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"preterm infants"

Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: As preterm infants do not experience the nutrient accretion and rapid growth phase of the third trimester of pregnancy, they are vulnerable to postnatal nutritional deficits, including of fat. Consequently, they require higher fat intakes compared to their full term counterparts to achieve adequate growth and development. Human milk fat provides the major energy needs of the preterm infant and also contributes to several metabolic and physiological functions. Although human milk has many benefits for this population, its fat content is highly variable and may be inadequate for their optimum growth and development...
June 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Veronica Mugarab Samedi, Amy Shafey, Essa Al Awad, Luis Murguia Favela
Healthy looking newborns may have severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), and neonatologists frequently are the first physicians to encounter these patients. Physicians usually have a high index of suspicion for this condition in presence of certain risk factors (unexplained infants' deaths, consanguinity); however, >80% of infants with SCID have no positive family history. A timely diagnosis of this condition is crucial in decreasing both mortality and morbidity. The only way to detect SCID prior to the onset of infections is newborn screening (NBS)...
April 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Friederike Barbara Haslbeck, Dirk Bassler
Human and animal studies demonstrate that early auditory experiences influence brain development. The findings are particularly crucial following preterm birth as the plasticity of auditory regions, and cortex development are heavily dependent on the quality of auditory stimulation. Brain maturation in preterm infants may be affected among other things by the overwhelming auditory environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Conversely, auditory deprivation, (e.g., the lack of the regular intrauterine rhythms of the maternal heartbeat and the maternal voice) may also have an impact on brain maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Sadık Yurttutan, Aydın Bozkaya, Füheda Hüdayioglu, Mehmet Yekta Oncel
OBJECTIVE: Hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA) is one of the most common problems in preterm infants. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of combined pharmacological (paracetamol + ibuprofen) therapy on monotherapy-resistant hsPDA in infants. SUBJECT AND METHODS: The study included infants with persistent hsPDA, unresponsive to monotherapy. Combined treatment (paracetamol + ibuprofen) was started as paracetamol at a dose of 15 mg/kg every 6 hours for 5 days, and ibuprofen at an initial dose of 10 mg/kg followed by 5 mg/kg at 24 and 48 hours...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Mitchell Goldstein, Leonard R Krilov, Jaime Fergie, Kimmie K McLaurin, Sally W Wade, David Diakun, Gregory M Lenhart, Adam Bloomfield, Amanda M Kong
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to compare risk for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations (RSVH) for preterm infants 29 to 34 weeks gestational age (wGA) versus term infants before and after 2014 guidance changes for immunoprophylaxis (IP), using data from the 2012 to 2016 RSV seasons. STUDY DESIGN:  Using commercial and Medicaid claims databases, infants born between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016 were categorized as preterm or term...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Richard J Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Neonatology
Carlos Zozaya, Celia Díaz, Miguel Saenz de Pipaón
BACKGROUND: Postnatal growth restriction is very common among preterm infants. Growth restriction might be associated with neurodevelopment impairment. The definition of postnatal growth restriction varies among studies. It has often been based on statistical parameters, but we lack biological data to support this definition. OBJECTIVES: The aim here was to study the association between neurodevelopment and postnatal growth restriction defined applying 2 different strategies...
June 19, 2018: Neonatology
Yvonne A Eiby, Nicole Y Shrimpton, Ian M R Wright, Eugenie R Lumbers, Paul B Colditz, Greg J Duncombe, Barbara E Lingwood
Preterm infants often have impaired cardiovascular function that may contribute to poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study aimed to determine the effects of reduced blood volume on cardiovascular function, including cerebral blood flow in preterm and term piglets. In preterm (97/115d) and term piglets, up to 10% of the estimated blood volume was removed. Removal of blood was ceased if MAP dropped below 20 mmHg. Heart rate, cardiac contractility and relaxation, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral blood flow were measured at baseline and again after blood volume reduction...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Juyoung Lee, Mee Hong, Sook Kyung Yum, Jung Hyun Lee
PURPOSE: Severe acidosis is one of the strongest predictors of neurologic outcomes in full-term infants with suspected hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, the relative importance of acidosis as a predictor of outcomes in preterm infants is much less clear. The goals of the present study were to examine the association between postnatal acidosis and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and to establish a new score model including acid-base status after birth for predicting the risk of this morbidity...
June 18, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Devashis Mukherjee, Mary Coffey, M Jeffrey Maisels
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency, age at phototherapy (PT) initiation, and duration of PT use in infants 230/7 to 346/7 weeks of gestation in two neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) over 4 time periods. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the charts of all infants born at 230/7 -346/7 weeks of gestational age (GA) and admitted to the NICUs of two hospitals between January 2009 and September 2015. We calculated the proportion of infants who received PT and the total duration of PT exposure...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Eric C Eichenwald
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER), generally defined as the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, is an almost universal phenomenon in preterm infants. It is a common diagnosis in the NICU; however, there is large variation in its treatment across NICU sites. In this clinical report, the physiology, diagnosis, and symptomatology in preterm infants as well as currently used treatment strategies in the NICU are examined. Conservative measures to control reflux, such as left lateral body position, head elevation, and feeding regimen manipulation, have not been shown to reduce clinically assessed signs of GER in the preterm infant...
