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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319401/using-sound-to-study-the-effect-of-frothers-on-the-break-away-of-air-bubbles-at-an-underwater-capillary
#1
Pengbo Chu, Randolph Pax, Ronghao Li, Ray Langlois, James Andrew Finch
Frothers, a class of surfactants, are widely employed in froth flotation to aid the generation of small bubbles. Their action is commonly explained by their ability to hinder coalescence. There are occasional references suggesting that frother may also play a role in the initial break-up of the injected air mass. This work investigates the possible effect of frother on break-up by monitoring air bubbles produced quasi-statically at an underwater capillary. Under this condition, break-up is isolated from coalescence, and an impact of frothers on the detached bubble can be ascribed to an impact on break-up...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318264/structure-of-polystyrene-sulfonate-surfactant-mixtures-at-air-water-interfaces-and-their-role-as-building-blocks-for-macroscopic-foam
#2
Felix Schulze-Zachau, Björn Braunschweig
Air/water interfaces were modified by oppositely charged poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (NaPSS) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures and were studied on a molecular level with vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG), tensiometry, surface dilatational rheology and ellipsometry. In order to deduce structure property relations, our results on the interfacial molecular structure and lateral interactions of PSS(-)/CTA(+) complexes were compared to the stability and structure of macroscopic foam as well as to bulk properties...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318025/maternal-chronic-hypoxia-increases-expression-of-genes-regulating-lung-liquid-movement-and-surfactant-maturation-in-male-fetuses-in-late-gestation
#3
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Beth J Allison, Kirsty L Brain, Youguo Niu, Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication that may arise from maternal, placental and/or fetal factors. Respiratory outcome of the infant at birth likely depends on the duration, timing and severity of the hypoxaemic insult. We have isolated the effect of maternal chronic hypoxia (MCH) for a month in late gestation on fetal lung development. Pregnant ewes were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (10% O2 ) from 105-138 d gestation (term ∼145 d). At 138 d, gene expression in fetal lung tissue was determined by qRT-PCR...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318000/in-situ-observation-of-self-assembly-of-sugars-and-surfactants-from-nanometres-to-microns
#4
Samia Ouhajji, Jasper Landman, Sylvain Prévost, Lingxiang Jiang, Albert P Philipse, Andrei V Petukhov
The hierarchical self-assembly of sugar and surfactant molecules into hollow tubular microstructures was characterized in situ with high resolution small-angle X-ray scattering spanning more than three orders of magnitude of spatial scales. Scattering profiles reveal that aqueous host-guest inclusion complexes self-assemble into multiple equally spaced curved bilayers forming a collection of concentric hollow cylinders. Scattering data can be described by a simple theoretical model of the microtubes. The interlamellar distance was found to be surprisingly large...
March 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317935/a-facile-template-route-to-periodic-mesoporous-organosilicas-nanospheres-with-tubular-structure-by-using-compressed-co2
#5
Xin Huang, Wei Li, Meijin Wang, Xiuniang Tan, Qian Wang, Cheng Wang, Mengnan Zhang, Jing Yuan
Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) nanospheres with tubular structure were prepared with compressed CO2 using cationic and anionic mixed surfactant (CTAB/SDS) and triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as bi-templates. TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption, solid NMR, and FTIR were employed to characterize the obtained materials. Compressed CO2 severed as acidic reagent to promote the hydrolysis of organosilicas, and could tune the morphology and structure of the obtained PMOs nanomaterials simple by adjusting the CO2 pressure during the synthesis process...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317904/robust-and-elastic-lunar-and-martian-structures-from-3d-printed-regolith-inks
#6
Adam E Jakus, Katie D Koube, Nicholas R Geisendorfer, Ramille N Shah
Here, we present a comprehensive approach for creating robust, elastic, designer Lunar and Martian regolith simulant (LRS and MRS, respectively) architectures using ambient condition, extrusion-based 3D-printing of regolith simulant inks. The LRS and MRS powders are characterized by distinct, highly inhomogeneous morphologies and sizes, where LRS powder particles are highly irregular and jagged and MRS powder particles are rough, but primarily rounded. The inks are synthesized via simple mixing of evaporant, surfactant, and plasticizer solvents, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (30% by solids volume), and regolith simulant powders (70% by solids volume)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317184/self-assembled-multivalent-samul-polyanion-binding-impact-of-hydrophobic-modifications-in-the-micellar-core-on-dna-and-heparin-binding-at-the-peripheral-cationic-ligands
#7
Buthaina Albanyan, Erik Laurini, Paola Posocco, Sabrina Pricl, David K Smith
This paper reports a small family of cationic surfactants designed to bind polyanions such as DNA and heparin. Each molecule has the same hydrophilic cationic ligand, and a hydrophobic aliphatic group with eighteen carbon atoms with either one, two or three alkene groups within the hydrophobic chain (C18-1, C18-2 and C18-3). Dynamic light scattering indicates that more alkenes lead to geometric distortion, giving rise to larger self-assembled multivalent (SAMul) nanostructures. Mallard Blue and Ethidium Bromide dye displacement assays demonstrate that heparin and DNA have markedly different binding preferences, with heparin binding most effectively to C18-1, and DNA to C18-3, even though the molecular structural differences of these SAMul systems are buried in the hydrophobic core...
