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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435789/aerococcus-urinae-an-emerging-cause-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-older-adults-with-multimorbidity-and-urologic-cancer
#1
Andrew Higgins, Tullika Garg
Aerococcus urinae is a rare organism isolated from urine cultures. We present a case of an 80 year-old male with bladder cancer and multimorbidity who developed A. urinae infection. A. urinae may cause simple and complicated UTIs, bacteremia, and endocarditis in older adults with multimorbidity, chronic urinary retention, or indwelling catheters. A. urinae treatment should employ penicillin, amoxicillin, and nitrofurantoin. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, urine culture should include antibiotic susceptibility testing...
July 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432540/preliminary-clinical-study-on-non-transecting-anastomotic-bulbomembranous-urethroplasty
#2
Wei Le, Chao Li, Jinfu Zhang, Denglong Wu, Bo Liu
This study aims to investigate the effect of non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture. A total of 23 patients with traumatic posterior urethral stricture were enrolled and then divided into two groups. In one group, 12 patients underwent non-transecting anastomotic urethroplasty. In the other group, 11 patients underwent conventional posterior urethra end-to-end anastomosis. The effect of operation was evaluated using the following parameters: the bleeding amount during operation, operation time, IIEF-5 scores after operation, maximum flow rate (Qmax), and rating scale of quality of life (QoL)...
April 22, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424831/-recurrent-and-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-prophylaxis-and-prevention
#3
H Piechota
Urinay tract infection (UTI) as one of the most frequent bacterial infections in humans is of utmost relevance. Because of the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, urinalysis should always include urine culture and a resistogram in order to avoid an unspecific selection and overuse of antibiotics. Prevention of recurrent UTI must first of all rule out predisposing uropathogenic conditions. Nowadays, a great variety of drugs, behavioral, and supportive treatment options can effectively minimize UTI recurrence...
April 19, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412102/the-method-of-urine-sampling-is-not-a-valid-predictor-for-vesicoureteral-reflux-in-children-after-febrile-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Bernhard Haid, Judith Roesch, Christa Strasser, Josef Oswald
INTRODUCTION: The likelihood of detecting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in children logically should correlate with the correct diagnosis of the UTI. Beneath the unspecific symptoms of fever urine analysis is the main diagnostic criterion for the exact diagnosis of febrile UTIs in children. Use of inadequate urine sampling techniques during diagnosis may lead to impaired accuracy in UTI diagnosis. This could lead to the assumption that children, having diagnosed their UTI by the use of possibly inadequate urine sampling techniques should not be evaluated as consequently compared to those, where the diagnosis relied on sterile urine sampling techniques...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408060/bacterial-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-urinary-specimens-of-the-elderly
#5
F Gravey, G Loggia, A de La Blanchardière, V Cattoir
OBJECTIVE: Although urinary tract infections are the second leading cause of infections among patients aged above 65 years, data on bacterial epidemiology of urinary specimens in these patients is scarce. Our aim was to describe the main bacterial species found at significant levels in urine specimens of the elderly and to determine their antimicrobial resistance profiles. METHODS: From October 2012 to October 2015, all urinary specimens (catheter-related or not) received at the laboratory of microbiology of the university hospital of Caen (France) were retrospectively studied...
April 10, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407430/chronic-urinary-tract-infections-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-lesions-biofilm-infection-with-need-for-long-term-antibiotic-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Nete Tofte, Alex C Y Nielsen, Hannah Trøstrup, Christine B Andersen, Michael Von Linstow, Birgitte Hansen, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Niels Høiby, Claus Moser
Patients suffering from spinal cord injuries resulting in complete or incomplete paraplegia or tetraplegia are highly disposed to frequent, recurrent or even chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). The reason for the increased risk of acquiring UTIs is multifactorial, including reduced sensation of classical UTI symptoms, incomplete bladder emptying, frequent catheterizations or chronic urinary tract catheters. Biofilms in relation to UTIs have been shown both on catheters, on concrements or as intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs)...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405801/urine-exosomes-from-healthy-and-hypertensive-pregnancies-display-elevated-level-of-%C3%AE-subunit-and-cleaved-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-subunits-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac
#7
Maria R Nielsen, Britta Frederiksen-Møller, Rikke Zachar, Jan S Jørgensen, Mie R Hansen, Rikke Ydegaard, Per Svenningsen, Kristian Buhl, Boye L Jensen
Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, suppression of plasma renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and impaired urine sodium excretion. Aberrantly filtered plasmin in urine may activate proteolytically the γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and promote Na(+) reabsorption and urine K(+) loss. Plasma and urine was sampled from patients with preeclampsia, healthy pregnant controls and non-pregnant women, and from patients with nephrostomy catheters. Aldosterone concentration, urine plasminogen, and protein were determined...
