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"neonatal nutrition"

Mary J Berry, Anne L Jaquiery, Mark H Oliver, Jane E Harding, Frank H Bloomfield
The perinatal environment has a major influence on long-term health and disease risk. Preterm birth alters early-life environment and is associated with altered metabolic function in adulthood. Whether preterm birth per se or the early nutritional interventions used to support growth in preterm infants underpins this association is unknown. Lambs born preterm, following dexamethasone induction of labour, or spontaneously at term were randomised to receive nutrient supplementation, analogous to the milk fortifier used clinically or water as a control for the first 2 weeks after birth...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Flaminia Cesare Marincola, Sara Corbu, Milena Lussu, Antonio Noto, Angelica Dessì, Stefania Longo, Elisa Civardi, Francesca Garofoli, Beatrice Grenci, Elisa Mongini, Andrea Budelli, Alessia Grinzato, Francesca Fasano, Vassilios Fanos, Mauro Stronati
NMR-based metabolomics was used to compare the metabolic urinary profiles of exclusively breast-fed term infants (n = 11) with those of a double-blinded controlled trial with 49 formula-fed term newborns randomized to receive either an infant formula enriched by functional ingredients (n = 24) or a standard formula (n = 25). Anthropometric measurements and urine samples were taken at enrollment (within the first month of life), at around 60 days of life, and at the end of study period (average age of 130 days)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Anne L Jaquiery, Sharon S Park, Hui Hui Phua, Mary J Berry, Daphne Meijler, Jane E Harding, Mark H Oliver, Frank H Bloomfield
BACKGROUND: The nutritional plane and composition during fetal life can impact upon growth and epigenetic regulation of genes affecting pancreatic β-cell development and function. However, it is not clear whether β-cell development can be altered by nutritional factors or growth rate after birth. We therefore investigated the effect of neonatal nutritional supplements on growth, glucose tolerance, and pancreatic development in lambs. METHODS: Newborn lambs were randomized to daily nutritional supplements, calculated to increase macronutrient intake to a similar degree as human breast milk fortifier, or an equivalent volume of water, for 2 wk while continuing to suckle ewe milk...
December 2016: Pediatric Research
Pilar Argente-Arizón, Purificación Ros, Francisca Díaz, Esther Fuente-Martin, David Castro-González, Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Garrido, Vicente Barrios, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
BACKGROUND: Males and females respond differently to diverse metabolic situations. Being raised in a small litter is reported to cause overnutrition that increases weight gain and predisposes an individual to metabolic disturbances in adulthood; however, existing data are inconsistent. Indeed, significant weight gain and/or metabolic disturbances, such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, are sometimes not encountered. We hypothesized that these inconsistencies could be due to the animal's sex and/or age at which metabolic parameters are measured...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Jennifer C North, Kristine C Jordan, Julie Metos, John F Hurdle
Nutrition care and metabolic control contribute to clinical patient outcomes. Biomedical informatics applications represent a way to potentially improve quality and efficiency of nutrition management. We performed a systematic literature review to identify clinical decision support and computerized provider order entry systems used to manage nutrition care. Online research databases were searched using a specific set of keywords. Additionally, bibliographies were referenced for supplemental citations. Four independent reviewers selected sixteen studies out of 364 for review...
2015: AMIA ... Annual Symposium Proceedings
Angelica Dessì, Antonio Murgia, Rocco Agostino, Maria Grazia Pattumelli, Andrea Schirru, Paola Scano, Vassilios Fanos, Pierluigi Caboni
In this study, a gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics study was applied to examine urine metabolite profiles of different classes of neonates under different nutrition regimens. The study population included 35 neonates, exclusively either breastfed or formula milk fed, in a seven-day timeframe. Urine samples were collected from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), large for gestational age (LGA), and appropriate gestational age (AGA) neonates. At birth, IUGR and LGA neonates showed similarities in their urine metabolite profiles that differed from AGA...
February 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Barbara E Cormack, Nicholas D Embleton, Johannes B van Goudoever, William W Hay, Frank H Bloomfield
The ultimate goal of neonatal nutrition care is optimal growth, neurodevelopment, and long-term health for preterm babies. International consensus is that increased energy and protein intakes in the neonatal period improve growth and neurodevelopment, but after more than 100 y of research the optimum intakes of energy and protein remain unknown. We suggest an important factor contributing to the lack of progress is the lack of a standardized approach to reporting nutritional intake data and growth in the neonatal literature...
June 2016: Pediatric Research
Michelle L Baack, Susan E Puumala, Stephen E Messier, Deborah K Pritchett, William S Harris
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid (FA) important for health and neurodevelopment. Premature infants are at risk of DHA deficiency and circulating levels directly correlate with health outcomes. Most supplementation strategies have focused on increasing DHA content in mother's milk or infant formula. However, extremely premature infants may not reach full feedings for weeks and commercially available parenteral lipid emulsions do not contain preformed DHA, so blood levels decline rapidly after birth...
April 2016: Lipids
Malgorzata S Martin-Gronert, Claire J Stocker, Edward T Wargent, Roselle L Cripps, Alastair S Garfield, Zorica Jovanovic, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Giles S H Yeo, Michael A Cawthorne, Jonathan R S Arch, Lora K Heisler, Susan E Ozanne
Although obesity is a global epidemic, the physiological mechanisms involved are not well understood. Recent advances reveal that susceptibility to obesity can be programmed by maternal and neonatal nutrition. Specifically, a maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy causes decreased intrauterine growth, rapid postnatal catch-up growth and an increased risk for diet-induced obesity. Given that the synthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is nutritionally regulated and 5-HT is a trophic factor, we hypothesised that maternal diet influences fetal 5-HT exposure, which then influences development of the central appetite network and the subsequent efficacy of 5-HT to control energy balance in later life...