March 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315692/role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-fibroblast-function-in-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-induced-lung-fibrosis
#8
Jane Ma, Bridget Bishoff, R R Mercer, Mark Barger, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Vincent Castranova
The emission of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2) from diesel engines, using cerium compounds as a catalyst to lower the diesel exhaust particles, is a health concern. We have previously shown that CeO2 induced pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the modification of fibroblast function and the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CeO2-induced fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO2 (0.15 to 7mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation and sacrificed at various times post-exposure...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315219/assessment-of-ige-reactivity-of-%C3%AE-casein-by-western-blotting-after-digestion-with-simulated-gastric-fluid
#9
Sara Benedé, Rosina López-Fandiño, Elena Molina
Cow's milk allergy is defined as an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to cow's milk proteins and it is usually, along with hen's egg allergy, the first food allergy identified in childhood.One of the main aspects to consider when evaluating the allergenic potential of food proteins is the effect of gastric digestion. It is known that allergens are usually able to survive the harsh acidic environment of the stomach, tolerate the presence of surfactants, and resist digestion by pepsin. They might also be digested into high molecular weight peptide fragments, which retain the same, or sometimes increased, IgE-binding...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314436/produced-water-treatment-by-membranes-a-review-from-a-colloidal-perspective
#10
REVIEW
J M Dickhout, J Moreno, P M Biesheuvel, L Boels, R G H Lammertink, W M de Vos
While the world faces an increased scarcity in fresh water supply, it is of great importance that water from industry and waste streams can be treated for re-use. One of the largest waste streams in the oil and gas industry is produced water. After the phase separation of oil and gas, the produced water is left. This mixture contains dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons, surfactants, clay particles and salts. Before this water can be used for re-injection, irrigation or as industrial water, it has to be treated...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314395/response-of-the-bacterial-community-in-oil-contaminated-marine-water-to-the-addition-of-chemical-and-biological-dispersants
#11
Camila Rattes de Almeida Couto, Diogo de Azevedo Jurelevicius, Vanessa Marques Alvarez, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Lucy Seldin
The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may pose problems of toxicity themselves; therefore, biosurfactants are considered to constitute an environmentally friendly and effective alternative. Nevertheless, the putative effects of such agents on the microbiomes of oil-contaminated and uncontaminated marine environments have not been sufficiently evaluated...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314134/phytotoxicity-of-effluents-from-swine-slaughterhouses-using-lettuce-and-cucumber-seeds-as-bioindicators
#12
Michel David Gerber, Thomaz Lucia, Luciara Correa, José Eduardo Pereira Neto, Érico Kunde Correa
This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of raw and treated effluents from a swine slaughterhouse on cucumber and lettuce seeds and determined correlations among physicochemical characteristics of such effluents and the germination of seeds used as bioindicators. Physicochemical parameters were characterized for both effluents and their phytotoxicity was determined through the germination index (GI), the root length (RL) and the number of germinated seeds (SG) for both plant species. The effluents treatment system was efficient to reduce the concentration of some physicochemical parameters to levels within those recommended by the Brazilian legislation, except for P, ammoniacal N and TKN concentration...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314051/electroosmotic-flow-measurements-in-a-freely-suspended-liquid-film-experiments-and-numerical-simulations
#13
Abdulkadir Hussein Sheik, H C Hemaka Bandulasena, Victor Starov, Anna Trybala
Fluid flow profiles in free liquid films stabilised by anionic and cationic surfactants under an external electric field were investigated. Depthwise velocity fields were measured at the mid region of the free liquid film by confocal μ-PIV and corresponding numerical simulations were performed using Finite Element Method (FEM) to model the system. Depthwise change in velocity profiles was observed with electroosmotic flow dominating in the vicinity of the gas-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces while backpressure drives fluid in the opposite direction at the core of the film...
