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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329447/congenital-hyperinsulinism-and-hypopituitarism-attributable-to-a-novel-mutation-in-foxa2
#1
Mary Ellen Vajravelu, Jinghua Chai, Bryan Krock, Samuel Baker, David Langdon, Craig Alter, Diva D De León
Context: Persistent hypoglycemia in the newborn period most commonly occurs due to hyperinsulinism. The phenotype of hypoketotic hypoglycemia can also result from pituitary hormone deficiencies, including growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. Forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) is a transcription factor shown in mouse models to influence insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. In addition, Foxa2 is involved in regulation of pituitary development, and deletions of FOXA2 have been linked to panhypopituitarism...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327962/acute-fatal-presumptive-xylitol-toxicosis-in-cape-sugarbirds-promerops-cafer
#2
Brett Richard Gardner, Emily P Mitchell
Twenty-nine wild Cape sugarbirds ( Promerops cafer) died acutely after ingestion of a homemade xylitol nectar solution from a bird feeder. The most aggressive feeders were first affected. Most birds showed clinical signs within 15 minutes of nectar ingestion, including incoordination, weakness, falling from perches, collapse, and death. A few birds showing clinical signs seemed to spontaneously recover and fly away. Full necropsy examinations done on 27 birds were hampered by freezing artifact and autolysis, but results indicated death was caused by the consequences of acute hypoglycemia...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326106/risk-of-hypoglycemia-after-hospital-discharge-after-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-diabetes
#3
Adriana M Hung, Edward D Siew, Otis D Wilson, Amy M Perkins, Robert A Greevy, Jeffrey Horner, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Sharidan K Parr, Christianne L Roumie, Marie R Griffin, T Alp Ikizler, Theodore Speroff, Michael E Matheny
OBJECTIVE: Hypoglycemia is common in patients with diabetes. The risk of hypoglycemia after acute kidney injury (AKI) is not well-defined. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk for postdischarge hypoglycemia among hospitalized patients with diabetes who do and do not experience AKI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a propensity-matched analysis of patients with diabetes, with and without AKI, using a retrospective national cohort of veterans hospitalized between 2004 and 2012...
January 11, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322825/blood-glucose-monitoring-data-should-be-reported-in-detail-when-studies-about-efficacy-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring-systems-are-published
#4
Stefan Pleus, Lutz Heinemann, Guido Freckmann
Recently, two clinical trials about a "sensor-based flash glucose monitoring system" and its efficacy in reducing time in hypoglycemia were published. Interestingly, patients spent more time at low glucose concentrations in these studies than in other studies related to the efficacy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM). Although it is possible that the study populations differed from those in other studies, another potential explanation is that the CGM system used in these two studies had a negative glucose measurement bias...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321379/a-glucose-responsive-insulin-therapy-protects-animals-against-hypoglycemia
#5
Ruojing Yang, Margaret Wu, Songnian Lin, Ravi P Nargund, Xinghai Li, Theresa Kelly, Lin Yan, Ge Dai, Ying Qian, Qing Dallas-Yang, Paul A Fischer, Yan Cui, Xiaolan Shen, Pei Huo, Danqing Dennis Feng, Mark D Erion, David E Kelley, James Mu
Hypoglycemia is commonly associated with insulin therapy, limiting both its safety and efficacy. The concept of modifying insulin to render its glucose-responsive release from an injection depot (of an insulin complexed exogenously with a recombinant lectin) was proposed approximately 4 decades ago but has been challenging to achieve. Data presented here demonstrate that mannosylated insulin analogs can undergo an additional route of clearance as result of their interaction with endogenous mannose receptor (MR), and this can occur in a glucose-dependent fashion, with increased binding to MR at low glucose...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320716/distinct-roles-of-systemic-and-local-actions-of-insulin-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#6
Takumi Kitamoto, Kenichi Sakurai, Eun Young Lee, Koutaro Yokote, Domenico Accili, Takashi Miki
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic β-cell mass and function are critical in glucose homeostasis. Their regulatory mechanisms have been studied principally under experimental conditions of reduced β-cell numbers, such as β-cell ablation and partial pancreatectomy. In the present study, we generated an opposite mouse model with an excessive amount of ectopic β-cells, and analyzed its consequence on β-cell mass and survival. METHODS: Mice underwent sub-renal transplantation (SRT) of pseudo-islets generated from a pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 or intra-pancreatic transplantation (IPT) of MIN6 cells, and morphological and functional changes of their endocrine pancreata were analyzed...
January 7, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319794/an-observational-analysis-of-insulinoma-from-1-single-institution
#7
Zhixuan Zeng, Shuhong Hu, Shiying Shao
Background: Insulinoma is the commonest functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor causing hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. This study is aimed to evaluate the clinical features, preoperative laboratory and imaging diagnosis, and pathologic findings of insulinoma. Methods: Data of the patients from 2001 to 2016 diagnosed as insulinoma in Tongji Hospital, China were retrospectively extracted and analyzed. Results: A total of 40 patients were diagnosed as insulinoma with a male/female ratio of 0...
