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Facial anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166690/-facial-emotion-recognition-theory-of-mind-and-empathy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah, Tania Kuempfel, Frank Padberg, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Ulrich Palm
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, causes frequent disability, mood disorders, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. As a part of the last, social cognition is frequently disturbed in MS patients. It comprises empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues. Social cognitive deficits worsen affect decoding, interpersonal relationship, and quality of life. Despite the impact of these deficits on global functioning, only a small number of studies have investigated its correlations and overlaps with MS symptoms...
November 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122337/study-of-anatomical-variations-of-the-zygomaticofacial-foramen-and-calculation-of-reliable-reference-points-for-operation
#2
A Ferro, S Basyuni, C Brassett, V Santhanam
Dissection on to the facial aspect of the zygoma is common in procedures of the midface for trauma, craniofacial deformity, and cosmesis. These procedures carry the risk of injury to the neurovascular structures that exit from the zygomaticofacial foramen (ZFF). The purpose of this study was to map the ZFF, and to establish reliable reference points from which to identify it before and during operation. We also aimed to compare the anatomy of the ZFF between sexes and among geographical populations. A total of 429 adult skulls from nine geographical sites were used...
November 6, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115678/moderate-climate-signature-in-cranial-anatomy-of-late-holocene-human-populations-from-southern-south-america
#3
Lumila Paula Menéndez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111474/the-middle-temporal-artery-surgical-anatomy-and-exposure-for-cerebral-revascularization
#4
Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Michael T Lawton, Olivia Kola, Halima Tabani, Sonia Yousef, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Ivan El-Sayed, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: The middle temporal artery (MTA) is the proximal medial branch of the superficial temporal artery (STA), supplying the temporalis muscle along with deep temporal arteries. Its use in vascularized flaps for reconstructive and otologic procedures has been described, yet its potential use in neurosurgery is not studied. We report a novel technique for exposing the MTA and evaluated its characteristics for extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) cerebrovascular bypass. METHODS: After a curvilinear frontotemporal incision in 10 cadaveric specimens, the STA was dissected from distal to proximal...
October 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108544/volumetric-structural-rejuvenation-for-the-male-face
#5
REVIEW
Neil S Sadick
Fillers and toxins are safe, quick, and require no downtime; the immediately visible results can boost a man's self-esteem, confidence, youthfulness, and sense of competitiveness in the personal and professional realms of the world. The approach to using these agents has changed from ironing out the skin to remove wrinkles and lines to a restructuring of the 3-dimensional face. This new strategy, volumetric structural rejuvenation (VSR), relies on intimate knowledge of facial anatomy and the pathophysiology of aging...
January 2018: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089780/tailored-botulinum-toxin-type-a-injections-in-aesthetic-medicine-consensus-panel-recommendations-for-treating-the-forehead-based-on-individual-facial-anatomy-and-muscle-tone
#6
Javier Anido, Daniel Arenas, Cristina Arruabarrena, Alfonso Domínguez-Gil, Carlos Fajardo, Mar Mira, Javier Murillo, Natalia Ribé, Helga Rivera, Sofia Ruiz Del Cueto, Helder Silvestre, Marisa Tirado
BACKGROUND: Facial lines and wrinkles are strongly influenced by individual differences in anatomy and muscle activity and no single injection protocol will suit all patients. However, there is only limited information in the published literature on how to develop a tailored approach to botulinum toxin treatment. METHODS: An expert panel of physicians was convened to establish a consensus on developing an individualized approach to treatment of the forehead with incobotulinumtoxinA...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075156/skull-base-trauma-clinical-considerations-in-evaluation-and-diagnosis-and-review-of-management-techniques-and-surgical-approaches
#7
REVIEW
Jacob S Feldman, Soroush Farnoosh, Robert M Kellman, Sherard A Tatum
Traumatic injuries to the skull base can involve critical neurovascular structures and present with symptoms and signs that must be recognized by physicians tasked with management of trauma patients. This article provides a review of skull base anatomy and outlines demographic features in skull base trauma. The manifestations of various skull base injuries, including CSF leaks, facial paralysis, anosmia, and cranial nerve injury, are discussed, as are appropriate diagnostic and radiographic testing in patients with such injuries...
