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Facial anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445360/facial-danger-zones-techniques-to-maximize-safety-during-soft-tissue-filler-injections
#1
Jack F Scheuer, David A Sieber, Ronnie A Pezeshk, Andrew A Gassman, Carey F Campbell, Rod J Rohrich
Given the short recovery and immediate results, facial fillers have become a popular alternative to surgical rejuvenation of the face. Reported complications arising from facial filler injections include erythema, tissue loss, blindness, stroke, and even death. In this article, the authors describe their anatomically based techniques to minimize risk and maximize safety when injecting in the facial danger zones, including the glabella/brow, temporal region, perioral region, nasolabial fold, nose, and infraorbital region...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444223/gene-organizer-linking-genes-to-the-organs-they-affect
#2
David Gokhman, Guy Kelman, Adir Amartely, Guy Gershon, Shira Tsur, Liran Carmel
One of the biggest challenges in studying how genes work is understanding their effect on the physiology and anatomy of the body. Existing tools try to address this using indirect features, such as expression levels and biochemical pathways. Here, we present Gene ORGANizer (geneorganizer.huji.ac.il), a phenotype-based tool that directly links human genes to the body parts they affect. It is built upon an exhaustive curated database that links >7000 genes to ∼150 anatomical parts using >150 000 gene-organ associations...
April 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443600/retroauricular-approach-for-targeted-cochlear-therapy-experiments-in-wistar-albino-rats
#3
Selçuk Mülazimoğlu, Emre Ocak, Gülşah Kaygusuz, Mustafa Kürşat Gökcan
BACKGROUND: As the idea of stem cell technology in the treatment of sensorial hearing loss has emerged over the past decades, the need for in vivo models for related experiments becomes explicit. One of the most common experimental models for inner ear stem cell delivery experiments is the Wistar albino rat (WAR). AIMS: To investigate the surgical anatomy of the temporal bone of the WAR with respect to the dissection steps, operative techniques, and potential pitfalls from surgery...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434895/the-use-of-endoprotheses-for-patients-with-complex-asymmetry-a-clinical-case-study
#4
Mónica Umana, Thierry Piral
Facial asymmetry requires multidisciplinary management. In some cases, predictable problems due to congenital abnormalities can be corrected by early orthodontic treatment. Orthodontics is nevertheless often part of an orthosurgical treatment plan. The solutions are conventional and familiar: maxillomandibular rotation osteotomy and genioplasty. Many cases can be treated in this way, but there is often persistent residual asymmetry due to loss of volume that is not corrected by these techniques. The use of maxillo-acial endoprostheses designed on the basis of three-dimensional craniofacial analyses can rebalance volumes simply and with due regard to the patient's anatomy...
April 20, 2017: International Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430736/vertical-lifting-a-new-optimal-thread-lifting-technique-for-asians
#5
Seung Hoon Kang, Eun Jung Byun, Hei Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: With the evolution of facial rejuvenation methods, thread lifts have gained popularity among patients who seek cosmetic improvement. Absorbable wedge-shaped polydioxanone (PDO) sutures are currently available, and they are extremely popular in the aesthetic clinics in Korea. In case of midface and mandibular jowl lift, threads are most often inserted in an oblique manner with vectors of rejuvenation directed toward the temple. However, specific characteristics of skeletal anatomy should be considered when deciding which technique to use in Asians...
April 19, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414679/misses-opportunity-tof-diagnoses-in-4th-decade-of-life
#6
O Baniahmad, T Jarreau, A Johnson
CASE: A 40 year old woman with a history of HIV, congestive heart failure secondary to an unknown congenital heart defect, and hypertension presented to our emergency department with worsening edema. On room air, oxygen saturation was 55 percent . On 5L of oxygen via nasal cannula, oxygen saturation was 88 percent . Physical examination was notable for central cyanosis, facial and lid edema, a II/VI holosystolic murmur across right chest radiating to entire right back hemithorax, decreased breath sounds at bases with pulmonary crackles, clubbing of fingers and edema of bilateral lower extremities...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394862/the-facial-platysma-and-its-underappreciated-role-in-lower-face-dynamics-and-contour
#7
Ada R T de Almeida, Alessandra Romiti, Jean D A Carruthers
BACKGROUND: The platysma is a superficial muscle involved in important features of the aging neck. Vertical bands, horizontal lines, and loss of lower face contour are effectively treated with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). However, its pars facialis, mandibularis, and modiolaris have been underappreciated. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of BoNT-A treatment of the upper platysma and its impact on lower face dynamics and contour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases treated by an injection pattern encompassing the facial platysma components, aiming to block the lower face as a whole complex...
