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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445980/the-pp4r1-sub-unit-of-protein-phosphatase-pp4-is-essential-for-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-by-merkel-polyomavirus-small-tumour-antigen
#1
Hussein Abdul-Sada, Marietta Müller, Rajni Mehta, Rachel Toth, J Simon C Arthur, Adrian Whitehouse, Andrew Macdonald
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with a high metastatic potential. The majority of MCC cases are caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), through expression of the virus-encoded tumour antigens. Whilst mechanisms attributing tumour antigen expression to transformation are being uncovered, little is known of the mechanisms by which MCPyV persists in the host. We previously identified the MCPyV small T antigen (tAg) as a novel inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) signalling and a modulator of the host anti-viral response...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398356/snp-based-hla-allele-tagging-imputation-and-association-with-antiepileptic-drug-induced-cutaneous-reactions-in-hong-kong-han-chinese
#2
H Gui, M Kwok, L Baum, P C Sham, P Kwan, S S Cherny
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes control the regulation of the human immune system and are involved in immune-related diseases. Population surveys on relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and HLA alleles are essential to conduct genetic association between HLA variants and diseases. Samples were obtained from our in-house database for epilepsy genetics and pharmacogenetics research. Using 184 epilepsy patients with both genome-wide SNP array and HLA-A/B candidate gene sequencing data, we sought tagging SNPs that completely represent sixHLA risk alleles; in addition, a Hong Kong population-specific reference panel was constructed for SNP-based HLA imputation...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397982/generation-of-chimeric-minipigs-by-aggregating-4-to-8-cell-stage-blastomeres-from-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-with-the-tracing-of-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#3
Huili Ji, Chuan Long, Chong Feng, Ningning Shi, Yingdi Jiang, Guomin Zeng, Xirui Li, Jingjing Wu, Lin Lu, Shengsheng Lu, Dengke Pan
BACKGROUND: Blastocyst complementation is an important technique for generating chimeric organs in organ-deficient pigs, which holds great promise for solving the problem of a shortage of organs for human transplantation procedures. Porcine chimeras have been generated using embryonic germ cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells; however, there are no authentic pluripotent stem cells for pigs. In previous studies, blastomeres from 4- to 8-cell-stage parthenogenetic embryos were able to generate chimeric fetuses efficiently, but the resulting fetuses did not produce live-born young...
April 11, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371113/simulated-sunlight-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-for-melanoma-skin-cancer-by-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-gold-nanocluster-graphene-heterogeneous-nanocomposites
#4
Yan Cheng, Yun Chang, Yanlin Feng, Ning Liu, Xiujuan Sun, Yuqing Feng, Xi Li, Haiyuan Zhang
Simulated sunlight has promise as a light source able to alleviate the severe pain associated with patients during photodynamic therapy (PDT); however, low sunlight utilization efficiency of traditional photosensitizers dramatically limits its application. Titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-gold-nanocluster-graphene (TAG) heterogeneous nanocomposites are designed to efficiently utilize simulated sunlight for melanoma skin cancer PDT. The narrow band gap in gold nanoclusters (Au NCs), and staggered energy bands between Au NCs, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), and graphene can result in efficient utilization of simulated sunlight and separation of electron-hole pairs, facilitating the production of abundant hydroxyl and superoxide radicals...