November 2017: Seminars in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068925/managing-alar-flare-in-rhinoplasty
#8
Rod J Rohrich, Menyoli M Malafa, Jamil Ahmad, Deniz S Basci
Alar flare is a common feature that contributes to the width of the lower third of the nose. In the right patient, alar flare reduction can improve nasal harmony and facial aesthetic balance; however, it is also difficult to correct if conducted inappropriately or overzealously. The unique anatomy and diverse morphologies of the alar lobule, and the dynamic relationship between flare and changes in tip projection, must be considered. The authors provide guidelines for flare reduction: when it is appropriate and how to tailor the excision pattern to safely and effectively refine nasal width...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056463/a-high-jugular-bulb-and-poor-development-of-perivestibular-aqueductal-air-cells-are-not-the-cause-of-endolymphatic-hydrops-in-patients-with-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#9
Ryohei Oya, Takao Imai, Takashi Sato, Atsuhiko Uno, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Suzuyo Okazaki, Yumi Ohta, Tadashi Kitahara, Arata Horii, Hidenori Inohara
OBJECTIVE: The presence of endolymphatic hydrops in the inner ear, which can be detected with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI), is widely recognized as the main pathological cause of Ménière's disease (MD). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the development of endolymphatic hydrops remains unclear. One hypothesis proposes a relationship between the presence of a high jugular bulb (HJB) and MD, which disrupts the vestibular aqueduct leading to the development of endolymphatic hydrops...
October 19, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034512/superficial-temporal-artery-perforator-flap-anatomic-study-of-number-and-reliability-of-distal-branches-of-the-superficial-temporal-artery-and-clinical-applications-in-three-cases
#10
Achille Aveta, Beniamino Brunetti, Stefania Tenna, Francesco Segreto, Paolo Persichetti
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available about the anatomical feasibility and clinical applications of flaps based on distal divisions of the superficial temporal artery (STA). The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the STA, focusing on the number and reliability of distal branches and to show representative cases for the use of such flaps for zygomatic, parieto-frontal and occipital reconstructions. METHODS: Fifty volunteers were examined bilaterally by Doppler to investigate the presence and variability of the distal divisions of STA branches...
October 16, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033216/anatomy-of-lower-eyelid-and-eyelid-cheek-junction
#11
A Mojallal, S Cotofana
BACKGROUND: Understanding the anatomy of the lower eyelid and the lid-cheek junction is important for surgical and non-surgical approaches. It is important to understand the correlation between the clinical presentation and the individual anatomy to direct an adequate treatment. METHODS: A review of the literature based on the authors experience combined with anatomical dissections was conducted to reveal the current concepts of the surgical and non-surgical anatomy...
October 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028860/-man-some-a-review-of-male-facial-aging-and-beauty
#12
Terrence Colin Keaney
<p>Gender plays a significant role in determining facial anatomy and behavior, both of which are key factors in the aging process. Understanding the pattern of male facial aging is critical when planning aesthetic treatments on men. Men develop more severe rhytides in a unique pattern, show increased periocular aging changes, and are more prone to hair loss. What also needs to be considered when planning a treatment is what makes men beautiful or "man-some". Male beauty strikes a balance between masculine and feminine facial features...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021615/a-new-pedicled-internal-mammary-osteomyocutaneous-chimeric-flap-pimoc-for-salvage-head-and-neck-reconstruction-anatomic-study-and-clinical-application
#13
Guilherme C Barreiro, Chelsea C Snider, Flavio H F Galvão, Rachel R Baptista, Kiril E Kasai, Daniel M Dos Anjos, Marcus C Ferreira
Well-vascularized composite tissue offers improved outcomes for complex head and neck reconstruction. Patients with vessel-depleted necks and failed reconstructions require alternative reconstructive options. We describe a pedicled internal mammary artery osteomyocutaneous chimeric flap (PIMOC) for salvage head and neck reconstruction. Bilateral dissections of 35 fresh cadavers were performed to study individual tissue components and vascular pedicles to develop the PIMOC technique. The flap was then utilized in a series of patients with vessel-depleted neck anatomy...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990258/baseline-connectome-modular-abnormalities-in-the-childhood-phase-of-a-longitudinal-study-on-individuals-with-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#14
Liang Zhan, Lisanne M Jenkins, Aifeng Zhang, Giorgio Conte, Angus Forbes, Danielle Harvey, Kathleen Angkustsiri, Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Courtney Durdle, Aaron Lee, Cyndi Schumann, Owen Carmichael, Kristopher Kalish, Alex D Leow, Tony J Simon
Occurring in at least 1 in 3,000 live births, chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) produces a complex phenotype that includes a constellation of medical complications such as congenital cardiac defects, immune deficiency, velopharyngeal dysfunction, and characteristic facial dysmorphic features. There is also an increased incidence of psychiatric diagnosis, especially intellectual disability and ADHD in childhood, lifelong anxiety, and a strikingly high rate of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, which occur in around 30% of adults with 22q11DS...