April 6, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394456/a-novel-approach-for-classifying-protruding-ears-is-easy-to-calculate-and-implement-in-daily-clinical-practice
#8
J A Lopes-Santos, Constantino Martins, J M La Fuente, M F Costa-Carvalho
AIM: Protruding ears is a prevalent deformity, with a reported incidence of 5% in the paediatric population, but it lacks a simple digital classification. The aim of this study was to find a parameter that would objectively allow the photographic classification of protrusion, by comparing frontal facial images of patients with protruding ears with aged-matched controls. METHODS: This prospective cohort study compared the frontal facial images of 105 patients with protruding ears with 112 aged-matched controls without protruding ears...
April 10, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388396/acute-facial-nerve-palsy-with-ipsilateral-soft-palate-ulcers
#9
C Mauprivez, C Comte, M Labrousse, R H Khonsari
Ramsay-Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a rare complication of herpes zoster in which reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection occurs in the geniculate ganglion. Major clinical findings are peripheral facial nerve palsy accompanied by ipsilateral ear pain and erythematous vesicular rash on the external ear (herpes zoster oticus) and in the mouth. Thus, diagnosis of RHS is usually clinical. However, auricular herpetic eruption is not always present, making diagnosis more difficult. This report describes a case of RHS with left facial palsy without skin lesions in 60-year-old woman...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375913/bell-s-palsy
#10
Stephen G Reich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bell's palsy is a common outpatient problem, and while the diagnosis is usually straightforward, a number of diagnostic pitfalls can occur, and a lengthy differential diagnosis exists. Recognition and management of Bell's palsy relies on knowledge of the anatomy and function of the various motor and nonmotor components of the facial nerve. Avoiding diagnostic pitfalls relies on recognizing red flags or features atypical for Bell's palsy, suggesting an alternative cause of peripheral facial palsy...
April 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346291/round-and-oval-window-anatomic-variability-its-implication-for-the-vibroplasty-technique
#11
Marta Mancheño, Miguel Aristegui, Jose Ramon Sañudo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the anatomical variability of round and oval window regions and its relationship with their closest structures, to determine its implication on the fitting and stabilization of the middle ear implant Vibrant Soundbridge. METHODS: Variations of the anatomy of round and oval window regions were assessed in a total of 85 human dissected temporal bones. Afterward, we evaluated the adaptation and subsequent stabilization of the floating mass transducer (FMT) of the Vibrant Soundbridge in 67 cases in round window (RW) and in 22 cases in oval window (OW), and the influence that the variability of the different anatomical features examined had on this stabilization...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340646/essential-anatomy-and-evaluation-for-functional-rhinoplasty
#12
REVIEW
Justin C Sowder, Andrew J Thomas, Preston Daniel Ward
The nose, a prominent facial feature in defining facial beauty, is responsible for the fundamental physiologic functions of heating, humidifying, and filtering inspired air. When the normal balance of laminar and turbulent airflow become disturbed due to anatomic abnormalities, nasal obstruction may result. To successfully restore these basic physiologic functions, the surgeon must have a detailed understanding of the nasal anatomy and be able to successfully identify the specific cause of the nasal obstruction...
May 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326716/-zygomaticomaxillary-complex-fractures-with-infraorbital-nerve-damage
#13
Su Jianan, Xu Bing
Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture is a common type of maxillofacial fracture. In addition to facial depression and diplopia, paresthesia of the lower eyelid, malar regions, nose skin, upper lip skin, and mucous membranes occurs because of infraorbital nerve injury. This article reviewed the anatomy, diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prognosis of ZMC fracture-related infraorbital nerve injury.
