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Pediatric Testis cancer

Amy C Schefler, Ryan S Kim
Retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma are the most common intraocular malignancies observed in pediatric and adult populations, respectively. For retinoblastoma, intra-arterial chemotherapy has dramatically improved treatment outcomes and eye salvage rates compared with traditional salvage rates of systemic chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy. Intravitreal injections of chemotherapy have also demonstrated excellent efficacy for vitreous seeds. Uveal melanoma, on the other hand, is treated predominantly with iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy or with proton beam therapy...
2018: F1000Research
Amélie R Tremblay, Geraldine Delbes
Pediatric chemotherapy treatments can impair long-term male fertility. Unfortunately, no fertility preservation solution is available for pre-pubertal boys. Studies suggest that doxorubicin, used against pediatric cancers, induces oxidative stress in the testis. However, the targeted testicular cell types remain unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether doxorubicin can induce oxidative stress in rat spermatogonia (GC-6Spg) and immature Sertoli (Ser-W3) cell lines, and to assess their protection by antioxidants...
June 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ossamah S Alsowayan, Jumanah H Basalelah, Abdullah M Alzahrani, Abdulaziz M Alshaibani, Nasser S Alalyani, Turki A Alsubiani, Maha Khalid AlMadi
BACKGROUND: The undescended testis (UDT) is the most common genital anomaly encountered in pediatrics with an estimated incidence of 1% to 4% in full-term and 1% to 45% in preterm newborn boys. Over the years, studies on progressive histological deterioration and cancer risk has led to a change in recommendations for when orchidopexy should be done. OBJECTIVES: Determine age at presentation of patients for UDT to a specialist in Saudi Arabia, age of operation and whether the recommended targeted time frame has been met...
March 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Houliang Deng, Jianming Zeng, Ting Zhang, Longcai Gong, Hongjie Zhang, Edwin Cheung, Chris Jones, Gang Li
Lysine to methionine mutations at position 27 (K27M) in the histone H3 (H3.3 and H3.1) are highly prevalent in pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) that arise in the midline of the central nervous system. H3K27M perturbs the activity of polycomb repressor complex 2 and correlates with DNA hypomethylation; however, the pathways whereby H3K27M drives the development of pediatric HGG remain poorly understood. To understand the mechanism of pediatric HGG development driven by H3.3K27M and discover potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers, we established pediatric glioma cell model systems harboring H3...
April 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
N Behrendt, T Schultewolter, K Busam, D Frosina, G Spagnoli, A Jungbluth
BACKGROUND: One of the main problems in the diagnostics of pediatric melanomas is the differentiation from benign dermal lesions typical for this age group, such as Spitz nevus. The biological behavior of pediatric melanomas differs considerably from that of melanomas in adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cancer testis (CT) antigens are named after their typical expression pattern since they are present in various types of malignant tumors but in normal adult tissues are solely expressed in testicular germ cells...
July 2017: Der Pathologe
Elizabeth L Yanik, Jodi M Smith, Meredith S Shiels, Christina A Clarke, Charles F Lynch, Amy R Kahn, Lori Koch, Karen S Pawlish, Eric A Engels
BACKGROUND: The effects of pediatric solid organ transplantation on cancer risk may differ from those observed in adult recipients. We described cancers in pediatric recipients and compared incidence to the general population. METHODS: The US transplant registry was linked to 16 cancer registries to identify cancer diagnoses among recipients <18 years old at transplant. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated by dividing observed cancer counts among recipients by expected counts based on the general population rates...
May 2017: Pediatrics
Yun-Lin Ye, Qiu-Ming He, Fu-Fug Zheng, Sheng-Jie Guo, Fang-Jian Zhou, Zi-Ke Qin
BACKGROUND: Testis-sparing surgery is not popular in South China. This study aimed to investigate this procedure for pediatric testicular tumors. METHODS: Children with testicular benign tumors were retrospectively analyzed from January 2001 to June 2015 in the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) and the First Affiliated Hospital (SYSU-1st). Follow-up was performed until June 2016, and the proportions of TSS in the two hospitals during the different periods were compared...