March 31, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368887/uptake-of-an-acrochordon-incidentally-detected-on-68ga-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet-ct
#5
Gozde Daglioz Gorur, Turkay Hekimsoy, Serkan Isgoren, Aysun Sikar Akturk, Hakan Demir
Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is a promising tool for imaging of prostate cancer. Ga-PSMA PET/CT uptake of prostate cancer and its metastases are reflective of significant overexpression of PSMA. However, PSMA expression of benign neoplasms and nonprostate epithelial malignancies is not very well defined. We report a moderate Ga-PSMA uptake of an acrochordon (skin tag), which was incidentally found in a patient referred for staging prostate cancer. Acrochordon is a frequent, small, soft, skin-colored or hyperpigmented, benign, and usually pedunculated neoplasm of the skin...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362690/perianal-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-is-associated-with-a-distinct-phenotype-and-greater-inflammatory-burden
#6
Amit Assa, Michal Amitai, Mary-Louise Greer, Denise A Castro, Ruth Cytter Kuint, Maria Martínez-León, Izabela Herman-Sucharska, Eva Coppenrath, Sudha Anupindi, Alexander Towbin, Douglas Moote, Osnat Konen, Li-Tal Pratt, Anne Griffiths, Dan Turner
BACKGROUND: Data on the outcomes of children with perianal Crohn's disease (pCD) are limited, although its presence is often used for justifying early use of biologics. We aimed to assess whether pCD in children is associated with more severe outcomes as found in adults. METHODS: Data were extracted from the ImageKids database, a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study. The study enrolled 246 children at disease onset or thereafter. All patients underwent comprehensive clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic evaluation at enrollment; 98 children had repeat evaluation at 18 months...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340685/research-techniques-made-simple-experimental-methodology-for-single-cell-mass-cytometry
#7
Tiago R Matos, Hongye Liu, Jerome Ritz
Growing recognition of the complexity of interactions within cellular systems has fueled the development of mass cytometry. The precision of time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with the labeling of specific ligands with mass tags enables detection and quantification of more than 40 markers at a single-cell resolution. The 135 available detection channels allow simultaneous study of additional characteristics of complex biological systems across millions of cells. Cutting-edge mass cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) can profoundly affect our knowledge of cell population heterogeneity and hierarchy, cellular state, multiplexed signaling pathways, proteolysis products, and mRNA transcripts...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334762/missense-uros-mutations-causing-congenital-erythropoietic-porphyria-reduce-uros-homeostasis-that-can-be-rescued-by-proteasome-inhibition
#8
Jean-Marc Blouin, Ganeko Bernardo-Seisdedos, Emma Sasso, Julie Esteve, Cécile Ged, Magalie Lalanne, Arantza Sanz-Parra, Pedro Urquiza, Hubert de Verneuil, Oscar Millet, Emmanuel Richard
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an inborn error of heme biosynthesis characterized by uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) deficiency resulting in deleterious porphyrin accumulation in blood cells responsible for hemolytic anemia and cutaneous photosensitivity. We analyzed here the molecular basis of UROS impairment associated with twenty nine UROS missense mutations actually described in CEP patients. Using a computational and biophysical joint approach we predicted that most disease-causing mutations would affect UROS folding and stability...
April 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317204/cockroach-allergen-serine-proteinases-isolation-sequencing-and-signalling-via-proteinase-activated-receptor-2
#9
D J Polley, K Mihara, R Ramachandran, H Vliagoftis, B Renaux, M Saifeddine, M O Daines, S Boitano, M D Hollenberg
BACKGROUND: Allergy to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a significant asthma risk factor for inner-city communities. Cockroach, like other allergens, contains trypsin-like enzyme activity that contributes to allergenicity and airway inflammation by activating proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). To date, the enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity of German cockroach allergen have not been characterized. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify, isolate and characterize the trypsin-like proteinases in German cockroach allergen extracts used for clinical skin tests...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289661/early-experience-with-a-partial-stapled-hemorrhoidopexy-for-treating-patients-with-grades-iii-iv-prolapsing-hemorrhoids
#10
Hyeonseok Jeong, Sunghwan Hwang, Kil O Ryu, Jiyong Lim, Hyun Tae Kim, Hye Mi Yu, Jihoon Yoon, Ju-Young Lee, Hyoung Rae Kim, Young Gil Choi
PURPOSE: Circular stapled hemorrhoidopexy (CSH) is widely used to treat patients with grades III-IV hemorrhoids because of less pain and short hospital stay. However, this procedure is associated with some complications, such as urge to defecate, anal stenosis, staple line dehiscence, abscess and sepsis. To avoid these complications, surgeons perform a partial stapled hemorrhoidopexy (PSH). The aim of this study is to present our early experience with the PSH. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 58 patients with hemorrhoids who were treated with a PSH at Busan Hang-Un Hospital from January 2016 to June 2016...