October 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322125/anatomy-specific-virtual-reality-simulation-in-temporal-bone-dissection
#14
Garrett D Locketz, Justin T Lui, Sonny Chan, Kenneth Salisbury, Joseph C Dort, Patricia Youngblood, Nikolas H Blevins
Objective To evaluate the effect of anatomy-specific virtual reality (VR) surgical rehearsal on surgeon confidence and temporal bone dissection performance. Study Design Prospective pre- and poststudy of a novel virtual surgical rehearsal platform. Setting Academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency training programs. Subjects and Methods Sixteen otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents from 2 North American training institutions were recruited. Surveys were administered to assess subjects' baseline confidence in performing 12 subtasks of cortical mastoidectomy with facial recess...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317556/skull-5-from-dmanisi-descriptive-anatomy-comparative-studies-and-evolutionary-significance
#15
G Philip Rightmire, Marcia S Ponce de León, David Lordkipanidze, Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer
A fifth hominin skull (cranium D4500 and mandible D2600) from Dmanisi is massively constructed, with a large face and a very small brain. Traits documented for the first time in a basal member of the Homo clade include the uniquely low ratio of endocranial volume to basicranial width, reduced vertex height, angular vault profile, smooth nasal sill coupled with a long and sloping maxillary clivus, elongated palate, and tall mandibular corpus. The convex clivus and receding symphysis of skull 5 produce a muzzle-like form similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317283/radiological-and-microsurgical-anatomy-for-variation-of-the-mandible-comparative-study-of-human-and-macaca-fascicularis
#16
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Yoko Tabira, Eishi Hirasaki, Christian Fisahn, R Shane Tubbs, Jingo Kusukawa, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
Recent studies using cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) have added to our understanding of anatomical variation in the mandible of humans. However, the distribution of nerves cannot be revealed by CBCT. There have been investigations of the distribution of nerves relating to the mandible, but some proposed causes of these variations remain controversial. In this study, we observed a total of 10 sides from five mandibles of Macaca fascicularis of unknown age and sex using CBCT and dissection under stereomicroscopy...
March 20, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314420/sport-injuries-of-the-ear-and-temporal-bone
#17
REVIEW
L Mariel Osetinsky, Grant S Hamilton, Matthew L Carlson
In cases of head trauma, the ear should be evaluated in all of its components. A good understanding of otologic and skull base anatomy enables a thorough trauma assessment of this complex anatomic region. Auricular laceration, abrasion, avulsion, hematoma, frostbite, otitis externa, exostosis, tympanic membrane perforation, ossicular discontinuity, perilymphatic fistula, labyrinthine concussion, temporal bone fracture, facial nerve paresis, and sensorineural hearing loss are a few of the more common otologic injuries seen in active patients...
April 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299269/temporalis-pull-through-vs-fascia-lata-augmentation-in-facial-reanimation-for-facial-paralysis
#18
S M Balaji
OBJECTIVES: Surgical rehabilitation of facial palsy is challenging as each case is unique and success rate is often unpredictable. In one technique, temporalis is elevated from origin preserving vessels, and this elevation increases the length which is tunneled into buccal tissues (pull-through technique, Group A). In the other technique, a harvested fascia lata is attached to temporalis after a coronoidectomy release and the fascia lata is attached to the modiolus (Group B). The aim of this study is to compare the two different surgical techniques...
July 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293514/platysma-motor-nerve-transfer-for-restoring-marginal-mandibular-nerve-function
#19
Andres Rodriguez-Lorenzo, David Jensson, Wolfgang J Weninger, Melanie Schmid, Stefan Meng, Chieh-Han John Tzou
BACKGROUND: Injuries of the marginal mandibular nerve (MMN) of the facial nerve result in paralysis of the lower lip muscle depressors and an asymmetrical smile. Nerve reconstruction, when possible, is the method of choice; however, in cases of long nerve gaps or delayed nerve reconstruction, conventional nerve repairs may be difficult to perform or may provide suboptimal outcomes. Herein, we investigate the anatomical technical feasibility of transfer of the platysma motor nerve (PMN) to the MMN for restoration of lower lip function, and we present a clinical case where this nerve transfer was successfully performed...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293488/aesthetic-applications-of-botulinum-toxin-a-in-asians-an-international-multidisciplinary-pan-asian-consensus
#20
Hema Sundaram, Po-Han Huang, Nai-Jen Hsu, Chang Hun Huh, Woffles T L Wu, Yan Wu, Daniel Cassuto, Martina J Kerscher, Kyle Koo-Il Seo
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A remains the most popular nonsurgical aesthetic treatment worldwide. Previous consensus statements have focused on Caucasians and on Koreans as generally representative of Asians. However, indications and dosages vary among different ethnic groups. This publication reports the results of a multidisciplinary, pan-Asian consensus focusing on incobotulinumtoxinA. METHODS: A consensus group of plastic surgeons and dermatologists from Asia, Europe, and the United States convened for a live meeting in Asia, followed by a questionnaire-based Delphi procedure...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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