January 8, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317722/loss-of-the-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-protein-medium-chain-acyl-coenzyme-a-dehydrogenase-disrupts-oxidative-phosphorylation-protein-complex-stability-and-function
#8
Sze Chern Lim, Makiko Tajika, Masaru Shimura, Kirstyn T Carey, David A Stroud, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Matthew McKenzie
Medium-chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) is involved in the initial step of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO). Loss of function results in MCAD deficiency, a disorder that usually presents in childhood with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, vomiting and lethargy. While the disruption of mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism is the primary metabolic defect, secondary defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) may also contribute to disease pathogenesis. Therefore, we examined OXPHOS activity and stability in MCAD-deficient patient fibroblasts that have no detectable MCAD protein...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316338/efficacy-of-automatic-bolus-calculator-with-automatic-speech-recognition-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#9
Piotr Foltynski, Piotr Ladyzynski, Ewa Pankowska, Karolina Mazurczak
BACKGROUND: Patients using an insulin pump as part of their diabetes treatment need to calculate insulin bolus to compensate for a meal. Some patients do not modify their meal boluses according to the changing amount and composition of food products in a meal. The lack of correct meal boluses leads to unstable, and therefore harmful blood glucose levels. The aim of the current study was to test the system supporting bolus determination based on the voice description of a meal. METHODS: The developed bolus calculator consists of the smartphone application and three remote servers for automatic speech recognition, text analysis, and insulin dosage calculation...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316236/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-tofogliflozin-add-on-to-insulin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-results-from-a-52-week-multicenter-randomized-double-blind-open-label-extension-phase-4-study-in-japan-j-step-ins
#10
Yasuo Terauchi, Masahiro Tamura, Masayuki Senda, Ryoji Gunji, Kohei Kaku
AIMS: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of tofogliflozin as an add-on treatment to insulin over 52 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 52-week, multicenter, Phase 4 study consisted of a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase and a 36-week open label extension phase (NCT02201004). Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 20-75 years with suboptimal glycemic control (7.5%-10.5%) on insulin monotherapy (basal-bolus, bolus, premix [low and high], and basal) or on combination therapy of basal insulin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor were eligible for participation...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316176/effect-of-prandial-treatment-timing-adjustment-based-on-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-uncontrolled-on-once-daily-basal-insulin-a-randomized-phase-iv-study
#11
Jacob Ilany, Hamad Bhandari, Dan Nabriski, Yoel Toledano, Noa Konvalina, Ohad Cohen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the glycemic control achieved by prandial once daily insulin glulisine injection timing adjustment based on continuous glucose monitoring sensor in comparison to once daily insulin glulisine injection before breakfast in type 2 diabetes patients uncontrolled on once daily basal insulin glargine. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a 24-week open-label, randomized-controlled, multicenter trial. At the end of 8 weeks of basal insulin optimization period, patients with HbA1c ≥ 7...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316157/dapagliflozin-for-prednisone-induced-hyperglycemia-in-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Maaike C Gerards, Gerdien E Venema, Kornelis W Patberg, Martijn Kross, Bert Jan Potter van Loon, Ilse M G Hageman, Dominic Snijders, Dees P M Brandjes, Joost B L Hoekstra, Titia M Vriesendorp, Victor E A Gerdes
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of add-on treatment with dapagliflozin to placebo in subjects with prednisone-induced hyperglycemia during treatment for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). We enrolled 46 patients hospitalized for an AECOPD in a multicenter double-blind randomized controlled study in which add-on treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg was compared to placebo. Glycemic control and incidence of hypoglycemia were measured through a blinded subcutaneous continuous glucose measurement device...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314873/2018-aaha-diabetes-management-guidelines-for-dogs-and-cats
#13
Ellen Behrend, Amy Holford, Patty Lathan, Renee Rucinsky, Rhonda Schulman
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease encountered in canine and feline medicine. The 2018 AAHA Diabetes Management Guidelines for Dogs and Cats revise and update earlier guidelines published in 2010. The 2018 guidelines retain much of the information in the earlier guidelines that continues to be applicable in clinical practice, along with new information that represents current expert opinion on controlling DM. An essential aspect of successful DM management is to ensure that the owner of a diabetic dog or cat is capable of administering insulin, recognizing the clinical signs of inadequately managed DM, and monitoring blood glucose levels at home, although this is ideal but not mandatory; all topics that are reviewed in the guidelines...