June 18, 2018: Pediatrics
Gili Kenet, Assaf Arie Barg, Ulrike Nowak-Göttl
Hemostasis is a dynamic process that starts in utero. The coagulation system evolves with age, as evidenced by marked physiological differences in the concentration of the majority of hemostatic proteins in early life compared with adulthood. This concept, known as "developmental hemostasis," has important biological and clinical implications. Overall, impaired platelet function, along with physiologically reduced levels of vitamin K-dependent and contact coagulation factors, may cause poorer clot firmness even in healthy neonates...
June 18, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Kortany McCauley, Anupama Chundu, Helen Song, Robin High, Donny Suh
PURPOSE: To develop a simple prognostic model using postnatal weight gain, birth weight, and gestational age to identify infants at risk for developing severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: Medical records from two tertiary referral centers with the diagnosis code "Retinopathy of Prematurity" were evaluated. Those with a birth weight of 1,500 g or less, gestational age of 30 weeks or younger, and unstable clinical courses were included. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to transform three independent variables into a growth rate algorithm...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Birgul Say, Gulsum Kadioglu Simsek, Fuat Emre Canpolat, Serife Suna Oguz
BACKGROUND: Nonnutritive sucking (NNS) has been identified as having many benefits for preterm infants. NNS may improve the efficacy of oral feeding, reduce the length of time spent in orogastric (OG) tube feeding, and shorten the length of hospital stays for preterm infants. AIM: This study aimed to assess the effect of pacifiers on preterm infants in the transition from gavage to oral feeding, their time to discharge, weight gain, and time for transition to full breastfeeding...
June 18, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Lulu Abushaban, Thinakar Vel Mariappa, Jebaraj Rathinasamy, Prem N Sharma
Objective: To establish normal reference ranges and Z -scores for aortic diameters in preterm infants according to the body surface area and assess their correlation with body weight, body surface area, and gestational age. Patients and methods: In a prospective study, 268 preterm infants who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion were examined. Echocardiograms were performed to measure the ascending aorta, transverse aorta, and aortic isthmus diameters on 0 days to 6 days of life and at weekly intervals until the babies reached 36 weeks...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Lourdes Urquía Martí, Gloria Galán Henríquez, Sonia Rivero Rodríguez, Alberto Hernández Gómez
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the neural breathing pattern in preterm infants supported with non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV-NAVA). STUDY DESIGN: Single-center prospective observational study. The electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) was periodically recorded in 30-second series with the Edi catheter and the Servo-n software (Maquet, Solna, Sweden) in preterm infants supported with NIV-NAVA. The EAdiPeak , EAdiMin , EAdiTonic , EAdiPhasic , neural inspiratory, and expiratory times (nTi and nTe) and the neural respiratory rate (nRR) were calculated...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Maciej Suski, Renata Bokiniec, Monika Szwarc-Duma, Józef Madej, Beata Bujak-Giżycka, Maria Katarzyna Borszewska-Kornacka, Teofila Książek, Agnieszka Grabowska, Cecilie Revhaug, Lars O Baumbusch, Ola D Saugstad, Jacek Józef Pietrzyk, Przemko Kwinta
OBJECTIVE: In the presented study, we aimed to systematically analyze plasma proteomes in cord blood samples from preterm infants stratified by their gestational age to identify proteins and related malfunctioning pathways at birth, possibly contributing to the complications observed among preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Preterm newborns were enrolled of three subgroups with different gestation age: newborns born ≤26 (group 1), between 27 and 28 (group 2) and between 29 and 30 (group 3) weeks of gestation, respectively, and compared to the control group of healthy, full-term newborns in respect to their plasma proteome composition...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Po-Ming Wu, Hsin-I Shih, Wen-Hao Yu, Li-Wen Chen, Lie-Chuan Wang, Chao-Ching Huang, Yi-Fang Tu
BACKGROUND: The neonatal changes of corpus callosum or cerebellar volume in preterm infants have been shown to link with abnormal mentality and motor disability in early childhood. This study aims to predict the long-term neurological outcomes by measuring these changes on neonatal brain ultrasound in preterm infants. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of infants aged below 32 weeks' gestation with very low birth body weights who completed neuro-assessments at 5 years of age...
June 1, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Tristan P Lindberg, Melissa J Caimano, James I Hagadorn, Erin M Bennett, Kendra Maas, Elizabeth A Brownell, Adam P Matson
OBJECTIVES: To define gut microbial patterns in preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and to characterize clinical factors related to the composition of the preterm intestinal microbiome. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected at 1-week intervals from infants with gestational ages < 30 weeks at a single level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the composition and diversity of microbiota were determined in samples collected from five NEC infants and five matched controls...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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