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Lotta Walz, Anna K Jönsson, Brita Zilg, Carl Johan Östgren, Henrik Druid
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem...
2016: PloS One
Leszek Szablewski, Anna Sulima
It is known fact that diabetes mellitus (DM) affects blood cells. Changes in the erythrocyte membrane, disorder in hemoglobin oxygen-binding and modification in mechanical characteristics, are effects of hyperglycemia on red blood cells. Altered susceptibility infection of patients with diabetes has been ascribed to a depression in the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Neutrophil function in case of patients with diabetes with good glucose control is slightly different than in the case of healthy ones...
October 21, 2016: Biological Chemistry
Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Chen Luo, Lu-Ting Yu, Meng-Qi Yang, Xiang Li, Zhi-Yuan Zhang, Martin O Alfred, Jun-Li Liu, Min Wang
Regenerating genes (Reg) have been found during the search for factors involved in pancreatic islet regeneration. Our recent study discovered that pancreatic β-cell-specific overexpression of Reg3β protects against streptozotocin (Stz) -induced diabetes in mice. To investigate its potential roles in the treatment of diabetes, we produced a recombinant Reg3β protein and provided evidence that it is active in promoting islet β-cell survival against Stz- triggered cell death. Though ineffective in alleviating preexisting diabetes, pretreatment of recombinant Reg3β was capable of minimizing the Stz-induced hyperglycemia and weight loss, by preserving serum and pancreatic insulin levels, and islet β-cell mass...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sundhar Ramalingam, Adva Eisenberg, Wen Chi Foo, Jennifer Freedman, Andrew J Armstrong, Larry G Moss, Michael R Harrison
Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of a paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism) resulting from treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer - a highly aggressive and difficult disease to treat. A 51-year-old man was started on androgen deprivation therapy after presenting with metastatic prostate cancer, characterized by diffuse osseous metastasis. Shortly thereafter, he developed progressive disease with biopsy proven neuroendocrine prostate cancer as well as symptoms of increased skin pigmentation, hypokalemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia and profound weakness, consistent with ectopic Cushing's syndrome...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Dora M Gorman, Carel W le Roux, Neil G Docherty
Bariatric surgery, initially intended as a weight-loss procedure, is superior to standard lifestyle intervention and pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Intensive medical management of hyperglycemia is associated with improved microvascular outcomes. Whether or not the reduction in hyperglycemia observed after bariatric surgery translates to improved microvascular outcomes is yet to be determined. There is substantial heterogeneity in the data relating to the impact of bariatric surgery on diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Sung-Ho Kim, Jung-Hwa Yoo, Woo Je Lee, Cheol-Young Park
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They increase endogenous levels of incretin hormones, which stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion, decrease glucagon secretion, and contribute to reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. Although DPP-4 inhibitors have similar benefits, they can be differentiated in terms of their chemical structure, pharmacology, efficacy and safety profiles, and clinical considerations. Gemigliptin (brand name: Zemiglo), developed by LG Life Sciences, is a potent, selective, competitive, and long acting DPP-4 inhibitor...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Peng Li, Ya-Ling Yin, Tao Guo, Xue-Ying Sun, Hui Ma, Mo-Li Zhu, Fan-Rong Zhao, Ping Xu, Yuan Chen, Guang-Rui Wan, Fan Jiang, Qi-Sheng Peng, Chao Liu, Li-Ying Liu, Shuang-Xi Wang
BACKGROUND: -GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) deficiency is critical for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in endothelial dysfunction. MicroRNAs (miR) are a class of regulatory RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. We investigated whether statins prevent endothelial dysfunction via miR-dependent GCH1 upregulation. METHODS: -Endothelial function was assessed by measuring acetylcholine- induced vasorelaxation in the organ chamber. MiR-133a expression was assessed by RT-qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization...