October 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980212/injectable-facial-fillers-imaging-features-complications-and-diagnostic-pitfalls-at-mri-and-pet-ct
#15
REVIEW
Pravin Mundada, Romain Kohler, Sana Boudabbous, Laurence Toutous Trellu, Alexandra Platon, Minerva Becker
Injectable fillers are widely used for facial rejuvenation, correction of disabling volumetric fat loss in HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy, Romberg disease, and post-traumatic facial disfiguring. The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the anatomy of facial fat compartments, as well as with the properties and key imaging features of commonly used facial fillers, filler-related complications, interpretation pitfalls, and dermatologic conditions mimicking filler-related complications. The distribution of facial fillers is characteristic and depends on the anatomy of the superficial fat compartments...
October 4, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979659/pan-asian-consensus-key-recommendations-for-adapting-the-world-congress-of-dermatology-consensus-on-combination-treatment-with-injectable-fillers-toxins-and-ultrasound-devices-in-asian-patients
#16
Yates Y Y Chao, Chiranjiv Chhabra, Niamh Corduff, Sabrina Guillen Fabi, Martina Kerscher, Stephanie C K Lam, Tatjana Pavicic, Berthold Rzany, Peter H L Peng, Atchima Suwanchinda, Fang-Wen Tseng, Kyle K Seo
BACKGROUND. The demand for minimally invasive aesthetic procedures has driven requests by physicians for guidance on their use in Asian patients, who have unique cultural preferences, social trends, and anatomy. However, few guidelines exist, particularly on combination treatment strategies for different facial shapes or indications such as the modification of face shapes to the "oval ideal."Physicians must, therefore, apply Caucasian patient-optimized guidelines to their Asian patients. METHODS. Eleven specialists developed a consensus on the use of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers, and microfocused ultrasound with visualization (MFU-V) devices in Asian patients on upper-, middle-, and lower-face indications, including strategies to modify different facial shapes to the oval shape...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979109/alveolar-ridge-atrophy-related-to-facial-morphology-in-edentulous-patients
#17
Joanna Kuć, Teresa Sierpińska, Maria Gołębiewska
OBJECTIVES: The morphology of the alveolar process determines the retention and stability of prosthetic restorations, thereby determining the result of the therapy. Considering that the edentulous jaws may be affected by the atrophy process, it was hypothesized that the morphology of the alveolar process of the maxilla may be dependent on the anterior facial height and anatomy of the mandible. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy edentulous Caucasian individuals were randomly chosen...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971627/the-functional-anatomy-of-nerves-innervating-the-ventral-grooved-blubber-of-fin-whales-balaenoptera-physalus
#18
Wayne Vogl, Hannes Petersen, Arlo Adams, Margo A Lillie, Robert E Shadwick
Nerves that supply the floor of the oral cavity in rorqual whales are extensible to accommodate the dramatic changes in tissue dimensions that occur during "lunge feeding" in this group. We report here that the large nerves innervating the muscle component of the ventral grooved blubber (VGB) in fin whales are branches of cranial nerve VII (facial nerve). Therefore, the muscles of the VGB are homologous to second branchial arch derived muscles, which in humans include the muscles of "facial expression." We speculate, based on the presence of numerous foramina on the dorsolateral surface of the mandibular bones, that general sensation from the VGB likely is carried by branches of the mandibular division (V3) of cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve), and that these small branches travel in the lipid-rich layer directly underlying the skin...
November 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958687/-clinical-analysis-before-surgery-in-facial-and-neck-rejuvenation
#19
M Rouif, P Bogaert
The first step to determine a medical or surgical intervention is the clinical exam. The clinical exam is the paramount step to provide a treatment plan that can be modified and individualized accounting the patient preferences. During the consultation for facial rejuvenation, attention should be paid to understand the patient's motivation and expectations. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and the natural history of ageing will facilitate the analysis of the face. Not only the degree of ptosis but also the degree of volume loss will need to be assessed, as well as the influence of the facial muscles, the skin quality, and the different causes of rythids...
October 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953522/use-of-fat-grafts-in-facial-reconstruction-on-the-wounded-soldiers-from-the-first-world-war-wwi-by-hippolyte-morestin-1869-1919
#20
Nadia Benmoussa, Kevin Hansen, Philippe Charlier
INTRODUCTION: During the Great War of 1914 to 1918, spectacular progress was made in the field of facial reconstruction. The sheer number and severity of facial lesions inflicted during the fighting obliged French and German surgeons to take a close interest in the treatment of patients wounded in such a manner. As head surgeon of the fifth division "blessés de la face" at the hospital of Val-de-Grace, Hippolyte Morestin was responsible for one of the largest surgical departments specializing in facial surgery and reconstruction during the war...
November 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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