March 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303538/widely-used-non-ionic-surfactant-4-nonylphenol-showing-genotoxic-effects-in-various-tissues-of-channa-punctatus
#14
Madhu Sharma, Pooja Chadha
The present study investigated the intertissue differences in genotoxicity induction in the fish, Channa punctatus, in response to 4-nonylphenol. The lethal concentration of 50 (LC50) was estimated using a semi-static system. Fish were subjected to three sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Liver, gill, and kidney tissues were analyzed, and the genotoxicity was estimated using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. The frequency of micronucleated cells (MNCs), binucleated cells (BNCs), aberrant cells, and tail moment (TM) increased significantly...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302541/trends-on-analytical-characterization-of-polysorbates-and-their-degradation-products-in-biopharmaceutical-formulations
#15
REVIEW
Ariadna Martos, Wendelin Koch, Wim Jiskoot, Klaus Wuchner, Gerhard Winter, Wolfgang Friess, Andrea Hawe
Among many other applications, polysorbates (PS) are used as the most common surfactants in biopharmaceutical products in particular to protect proteins against interfacial stress. Structural heterogeneity, presence of degradants and other impurities, and tendency for degradation are interrelated features found in commercial PS with a direct impact on their functional properties in biopharmaceutical products. These pose a challenge for the analytical characterization of PS at different stages of product development...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302467/recent-advances-in-enzyme-extraction-strategies-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Shamraja S Nadar, Rohini G Pawar, Virendra K Rathod
The increasing interest of industrial enzymes demands for development of new downstream strategies for maximizing enzyme recovery. The significant efforts have been focused on the development of newly adapted technologies to purify enzymes in catalytically active form. Recently, an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) is emerged as powerful tools for efficient extraction and purification of enzymes due to their versatility, lower cost, process integration capability and easy scale-up. The present review gives an overview of effect of parameters such as tie line length, pH, neutral salts, properties of polymer and salt involved in traditional polymer/polymer and polymer/salt ATPS for enzyme recovery...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301722/synthesis-and-characterization-of-four-diastereomers-of-monorhamnolipids
#17
Ricardo Palos Pacheco, Ryan J Eismin, Clifford S Coss, Hui Wang, Raina M Maier, Robin Polt, Jeanne E Pemberton
Rhamnolipids are amphiphilic glycolipids biosynthesized by bacteria that, due to their low toxicity and biodegradability, are potential replacements for synthetic surfactants. The previously limited access to pure materials at the gram scale has hindered extensive characterization rhamnolipid structure-performance behavior. Here, we present an efficient and versatile synthetic methodology from which four diastereomers of the most common monorhamnolipid, α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate, are prepared and subsequently characterized...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301134/oxygen-vacancies-in-shape-controlled-cu2o-reduced-graphene-oxide-in2o3-hybrid-for-promoted-photocatalytic-water-oxidation-and-degradation-of-environmental-pollutants
#18
Jie Liu, Jun Ke, Degang Li, Hongqi Sun, Ping Liang, Xiaoguang Duan, Wenjie Tian, Moses O Tade, Shaomin Liu, Shaobin Wang
A novel shape controlled Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide/In2O3 (Cu2O/RGO/In2O3) hybrid with abundant oxygen vacancies was prepared by a facile, surfactant-free method. The hybrid photocatalyst exhibits an increased photocatalytic activity in water oxidation and degradation of environmental pollutants (methylene blue and Cr6+ solutions) compared with pure In2O3 and Cu2O materials. The presence of oxygen vacancies in Cu2O/RGO/In2O3 and the formation of heterojunction between In2O3 and Cu2O induce extra diffusive electronic states above the valence band (VB) edge and reduce the band gap of the hybrid consequently...
March 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300661/high-efficiency-extracellular-release-of-free-fatty-acids-from-aspergillus-oryzae-using-non-ionic-surfactants
#19
Koichi Tamano, Ai Miura, Hideaki Koike, Yasushi Kamisaka, Myco Umemura, Masayuki Machida
Free fatty acids (FFAs) are useful for generating biofuel compounds and functional lipids. Microbes are increasingly exploited to produce FFAs via metabolic engineering. However, in many microorganisms, FFAs accumulate in the cytosol, and disrupting cells to extract them is energy intensive. Thus, a simple cost-effective extraction technique must be developed to remove this drawback. We found that FFAs were released from cells of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae with high efficiency when they were cultured or incubated with non-ionic surfactants such as Triton X-100...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300199/effect-of-hydro-oleophobic-perfluorocarbon-chain-on-interfacial-behavior-and-mechanism-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-in-oil-water-mixture
#20
Pingping Meng, Shubo Deng, Ziwen Du, Bin Wang, Jun Huang, Yujue Wang, Gang Yu, Baoshan Xing
Perfluorocarbon chain of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic, and its effect on PFOS distribution in oil-water mixture and underlying mechanism are unclear. For the first time, we propose that PFOS can emulsify oil-water mixture only in the presence of air, completely different from hydrocarbon surfactants. The perfluorocarbon chain repels hydrophobic compounds and its oleophobicity increases with decreasing polarity of organic solvents. The formed emulsion in oil phase contains high concentrations of PFOS, resulting in PFOS decrease in water...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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