pediatric cancer survivors who have previously cryopreserved their immature testicular tissue prior to starting gonadotoxic cancer treatment as well as men with spermatogenic arrest...
July 2016: Current Urology Reports
Tetsuhiro Yokonishi, Takehiko Ogawa
Cancer treatments, either chemo- or radiotherapy, may cause severe damage to gonads which could lead to the infertility of patients. In post-pubertal male patients, semen cryopreservation is recommended to preserve the potential to have their own biological children in the future; however, it is not applicable to prepubertals. The preservation of testis tissue which contains spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) but not sperm would be an alternative measure. The tissues or SSCs have to be transplanted back into patients to obtain sperm; however, this procedure remains experimental, invasive, and is accompanied with the potential risk of re-implantation of cancer cells...
2016: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumor-associated antigens with more than 140 members whose expression has been shown to be limited to gametogenic tissues and placenta among normal tissues. However, malignant tissues of different origins have shown aberrant and elevated expression of these antigens. Such a pattern of expression endows beneficial properties for use as cancer biomarkers as well as immunotherapeutic targets as a result of the immune-privileged status of the testes. CTAs have been shown to be expressed in pediatric brain tumors, different types of sarcomas, leukemias, and lymphomas as well as neuroblastomas...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Peter Kaatsch, Carla Häfner, Gabriele Calaminus, Maria Blettner, Mira Tulla
BACKGROUND: Malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare and a heterogeneous group of pediatric cancers. The incidence rate has increased in some populations or subgroups. However, only a few recent publications on epidemiologic data showing the trends in incidence of pediatric GCTs are available. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence rates, time trends, and survival for 1366 GCTs in children 0 to 14 years old registered in the nationwide, population-based German Childhood Cancer Registry in 1987-2011...
January 2015: Pediatrics
Shioto Suzuki, Nobuya Kurabe, Ippei Ohnishi, Kazumasa Yasuda, Yoichiro Aoshima, Masaaki Naito, Fumihiko Tanioka, Haruhiko Sugimura
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy. Only two pediatric and three adult cases of pulmonary NMCs have been documented. In more than two-thirds of NMC cases, a gene fusion between NUT and BRD4 or BRD3 has been documented; other fusions are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old woman was admitted because of a rapidly progressing tumor of the lung with metastases to the breast and bone. A biopsy from the lung tumor revealed an undifferentiated neoplasm exhibiting round to oval nuclei with vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm...
May 2015: Pathology, Research and Practice
Bihui Yang, Li Wang, Xiaohua Luo, Liping Chen, Zesong Yang, Lin Liu
SPAG6, which is a novel cancer-testis antigen, is overexpressed in myeloid malignancies. Previously, SPAG6 was found in UPD (uniparental disomy) region of myeloid cell DNA from MDS patients and reported that SPAG6 may be a predictive marker of minimal residual disease in pediatric acute myeloid, but the biological role of SPAG6 in myeloid malignancies remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the expression and functional significance of SPAG6 in malignant myeloid hematologic cell lines...
February 2015: International Journal of Oncology
Eran Altman, Pamela Yango, Radwa Moustafa, James F Smith, Peter C Klatsky, Nam D Tran
Autologous spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation is a potential therapeutic modality for patients with azoospermia following cancer treatment. For this promise to be realized, definitive membrane markers of prepubertal and adult human SSCs must be characterized in order to permit SSC isolation and subsequent expansion. This study further characterizes the markers of male gonocytes, prespermatogonia, and SSCs in humans. Human fetal, prepubertal, and adult testicular tissues were analyzed by confocal microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and qRT-PCR for the expression of unique germ cell membrane markers...
October 2014: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Mi Hou, Emma Eriksson, Konstantin Svechnikov, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Olle Söder, Andreas Meinhardt, Lars Sävendahl
BACKGROUND: With increased long-term survivors of childhood cancer patients, therapy-associated infertility has become one of the most common late side-effects and significantly affects their life-quality. Therefore, evaluation of anti-cancer agents on male reproduction and infertility prevention are urgently demanding. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been launched in clinical trials for childhood cancers, however, its potential side effects on reproduction have so far been neither investigated experimentally nor reported in treated children...
2014: Molecular Cancer
Thomas F Kolon, C D Anthony Herndon, Linda A Baker, Laurence S Baskin, Cheryl G Baxter, Earl Y Cheng, Mireya Diaz, Peter A Lee, Carl J Seashore, Gregory E Tasian, Julia S Barthold
PURPOSE: Cryptorchidism is one of the most common pediatric disorders of the male endocrine glands and the most common genital disorder identified at birth. This guideline is intended to provide physicians and non-physician providers (primary care and specialists) with a consensus of principles and treatment plans for the management of cryptorchidism (typically isolated non-syndromic). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature was conducted using controlled vocabulary supplemented with key words relating to the relevant concepts of cryptorchidism...
August 2014: Journal of Urology
Claude Kollin, E Martin Ritzén
Incomplete descent of the testes is the most common genital anomaly in newborn boys. The prevalence varies with apparent geographical differences. The etiology of cryptorchidism is considered to be multifactorial (genetic, maternal, and environmental factors), and it occurs most often as an isolated disorder with no obvious cause. Cryptorchidism should not be left untreated, since there is an increased risk of developing testicular cancer and infertility/subfertility. However, the mode and timing of treatment, as well as the risks of subfertility and testicular cancer have long been controversial...