March 27, 2017: BMC Surgery
Erin L Marcotte, Nathan Pankratz, James F Amatruda, A Lindsay Frazier, Mark Krailo, Stella Davies, Jacqueline R Starr, Ching C Lau, Michelle Roesler, Erica Langer, Caroline Hallstrom, Anthony J Hooten, Jenny N Poynter
Germ cell tumors (GCT) are a rare form of childhood cancer that originate from the primordial germ cell. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified susceptibility alleles for adult testicular GCT (TGCT). We test whether these SNPs are associated with GCT in pediatric and adolescent populations. This case-parent triad study includes individuals with GCT diagnosed between ages 0 and 19. We evaluated 26 SNPs from GWAS of adult TGCT and estimated main effects for pediatric GCT within complete trios (N = 366) using the transmission disequilibrium test...
July 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Laura D Locati, Paola Collini, Martina Imbimbo, Marta Barisella, Adele Testi, Lisa F Licitra, Thomas Löning, Katharina Tiemann, Pasquale Quattrone, Emanuela Bimbatti, Stefano Chiaravalli, Michela Casanova, Elena Tamborini, Roberto Carta, Patrizia Gasparini, Marco Guzzo, Maura Massimino, Andrea Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Pediatric salivary gland carcinomas (SGCs) are very rare. They differ from the adult SGCs in terms of epidemiologic and clinical behavior, being generally limited only to selected histotypes (e.g. low-grade mucoepidermoid [LG-MEC] and acinic cell cancer [AcCC]) and characterized by very good outcome. Our aim was to investigate therapeutic targets on a series of pediatric SGCs by immunohistochemical and molecular analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed to search for cases of pediatric SGCs in the database of the Pediatric Oncology Unit at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori and in the Pathology database at the Gerhard-Seifert-Reference-Centre...
September 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Guillermo Galdon, Anthony Atala, Hooman Sadri-Ardekani
Male infertility affects 7 % of the male population, and 10 % of infertile men are azoospermic. In these instances, using microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (m-TESE) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) helps a significant number of patients. However, in vitro differentiation of diploid germ cells to mature haploid germ cell has the potential to benefit many others, including pediatric cancer survivors who have previously cryopreserved their immature testicular tissue prior to starting gonadotoxic cancer treatment as well as men with spermatogenic arrest...
July 2016: Current Urology Reports
Tetsuhiro Yokonishi, Takehiko Ogawa
Cancer treatments, either chemo- or radiotherapy, may cause severe damage to gonads which could lead to the infertility of patients. In post-pubertal male patients, semen cryopreservation is recommended to preserve the potential to have their own biological children in the future; however, it is not applicable to prepubertals. The preservation of testis tissue which contains spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) but not sperm would be an alternative measure. The tissues or SSCs have to be transplanted back into patients to obtain sperm; however, this procedure remains experimental, invasive, and is accompanied with the potential risk of re-implantation of cancer cells...
2016: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumor-associated antigens with more than 140 members whose expression has been shown to be limited to gametogenic tissues and placenta among normal tissues. However, malignant tissues of different origins have shown aberrant and elevated expression of these antigens. Such a pattern of expression endows beneficial properties for use as cancer biomarkers as well as immunotherapeutic targets as a result of the immune-privileged status of the testes. CTAs have been shown to be expressed in pediatric brain tumors, different types of sarcomas, leukemias, and lymphomas as well as neuroblastomas...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Peter Kaatsch, Carla Häfner, Gabriele Calaminus, Maria Blettner, Mira Tulla
BACKGROUND: Malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare and a heterogeneous group of pediatric cancers. The incidence rate has increased in some populations or subgroups. However, only a few recent publications on epidemiologic data showing the trends in incidence of pediatric GCTs are available. METHODS: We analyzed the incidence rates, time trends, and survival for 1366 GCTs in children 0 to 14 years old registered in the nationwide, population-based German Childhood Cancer Registry in 1987-2011...