January 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313579/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-in-type-1-and-2-diabetes-therapeutic-implications
#14
Rupjyoti Talukdar, D Nageshwar Reddy
The objective of the present review is to focus on pancreatic exocrine insufficiency that is associated with Type 1 and 2 diabetes, its clinical and therapeutic implications, including the utility and efficacy of pancreatin supplementation. A literature search was conducted on Pubmed / Medline to identify relevant articles using terms pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in diabetes mellitus patients, pathophysiology, prevalence, treatment and management published between 2006-2016 in English language. Meta-analysis has revealed the prevalence of PEI in patients with type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to be 37...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313285/treatment-dosing-patterns-and-clinical-outcomes-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-starting-or-switching-to-treatment-with-insulin-glargine-300-units-per-milliliter-in-a-real-world-setting-a-retrospective-observational-study
#15
Shaloo Gupta, Hongwei Wang, Neil Skolnik, Liyue Tong, Ryan M Liebert, Lulu K Lee, Peter Stella, Anna Cali, Ronald Preblick
INTRODUCTION: Usage patterns and effectiveness of a longer-acting formulation of insulin glargine at a strength of 300 units per milliliter (Gla-300) have not been studied in real-world clinical practice. This study evaluated differences in dosing and clinical outcomes before and after Gla-300 treatment initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes starting or switching to treatment with Gla-300 to assess whether the benefits observed in clinical trials translate into real-world settings...
January 8, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313282/ertugliflozin-and-sitagliptin-co-initiation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-the-vertis-sita-randomized-study
#16
Sam Miller, Tania Krumins, Haojin Zhou, Susan Huyck, Jeremy Johnson, Gregory Golm, Steven G Terra, James P Mancuso, Samuel S Engel, Brett Lauring
INTRODUCTION: Ertugliflozin is an oral sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that is being developed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of co-initiation of ertugliflozin and sitagliptin compared with placebo in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on diet and exercise. METHODS: In this phase III, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled 26-week study (NCT02226003), patients with T2DM and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311442/usefulness-of-simultaneous-and-sequential-monitoring-of-glucose-level-and-electrocardiogram-in-monkeys-treated-with-gatifloxacin-under-conscious-and-nonrestricted-conditions
#17
Yu Yoshimatsu, Tomomichi Ishizaka, Katsuyoshi Chiba, Kazuhiko Mori
Drug-induced cardiac electrophysiological abnormalities accompanied by hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia increase the risk for life-threatening arrhythmia. To assess the drug-induced cardiotoxic potential associated with extraordinary blood glucose (GLU) levels, the effect of gatifloxacin (GFLX) which was frequently associated with GLU abnormality and QT/QTc prolongations in the clinic on blood GLU and electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters was investigated in cynomolgus monkeys (n=4) given GFLX orally in an ascending dose regimen (10, 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg)...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311427/blood-ionized-calcium-levels-and-acute-phase-blood-glucose-kinetics-in-goats-after-intramammary-infusion-of-lipopolysaccharide
#18
Yasunori Shinozuka, Kazuhiro Kawai, Reiichiro Sato, Akito Higashitani, Yoshiki Hamamoto, Miki Okita, Naoki Isobe
The aim of this study was to determine the blood ionized calcium (Ca) levels and acute-phase blood glucose kinetics in goats with mastitis induced by an intramammary challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Five goats were subjected to intramammary challenge of either LPS (10 µg) or saline (control). Some clinical manifestations (rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiration rate, ruminal motility, physical activity, and dehydration) were observed, and blood was collected for the measurement of several parameters [ionized and total Ca levels, blood glucose level, pH, and white blood count (WBC)] at 0 (just before challenge), 1-4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hr post-challenge in both the LPS and control phases...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310631/acute-effect-of-clitoria-ternatea-flower-beverage-on-glycemic-response-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#19
Charoonsri Chusak, Thavaree Thilavech, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Sirichai Adisakwattana
BACKGROUND: Clitoria ternatea L., a natural food-colorant containing anthocyanin, demonstrated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Clitoria ternatea flower extract (CTE) on postprandial plasma glycemia response and antioxidant status in healthy men. METHODS: In a randomized, crossover study, 15 healthy men (ages 22.53 ± 0.30 years; with body mass index of 21.57 ± 0.54 kg/m2) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (3) 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water; (4) 50 g sucrose and 1 g CTE in 400 mL of water; and (5) 50 g sucrose and 2 g CTE in 400 mL of water...
January 8, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306610/hypoglycemia-during-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-among-post-bariatric-surgery-pregnant-patients-incidence-and-perinatal-significance
#20
Amihai Rottenstreich, Ram Elazary, Yossef Ezra, Geffen Kleinstern, Nahum Beglaibter, Uriel Elchalal
BACKGROUND: While hypoglycemia during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been shown to occur in a considerable portion of nonpregnant post-bariatric surgery (BS) patients, its incidence among pregnant post-BS patients evaluated for gestational diabetes has only been sparsely studied. OBJECTIVES: We investigated OGTT results and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women who underwent 3 types of bariatric procedures before pregnancy. SETTING: A university hospital...
December 8, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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