February 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255959/a-novel-ccm1-krit1-heterozygous-nonsense-mutation-c-1864c-t-associated-with-familial-cerebral-cavernous-malformation-a-genetic-insight-from-an-8-year-continuous-observational-study
#11
Chenlong Yang, Van Halm-Lutterodt Nicholas, Jizong Zhao, Bingquan Wu, Haohao Zhong, Yan Li, Yulun Xu
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a congenital vascular abnormality that predominantly affects the central nervous system, but that sometimes encroaches other vital tissues, including the retina, skin, and even liver. The familial form of CCM (FCCM) is considered to be an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance and variable expression, which is often attributed to mutations in three genes: CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3. We screened a Chinese family diagnosed with FCCM by using Sanger sequencing...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249301/recombinant-human-acidic-fibroblast-growth-factor-afgf-expressed-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-potentially-inhibits-skin-photoaging
#12
Jang-Ho Ha, Ha-Neul Kim, Ki-Beom Moon, Jae-Heung Jeon, Dai-Hyun Jung, Su-Jung Kim, Hugh S Mason, Seo-Yeon Shin, Hyun-Soon Kim, Kyung-Mok Park
Responding to the need for recombinant acidic fibroblast growth factor in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, we established a scalable expression system for recombinant human aFGF using transient and a DNA replicon vector expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Recombinant human-acidic fibroblast growth factor was recovered following Agrobacterium infiltration of N. benthamiana. The optimal time point at which to harvest recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor expressing leaves was found to be 4 days post-infiltration, before necrosis was evident...
March 1, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246361/new-mouse-model-for-chronic-infections-by-gram-negative-bacteria-enabling-the-study-of-anti-infective-efficacy-and-host-microbe-interactions
#13
Daniel Pletzer, Sarah C Mansour, Kelli Wuerth, Negin Rahanjam, Robert E W Hancock
Only a few, relatively cumbersome animal models enable long-term Gram-negative bacterial infections that mimic human situations, where untreated infections can last for weeks. Here, we describe a simple murine cutaneous abscess model that enables chronic or progressive infections, depending on the subcutaneously injected bacterial strain. In this model, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis epidemic isolate LESB58 caused localized high-density skin and soft tissue infections and necrotic skin lesions for up to 10 days but did not disseminate in either CD-1 or C57BL/6 mice...
February 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213955/the-skin-barrier-function-gene-spink5-is-associated-with-challenge-proven-ige-mediated-food-allergy-in-infants
#14
Sarah E Ashley, Hern-Tze Tina Tan, Peter Vuillermin, Shyamali C Dharmage, Mimi L K Tang, Jennifer Koplin, Lyle C Gurrin, Adrian Lowe, Caroline Lodge, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, John Molloy, Pamela Martin, Melanie C Matheson, Richard Saffery, Katrina J Allen, Justine A Ellis, David Martino
BACKGROUND: A defective skin barrier is hypothesised to be an important route of sensitisation to dietary antigens, and may lead to food allergy in some children. Missense mutations in the Serine peptidase inhibitor kazal type 5 (SPINK5) skin barrier gene have previously been associated with allergic conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether genetic variants in and around SPINK5 are associated with IgE mediated food allergy. METHOD: We genotyped 71 'tag' single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within a region spanning ~263 kilobases (kb) including SPINK5 (~61kb) in n=722 (n=367 food allergic, n=199 food sensitised, tolerant and n=156 non-food allergic controls) 12-month infants (discovery sample) phenotyped for food allergy with the gold standard oral food challenge (OFC)...