April 12, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390962/in-vitro-activity-of-fosfomycin-trometamol-and-other-oral-antibiotics-against-multi-drug-resistant-uropathogens
#8
Maria Lina Mezzatesta, Giulia La Rosa, Gaetano Maugeri, Tiziana Zingali, Carla Caio, Andrea Novelli, Stefania Stefani
Clinical midstream and urinary catheter isolates (n=106) of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli, carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus were tested against fosfomycin using the agar dilution method, the broth microdilution method and the gradient test described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Nitrofurantoin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were tested using the gradient test alone...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383394/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-as-a-uropathogen-in-an-irish-setting
#9
Aisling T Looney, Elaine J Redmond, Naomi M Davey, Padraig J Daly, Carole Troy, Brian F Carey, Ivor M Cullen
Urinary tract infections are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in the community and in the hospital setting. Their treatment is complicated by drug-resistant pathogens and the colonization by microbes of indwelling urinary catheters. This study assessed the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) uropathogens isolated for 5 consecutive years at University Hospital Waterford between 2010 and 2014. We created 4 clinically relevant subdivisions, based on urine source: hospital inpatients, patients from the Emergency Department, patients referred from their General Practitioner, and Nursing Home patients...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373960/three-dimensional-volume-rendering-of-entrapped-malecot-nephrostomy-catheter-by-granulation-tissue
#10
Toru Sugihara, Akira Ishikawa, Takeshi Takamoto, Yoshitaka Kinoshita, Tetsuji Minami, Yukio Yamada, Yukio Homma, Masatoshi Makuuchi
An 87-year-old man undergoing radical cystectomy and bilateral nephrostomy visited our hospital 19 days postoperatively because of a lack of urine flow from the left 14-Fr Malecot nephrostomy catheter. The catheter was apparently firmly anchored to the kidney, and an attempt to reposition the catheter failed. Three-dimensional computed tomography volume rendering indicated a deformity of the left catheter compared with the right, implying that something was lodged in the Malecot flanges. Surgical removal of the catheter 2 days later revealed granulation tissue overbridging the Malecot wings...
May 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363806/novel-role-of-insulin-in-the-regulation-of-glucose-excretion-by-mourning-doves-zenaida-macroura
#11
Karen L Sweazea, Eldon J Braun, Richard Sparr
In mammals, insulin primarily lowers plasma glucose (PGlu) by increasing its uptake into tissues. Studies have also shown that insulin lowers PGlu in mammals by modulating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Birds have naturally high PGlu and, although insulin administration significantly decreases glucose concentrations, birds are resistant to insulin-mediated glucose uptake into tissues. Since prior work has not examined the effects of insulin on GFR in birds, the purpose of the present study was to assess whether insulin can augment renal glucose excretion and thereby lower PGlu...
February 20, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359848/traditional-chinese-medicine-therapy-reduces-the-catheter-indwelling-risk-in-dementia-patients-with-difficult-voiding-symptoms
#12
Shun-Ku Lin, Po-Hung Lin, Ren-Jun Hsu, Heng-Chang Chuang, Jui-Ming Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dementia is an international health issue in elder people. Indwelling catheters to address voiding problems in patients with dementia introduce risks of urinary tract infection or urethral trauma. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used to treat difficult voiding symptoms in Taiwan. We investigated the long-term clinical effects of TCM for reducing the risk of indwelling catheterization in dementia patients with difficult voiding symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used National Health Insurance Research Database to conduct a retrospective study of dementia patients with difficult voiding symptoms between 1997 and 2012 in Taiwan...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351339/antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-bacteria-isolated-from-indwelling-foley-catheters-following-tube-cystostomy-in-goats-with-obstructive-urolithiasis
#13
Munashe Chigerwe, Vengai Mavangira, Barbara A Byrne, John A Angelos
Tube cystostomy is a surgical method used for managing obstructive urolithiasis and involves placement of a Foley catheter into the urinary bladder. We identified and evaluated the antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from indwelling Foley catheters following tube cystostomy in goats with obstructive urolithiasis. Urine samples collected over a 10-y period from catheter tips at the time of removal were submitted for bacteriologic culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Resistance patterns to antibiotics, trends in the resistance patterns over the study period, and the probability of a bacterial isolate being resistant as a function of the identity of the isolate and antibiotic tested were determined...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342705/comparison-of-20-mannitol-and-3-hypertonic-saline-on-intracranial-pressure-and-systemic-hemodynamics
#14
Navdeep Sokhal, Girija Prasad Rath, Arvind Chaturvedi, Manmohan Singh, Hari Hara Dash
Mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) are most commonly used hyperosmotic agents for intraoperative brain relaxation. We compared the changes in ICP and systemic hemodynamics after infusion of equiosmolar solutions of both agents in patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial tumors. Forty enrolled adults underwent a standard anesthetic induction. Apart from routine monitoring parameters, subdural ICP with Codmann catheter and cardiac indices by Vigileo monitor, were recorded. The patients were randomized to receive equiosmolar solutions of either 20% mannitol (5ml/kg) or 3% HS (5...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330966/the-normal-increase-in-insulin-after-a-meal-may-be-required-to-prevent-postprandial-renal-sodium-and-volume-losses
#15
Debra L Irsik, Bonnie L Blazer-Yost, Alexander Staruschenko, Michael W Brands
Despite the effects of insulinopenia in type 1 diabetes and evidence that insulin stimulates multiple renal sodium transporters, it is not known whether normal variation in plasma insulin regulates sodium homeostasis physiologically. This study tested whether the normal postprandial increase in plasma insulin significantly attenuates renal sodium and volume losses. Rats were instrumented with chronic artery and vein catheters, housed in metabolic cages, and connected to hydraulic swivels. Measurements of urine volume and sodium excretion (UNaV) over 24 hrs and the 4-hr postprandial period were made in Control (C) rats and Insulin-Clamped (IC) rats in which the postprandial increase in insulin was prevented...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316941/acute-kidney-injury-following-spinal-instrumentation-surgery-in-children
#16
Jasper J Jöbsis, Abdullah Alabbas, Ruth Milner, Christopher Reilly, Kishore Mulpuri, Cherry Mammen
AIM: To determine acute kidney in jury (AKI) incidence and potential risk factors of AKI in children undergoing spinal instrumentation surgery. METHODS: AKI incidence in children undergoing spinal instrumentation surgery at British Columbia Children's Hospital between January 2006 and December 2008 was determined by the Acute Kidney Injury Networ classification using serum creatinine and urine output criteria. During this specific time period, all patients following spinal surgery were monitored in the pediatric intensive care unit and had an indwelling Foley catheter permitting hourly urine output recording...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306557/mri-micturating-urethrography-for-improved-urethral-delineation-in-prostate-radiotherapy-planning-a-case-study
#17
Robba Rai, Mark Sidhom, Karen Lim, Lucy Ohanessian, Gary P Liney
Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy is used in prostate cancer to deliver a high dose of radiation to the tumour over a small number of treatments. This involves the simulation of the patient using both CT and MRI. Current practice is to insert an indwelling catheter (IDC) during CT to assist with visualisation of the urethra and subsequently minimise dose to this highly critical structure. However, this procedure is invasive and has an associated risk of infection. This is a case study, which demonstrates our initial experience of using a real-time non-invasive MRI technique to replace the use of IDC for prostate cancer patients...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303818/biofilm-formation-capability-of-enterococcal-strains-causing-urinary-tract-infection-vis-a-vis-colonisation-and-correlation-with-enterococcal-surface-protein-gene
#18
Shubha Garg, Balvinder Mohan, Neelam Taneja
BACKGROUND: Data regarding differences in biofilm formation among urinary isolates of enterococci causing nosocomial infection versus asymptomatic colonisation is lacking. Conflicting data are available for the role of enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the development of enterococcal biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 (25 each of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were collected from admitted patients who had nosocomial acquisition of enterococci in urine culture (≥105 cfu/ml)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299769/the-effect-of-urinary-catheters-on-microbial-biofilms-and-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#19
Sahra Kirmusaoglu, Seyhun Yurdugül, Ahmet Metin, Suphi Vehid
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine relationship between biofilm producer microorganisms attached to urinary catheters (UCs) and urinary catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), to determine the rate of CAUTI development and the relationship between CAUTI and catheterization period in catheterized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urinary catheters from 143 inpatients who were hospitalized in Abant Izzet Baysal University Hospital Urinary Service, and urine samples of these patients before and after catheterization of urinarycatheter were collected...
March 16, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278526/-acute-kidney-failure-due-to-urachal-cyst
#20
I Klaassen, M Wolf, M J Kemper, S Riechardt, M Boettcher, J Herrmann, D Singer
A 34-year-old para V woman was referred to our centre at 35+1 weeks of gestation for an assumed fetal malformation with prenatal renal impairment and anhydramnios. Prenatal ultrasound demonstrated unilateral renal agenesis; the bladder was not detectable. The baby was born by caesarian section at 36+2 weeks of gestation because of placental insufficiency. Postnatal adaptation was uneventful, but the newborn presented external stigmas of trisomy 21 and progressive renal impairment with anuria. Nevertheless, the postnatal ultrasound showed two enlarged kidneys in loco typico with impaired perfusion but without signs of malformations...
March 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
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