January 2015: Pediatrics
Shioto Suzuki, Nobuya Kurabe, Ippei Ohnishi, Kazumasa Yasuda, Yoichiro Aoshima, Masaaki Naito, Fumihiko Tanioka, Haruhiko Sugimura
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy. Only two pediatric and three adult cases of pulmonary NMCs have been documented. In more than two-thirds of NMC cases, a gene fusion between NUT and BRD4 or BRD3 has been documented; other fusions are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old woman was admitted because of a rapidly progressing tumor of the lung with metastases to the breast and bone. A biopsy from the lung tumor revealed an undifferentiated neoplasm exhibiting round to oval nuclei with vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm...
May 2015: Pathology, Research and Practice
Bihui Yang, Li Wang, Xiaohua Luo, Liping Chen, Zesong Yang, Lin Liu
SPAG6, which is a novel cancer-testis antigen, is overexpressed in myeloid malignancies. Previously, SPAG6 was found in UPD (uniparental disomy) region of myeloid cell DNA from MDS patients and reported that SPAG6 may be a predictive marker of minimal residual disease in pediatric acute myeloid, but the biological role of SPAG6 in myeloid malignancies remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the expression and functional significance of SPAG6 in malignant myeloid hematologic cell lines...
February 2015: International Journal of Oncology
Eran Altman, Pamela Yango, Radwa Moustafa, James F Smith, Peter C Klatsky, Nam D Tran
Autologous spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation is a potential therapeutic modality for patients with azoospermia following cancer treatment. For this promise to be realized, definitive membrane markers of prepubertal and adult human SSCs must be characterized in order to permit SSC isolation and subsequent expansion. This study further characterizes the markers of male gonocytes, prespermatogonia, and SSCs in humans. Human fetal, prepubertal, and adult testicular tissues were analyzed by confocal microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and qRT-PCR for the expression of unique germ cell membrane markers...
October 2014: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Mi Hou, Emma Eriksson, Konstantin Svechnikov, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Olle Söder, Andreas Meinhardt, Lars Sävendahl
BACKGROUND: With increased long-term survivors of childhood cancer patients, therapy-associated infertility has become one of the most common late side-effects and significantly affects their life-quality. Therefore, evaluation of anti-cancer agents on male reproduction and infertility prevention are urgently demanding. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been launched in clinical trials for childhood cancers, however, its potential side effects on reproduction have so far been neither investigated experimentally nor reported in treated children...
2014: Molecular Cancer
Thomas F Kolon, C D Anthony Herndon, Linda A Baker, Laurence S Baskin, Cheryl G Baxter, Earl Y Cheng, Mireya Diaz, Peter A Lee, Carl J Seashore, Gregory E Tasian, Julia S Barthold
PURPOSE: Cryptorchidism is one of the most common pediatric disorders of the male endocrine glands and the most common genital disorder identified at birth. This guideline is intended to provide physicians and non-physician providers (primary care and specialists) with a consensus of principles and treatment plans for the management of cryptorchidism (typically isolated non-syndromic). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature was conducted using controlled vocabulary supplemented with key words relating to the relevant concepts of cryptorchidism...
August 2014: Journal of Urology
Claude Kollin, E Martin Ritzén
Incomplete descent of the testes is the most common genital anomaly in newborn boys. The prevalence varies with apparent geographical differences. The etiology of cryptorchidism is considered to be multifactorial (genetic, maternal, and environmental factors), and it occurs most often as an isolated disorder with no obvious cause. Cryptorchidism should not be left untreated, since there is an increased risk of developing testicular cancer and infertility/subfertility. However, the mode and timing of treatment, as well as the risks of subfertility and testicular cancer have long been controversial...
February 2014: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Lei Bao, Fanqi Bai, Satheesh Cheeyancheri Chencheri, Kenneth Lucas
Rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and Ewing's sarcoma are the most common types of sarcoma in children. Despite standard therapy, nearly one third of the patients with Ewing's sarcoma relapse, and there are limited options with curative potential. Immunotherapy is a promising approach as it can target tumor-specific antigens that are specifically expressed on tumors while sparing non-malignant cells. We have demonstrated that a demethylating chemotherapeutic drug, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine, DAC) can upregulate the expression of cancer-testis (CT) antigens, MHC molecules, and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 on pediatric sarcoma cell lines, resulting in enhanced killing of tumor cells by CT antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes derived from pediatric sarcoma patients...
June 2014: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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