April 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Keshav Thakur, Akshay Anand
Milk has been considered as a natural source of nutrition for decades. Milk is known to be nutrient-rich which aids the growth and development of the human body. Milk contains both macro- and micronutrients. Breast milk is widely regarded as the optimal source of neonatal nutrition due to its composition of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and antibodies. However, despite the wide use of milk products, investigations into the role of milk in degenerative diseases have been limited. This review will examine the relationship between the β-casein gene found in bovine milk and disease states by using age-related macular degeneration as an example...
October 2015: Annals of Neurosciences
Hanna-Maria Matinolli, Petteri Hovi, Satu Männistö, Marika Sipola-Leppänen, Johan G Eriksson, Outi Mäkitie, Anna-Liisa Järvenpää, Sture Andersson, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal nutrition during fetal life and early childhood may be important in early programming of health and disease. Preterm infants born with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) frequently receive inadequate neonatal nutrition; the long-term consequences are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between early macronutrient intake and body composition in young adults born with VLBW. METHODS: We collected comprehensive information on daily nutritional intake during the initial hospital stay for 127 participants of the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults...
September 2015: Journal of Nutrition
Jean-Michel Hascoët
The multifactorial nature of perinatal growth is now well established. The perinatal environment modulates each infant's genetic potential. Antenatal nutrition is dependent on maternal nutrition and is also subject to environmental factors such as tobacco smoke, which can significantly impact infant development. Current neonatal nutritional guidelines, aimed primarily at ensuring good nutrient tolerance, may no longer be optimal. Indeed, they can lead to malnutrition and growth retardation, and attempts to "catch up" through increased protein and calorie intake may have unwanted effects...
December 2013: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Arash Safavi, Erik D Skarsgard
Gastroschisis (GS) is a structural defect of the anterior abdominal wall, usually diagnosed antenatally, that occurs with a frequency of approximately 4 per 10,000 pregnancies. Babies born with GS require neonatal intensive care and surgical management of the abdominal wall defect soon after birth. Although contemporary survival rates for GS are over 90%, these babies are at risk for significant morbidity, and require 4 to 6 weeks of costly, resource-intensive care in specialized neonatal units. Much consideration has been given to how best to treat the abdominal wall defect of GS...
May 2015: Surgical Technology International
Melissa S Rice, Christina J Valentine
Neonatal nutrition adequacy is often determined by infant weight gain. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about neonatal body composition and the use of body composition as a measure for adequate neonatal nutrition. Unlike traditional anthropometric measures of height and weight, body composition measurements account for fat vs nonfat mass gains. This provides a more accurate picture of neonatal composition of weight gain. Providing adequate neonatal nutrition in the form of quantity and composition can be a challenge, especially when considering the delicate balance of providing adequate nutrition to preterm infants for catch-up growth...
October 2015: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Scott C Denne
Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention...
April 2015: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Brandon D Kayser, Michael I Goran, Sebastien G Bouret
Obesity causes white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and insulin resistance in some, but not all individuals. Here, we used a mouse model of early postnatal overfeeding to determine the role of neonatal nutrition in lifelong WAT inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. C57BL/6J mice were reared in small litters of 3 (SL) or normal litters of 7 pups (NL) and fed either regular chow or a 60% high fat diet (HFD) from 5 to 17 weeks. At weaning, SL mice did not develop WAT inflammation despite increased fat mass, although there was an up-regulation of WAT Arg1 and Tlr4 expression...
2015: PloS One
Emily C Gritz, Vineet Bhandari
The field of genomics has expanded into subspecialties such as metagenomics over the course of the last decade and a half. The development of massively parallel sequencing capabilities has allowed for increasingly detailed study of the genome of the human microbiome, the microbial super organ that resides symbiotically within the mucosal tissues and integumentary system of the human host. The gut microbiome, and particularly the study of its origins in neonates, has become subtopics of great interest within the field of genomics...
2015: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Kristen L Beck, Darren Weber, Brett S Phinney, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Katie Hinde, Bo Lönnerdal, Ian Korf, Danielle G Lemay
Milk has been well established as the optimal nutrition source for infants, yet there is still much to be understood about its molecular composition. Therefore, our objective was to develop and compare comprehensive milk proteomes for human and rhesus macaques to highlight differences in neonatal nutrition. We developed a milk proteomics technique that overcomes previous technical barriers including pervasive post-translational modifications and limited sample volume. We identified 1606 and 518 proteins in human and macaque milk, respectively...
May 1, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
Roula Merheb, Chitra Arumugam, Wonik Lee, Marc Collin, Caroline Nguyen, Sharon Groh-Wargo, Suchitra Nelson
BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants miss out on the period of greatest mineral accretion that occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and are at higher risk of enamel defects. No studies have well described the relationship between neonatal nutrition and dental outcomes in preterm, VLBW infants. The objective of this study was to assess the differences in nutrition biomarkers, feeding intake, and comorbidities among VLBW infants with and without enamel defects. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of VLBW infants recruited for an ongoing longitudinal dental study between 2007 and 2010 was done...
August 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Fanny B Morel, Raish Oozeer, Hugues Piloquet, Thomas Moyon, Anthony Pagniez, Jan Knol, Dominique Darmaun, Catherine Michel
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence suggests that early nutrition has programming effects on adult health. Identifying mechanisms underlying nutritional programming would aid in the design of new disease prevention strategies. The intestinal microbiota could be a key player in this programming because it affects host metabolic homeostasis, postnatal gut colonization is sensitive to early nutrition, and initial microbial set-up is thought to shape microbiota composition for life. The aim of this study was to determine whether early manipulation of intestinal microbiota actually programs adult microbiota in rats...
March 2015: Nutrition
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