February 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207759/investigations-on-therapeutic-glucocerebrosidases-through-paired-detection-with-fluorescent-activity-based-probes
#15
Wouter W Kallemeijn, Saskia Scheij, Sascha Hoogendoorn, Martin D Witte, Daniela Herrera Moro Chao, Cindy P A A van Roomen, Roelof Ottenhoff, Herman S Overkleeft, Rolf G Boot, Johannes M F G Aerts
Deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) causes Gaucher disease (GD). In the common non-neuronopathic GD type I variant, glucosylceramide accumulates primarily in the lysosomes of visceral macrophages. Supplementing storage cells with lacking enzyme is accomplished via chronic intravenous administration of recombinant GBA containing mannose-terminated N-linked glycans, mediating the selective uptake by macrophages expressing mannose-binding lectin(s). Two recombinant GBA preparations with distinct N-linked glycans are registered in Europe for treatment of type I GD: imiglucerase (Genzyme), contains predominantly Man(3) glycans, and velaglucerase (Shire PLC) Man(9) glycans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115230/time-resolved-fluorescence-microscopy-flim-as-an-analytical-tool-in-skin-nanomedicine
#16
REVIEW
Ulrike Alexiev, Pierre Volz, Alexander Boreham, Robert Brodwolf
The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief, and for monitoring of disease progression. Topical application of drug-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of skin disorders is a promising strategy to overcome the stratum corneum, the upper layer of the skin, which represents an effective physical and biochemical barrier. The understanding of drug penetration into skin and enhanced penetration into skin facilitated by nanocarriers requires analytical tools that ideally allow to visualize the skin, its morphology, the drug carriers, drugs, their transport across the skin and possible interactions, as well as effects of the nanocarriers within the different skin layers...
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109500/is-routine-audiometric-testing-necessary-for-children-with-isolated-preauricular-lesions
#17
Grace T Wu, Conor Devine, Allen Xu, Katie Geelan-Hansen, Samantha Anne
INTRODUCTION: Preauricular lesions, including tags, pits, sinuses, and cysts are commonly seen. Some studies have shown increased incidence of hearing loss in these patients but other studies have failed to corroborate this finding. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of hearing loss in patients with isolated preauricular lesions. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all pediatric otolaryngology patients seen at a tertiary academic center between 2008 and 2014...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100779/intramembrane-proteolysis-of-astrotactins
#18
Hao Chang, Philip M Smallwood, John Williams, Jeremy Nathans
Astrotactins are vertebrate-specific membrane proteins implicated in neuron-glia interactions during central nervous system development and in hair follicle polarity during skin development. By studying epitope-tagged derivatives of mouse astrotactin-2 (Astn2) produced in transfected cells, we determined that the amino and carboxyl termini reside in the extracellular space and are initially linked by two transmembrane segments and a single cytoplasmic domain. We further show that Astn2 undergoes proteolytic cleavage in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and that a disulfide bond holds the resulting two fragments together...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090468/clinical-features-and-extraintestinal-manifestations-of-crohn-disease-in-children
#19
Young Ah Lee, Peter Chun, Eun Ha Hwang, Sang Wook Mun, Yeoun Joo Lee, Jae Hong Park
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) of Crohn disease (CD) in Korean pediatric patients. METHODS: The medical records of 73 children diagnosed with CD were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, including CD phenotype at diagnosis based on the Montreal classification, and clinical features and course of EIMs were investigated. RESULTS: Fifty-two (71...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076468/phenotypic-diversity-and-selection-maintain-leishmania-amazonensis-infectivity-in-balb-c-mouse-model
#20
Benoît Espiau, Virginia Vilhena, Armelle Cuvillier, Aldina Barral, Gilles Merlin
Leishmania are protozoan parasites that show remarkable diversity, as revealed by the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis, which can range from mild skin lesions to severe metastatic cutaneous/mucosal lesions. The exact nature and extent of Leishmania phenotypic diversity in establishing infection is not fully understood. In order to try to understand some aspects of this diversity, we subcutaneously infected BALB/c mice with first and second generation subclones of a L. amazonensis strain isolated from a patient (BA125) and examined in vivo lesion growth rate and antimony susceptibility...
January 1, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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