February 2014: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Lei Bao, Fanqi Bai, Satheesh Cheeyancheri Chencheri, Kenneth Lucas
Rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma are the most common types of sarcoma in children. Despite standard therapy, nearly one third of the patients with Ewing's sarcoma relapse, and there are limited options with curative potential. Immunotherapy is a promising approach as it can target tumor-specific antigens that are specifically expressed on tumors while sparing non-malignant cells. We have demonstrated that a demethylating chemotherapeutic drug, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine, DAC) can upregulate the expression of cancer-testis (CT) antigens, MHC molecules, and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 on pediatric sarcoma cell lines, resulting in enhanced killing of tumor cells by CT antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes derived from pediatric sarcoma patients...
June 2014: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf Soliman, Yassin Mohamed
The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases...
March 2013: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
John M Hutson
Testicular descent is a complex morphological process that occurs in at least 2 stages, with different hormonal control. Insl3 controls the first step of gubernacular enlargement, although the abnormality long gubernacular cord in persistent Műllerian duct syndrome remains unexplained. Androgens control inguinoscrotal migration, which may be triggered by local signalling from the mammary line, and which requires the genitofemoral nerve. However, there is still much to learn about this phase, which when abnormal frequently leads to cryptorchidism...
May 2013: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Maria Luisa Di Pietro, Adele A Teleman
The exposure to cancer treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) can adversely affect all aspects of reproductive health, possibly determining temporary or permanent hypogonadism of a primary or secondary form. In prepubertal male patients, the only option for preserving fertility is testicular tissue banking. Although significant progress has been made in fertility-based animal research with SSCs, this procedure is still in an early experimental stage. Can an experimental technique, which has potential benefits and possible risks, be offered to minors? What is the minor's best interest in this situation? Is it more important to minimize the risks of morbidity and mortality or to preserve the child's future fertility?...
October 2013: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jessica M Stiles, Rebecca K Rowntree, Clarissa Amaya, Dolores Diaz, Victor Kokta, Dianne C Mitchell, Brad A Bryan
BACKGROUND: Infantile hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors primarily found on the skin in 10% of the pediatric population. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown and while large scale genomic studies have examined the transcriptomes of infantile hemangioma tumors as a whole, no study to date has compared the global gene expression profiles of pure infantile hemangioma endothelial cells (HEMECs) to that of normal human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVECs). METHODS: To shed light on the molecular differences between these normal and aberrant dermal endothelial cell types, we performed whole genome microarray analysis on purified cultures of HEMECs and HDMVECs...
2013: Vascular Cell
Gwen M Grimsby, Michael L Ritchey
This article reviews common pediatric urologic cancers involving the genitourinary system. Rhabdomyosarcoma may occur in the bladder, prostate, paratesticular regions, vagina, or uterus. Some of these locations, such as the paratesticular region, have a more favorable outcome. Benign neoplasms account for the majority of pediatric testicular tumors and most are managed with testis-sparing surgery. Most genitourinary malignancies are expected to have a good outcome. One focus of treatment is organ preservation but not at the expense of a good oncologic outcome...
August 2012: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Margarett Shnorhavorian, Micah A Jacobs, Gillian Stearns, Gerald Mingin, Martin A Koyle
PURPOSE: Although previous studies have looked at referral patterns and indications for orchiopexy, this is the first attempt at quantifying the primary care provider knowledge base of cryptorchidism and its implications in a large multi-state setting in the United States. METHODS: Primary care providers (PCPs) (n = 3,000) were invited to complete a web-based survey regarding cryptorchidism. We evaluated: practice setting; training; knowledge of cryptorchidism; relationship to pediatric urologists and surgeons; understanding of the relationship between cryptorchidism, infertility and testis cancer...
June 2012: Pediatric Surgery International
Jing-Yan Tang, Hui-Liang Xue, Jing Chen, Ci Pan, Ben-Shang Li, Long-Jun Gu, Lu Dong, Wen-Ting Hu, Shu-Hong Shen, Min Zhou, Qi-Dong Ye, Hua Jiang, Chang-Ying Luo
OBJECTIVE: To reduce the risk of therapy related complication during the treatment and keeps the long term event free survival, and to evaluate the results and risk factors of SCMC-lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-2005 protocol. METHODS: Designed the new protocol SCMC-ALL-2005 based on the previous protocol XH-99 for ALL. Divided the patients into low, median and high risk groups depends on risk factors including day 33 and 55 minimal residual disease (MRD) level. The higher risk group, the more intensive therapy was given...
February 28, 2012: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Thi Van Huyen Pham, Tri Budi Hartomo, Myeong Jin Lee, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Toshiaki Ishida, Keiichiro Kawasaki, Yoshiyuki Kosaka, Tomoto Yamamoto, Satoru Morikawa, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Ikuko Kubokawa, Takeshi Mori, Tomoko Yanai, Akira Hayakawa, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Kazumoto Iijima, Masafumi Matsuo, Hisahide Nishio, Noriyuki Nishimura
Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor that accounts for 15% of cancer-related deaths in children. More than half of high-risk neuroblastoma patients develop tumor relapse that is lethal in most cases. A small population of tumor-initiating cells (TICs), recently identified from high-risk neuroblastoma patients as spheres, is believed to be responsible for tumor relapse. Rab family small G proteins are essential in controlling membrane traffic and their misregulation results in several cancers. Rab15 was originally isolated as a brain-specific Rab protein regulating the endocytic recycling pathway and was recently identified as a downstream target of the neural transcription factor Atoh1...
June 2012: Oncology Reports
Katherine E Dillon, Clarisa R Gracia
With improving survival rates for pediatric and young adult cancer patients, considerations regarding the long-term effects of therapy have become more important. Cancer therapies are known to pose reproductive risks, though the effects may be unpredictable. All at-risk patients should have a discussion about potential treatment-related infertility before the onset of cancer therapy, and should be offered appropriate fertility preservation options. Embryo and sperm cryopreservation are considered standard therapy, though oocyte cryopreservation is gaining acceptance...
June 2012: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
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