October 20, 2016: Circulation
Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Kelly Valério Prates, Audrei Pavanello, Ananda Malta, Laize Peron Tófolo, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Elaine Vieira, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Luiz Felipe Barella, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Vander Silva Alves, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Gabriel Sergio Fabricio, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Deborah M Sloboda, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
Acephate has been used extensively as an insecticide in agriculture. Its downstream sequelae are associated with hyperglycemia, lipid metabolism dysfunction, DNA damage, and cancer, which are rapidly growing epidemics and which lead to increased morbidity and mortality rates and soaring health-care costs. Developing interventions will require a comprehensive understanding of which excess insecticides during perinatal life can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A Wistar rat animal model suggests that acephate exposure during pregnancy and lactation causes alterations in maternal glucose metabolism and programs the offspring to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes at adulthood...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology
J P Cata, K B Hagan, S D O Bhavsar, R Arunkumar, R Grasu, A Dang, R Carlson, B Arnold, Y Potylchansky, I Lipski, T McHugh, F Jimenez, A T Nguyen, L Feng, T F Rahlfs
BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined the impact of anesthetics on cancer recurrence. Isoflurane but not desflurane has protumoral effects. We hypothesize the use of isoflurane but not desflurane during surgery for primary GBM is an independent predictor of disease progression and mortality. METHODS: 378 adult patients were included in the study. The progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates at 1 and 5years were compared in patients who had either desflurane or isoflurane alone or in combination with propofol infusion...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Houcem Maaoui, Florina Teodoresu, Qian Wang, Guo-Hui Pan, Ahmed Addad, Radhouane Chtourou, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub
Perturbations in glucose homeostasis is critical for human health, as hyperglycemia (defining diabetes) leads to premature death caused by macrovascular and microvascular complications. However, the simple and accurate detection of glucose in the blood at low cost remains a challenging task, although it is of great importance for the diagnosis and therapy of diabetic patients. In this work, carbon quantum dots decorated with copper oxide nanostructures (CQDs/Cu₂O) are prepared by a simple hydrothermal approach, and their potential for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensing is evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Sensors
Stephanie M Wolahan, Mayumi L Prins, David L McArthur, Courtney R Real, David A Hovda, Neil A Martin, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the impact of targeting tight glycemic control (4.4-6.1 mM) on endogenous ketogenesis in severely head-injured adults. METHODS: The data were prospectively collected during a randomized, within-patient crossover study comparing tight to loose glycemic control, defined as 6.7-8.3 mM. Blood was collected periodically during both tight and loose glycemic control epochs. Post hoc analysis of insulin dose and total nutritional provision was performed...
October 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Ahmed S Alzahrani, Hassan H Abed
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered one of the major chronic diseases in the world. Long-term hyperglycemia considerably affects the body tissues, and consequently, can lead to morbidity and mortality. Moreover, many oral complications have been observed with DM but little consideration in relation to the placement of dental implants has been investigated. Dental research has analyzed the relation of dental implants and bone osseointegration in diabetic patients. Theoretically, an impaired immune system and delayed wound healing of these patients might decrease the success rate of implant placement; however, with noticeable advances in evidence-based dentistry and statistically significant results, successful implant treatment could be achieved significantly in well-controlled diabetic patients...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Hamid Reza Rahimi, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Mostafa Dastani, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Khalil Abnous, Majid Ghayour Mobarhan, Reza Kazemi Oskuee
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both or insulin resistance. Curcumin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of Nano-curcumin on HbA1C, fast blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy type-2 diabetic patients (fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hr postprandial blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl) randomly receivedeither Curcumin (as nano-micelle 80 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months in a double blind randomized clinical trial...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Charles Lekhya Priya, K V Bhaskara Rao
BACKGROUND: α-glucosidase inhibitors controls postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by lowering sharp rise in blood glucose levels after ingestion of carbohydrate rich meal in type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals. Acalypha indica commonly known as Indian copper leaf is used in traditional medicinal system to treat various diseases. In our previous in-vitro investigation, methanolic extract of A. indica stems (AIS) proved to be an effective a-glucosidase inhibitor, antioxidant, and well tolerated in acute and subchronic toxicity studies in albino wistar rats...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Himalee S Sabnis, Heath L Bradley, Shweta Tripathi, Wen-Mei Yu, William Tse, Cheng-Kui Qu, Kevin D Bunting
Current therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) primarily includes high-dose cytotoxic chemotherapy with or without allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Targeting unique cellular metabolism of cancer cells is a potentially less toxic approach. Monotherapy with mitochondrial inhibitors like metformin have met with limited success since escape mechanisms such as increased glycolytic ATP production, especially in hyperglycemia, can overcome the metabolic blockade. As an alternative strategy for metformin therapy, we hypothesized that the combination of 6-benzylthioinosine (6-BT), a broad-spectrum metabolic inhibitor, and metformin could block this drug resistance mechanism...
October 5, 2016: Leukemia Research
Julie Reygner, Lydia Lichtenberger, Ghada Elmhiri, Samir Dou, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Larbi Rhazi, Flore Depeint, Veronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water)...
2016: PloS One
Chaudhari Archana Somabhai, Ruma Raghuvanshi, G Nareshkumar
AIMS: To assess protective efficacy of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on metabolic effects induced by chronic consumption of dietary fructose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EcN was genetically modified with fructose dehydrogenase (fdh) gene for conversion of fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose and mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (mtlK) gene for conversion to mannitol, a prebiotic. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with 20% fructose in drinking water for two months...
2016: PloS One
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