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myoblast fusion

Rajeev B Tajhya, Xueyou Hu, Mark R Tanner, Redwan Huq, Natee Kongchan, Joel R Neilson, George G Rodney, Frank T Horrigan, Lubov T Timchenko, Christine Beeton
Myoblasts are mononucleated precursors of myofibers; they persist in mature skeletal muscles for growth and regeneration post injury. During myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a complex autosomal-dominant neuromuscular disease, the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts into functional myotubes is impaired, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness. The mechanisms leading to this altered differentiation are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium channel, KCa1...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Ryan S D'Souza, James E Casanova
The IQsec/BRAG proteins are a subfamily of Arf-nucleotide exchange factors. Since their discovery almost 15 years ago, the BRAGs have been reported to be involved in diverse physiological processes from myoblast fusion, neuronal pathfinding and angiogenesis, to pathophysiological processes including X-linked intellectual disability and tumor metastasis. In this review we will address how, in each of these situations, the BRAGs are thought to regulate the surface levels of adhesive and signaling receptors. While in most cases BRAGs are thought to enhance the endocytosis of these receptors, how they achieve this remains unclear...
October 14, 2016: Small GTPases
Kamil Kowalski, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Maria Helena Sikorska, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Paulina Cichosz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Maria A Ciemerych, Edyta Brzoska
The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Chonlada Charoenviriyakul, Yuki Takahashi, Masaki Morishita, Akihiro Matsumoto, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted from cells and are expected to be used as drug delivery systems. Important characteristics of exosomes, such as yield, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetics, may be different among different cell types. However, there is limited information about the effect of cell type on these characteristics. In the present study, we evaluated these characteristics of exosomes derived from five different types of mouse cell lines: B16BL6 murine melanoma cells, C2C12 murine myoblast cells, NIH3T3 murine fibroblasts cells, MAEC murine aortic endothelial cells, and RAW264...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
X Shawn Liu, Hao Wu, Xiong Ji, Yonatan Stelzer, Xuebing Wu, Szymon Czauderna, Jian Shu, Daniel Dadon, Richard A Young, Rudolf Jaenisch
Mammalian DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism orchestrating gene expression networks in many biological processes. However, investigation of the functions of specific methylation events remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that fusion of Tet1 or Dnmt3a with a catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) enables targeted DNA methylation editing. Targeting of the dCas9-Tet1 or -Dnmt3a fusion protein to methylated or unmethylated promoter sequences caused activation or silencing, respectively, of an endogenous reporter...
September 22, 2016: Cell
Yuechun Zhong, Liyi Zou, Zonggui Wang, Yaqiong Pan, Zhong Dai, Xinguang Liu, Liao Cui, Changqing Zuo
Many transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in the guidance of myogenic differentiation have been investigated in previous studies. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of myogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. In the present study, by performing a meta-analysis of C2C12 myogenic differentiation microarray data, we found that leucine-rich repeat-containing 75B (Lrrc75b), also known as AI646023, a molecule of unknown biological function, was downregulated during C2C12 myogenic differentiation...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xin Xie, Sophia Y Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although dystrophin deficiency in myofiber triggers the disease's pathological changes, the degree of satellite cell (SC) dysfunction defines disease progression. Here, we have identified chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) hyperactivity as a contributing factor underlying muscular dystrophy in a dystrophin-deficient murine model of DMD. Ectopic expression of COUP-TFII in murine SCs led to Duchenne-like dystrophy in the muscles of control animals and exacerbated degenerative myopathies in dystrophin-deficient mice...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
François Redelsperger, Najat Raddi, Agathe Bacquin, Cécile Vernochet, Virginie Mariot, Vincent Gache, Nicolas Blanchard-Gutton, Stéphanie Charrin, Laurent Tiret, Julie Dumonceaux, Anne Dupressoir, Thierry Heidmann
Syncytins are envelope genes from endogenous retroviruses, "captured" for a role in placentation. They mediate cell-cell fusion, resulting in the formation of a syncytium (the syncytiotrophoblast) at the fetomaternal interface. These genes have been found in all placental mammals in which they have been searched for. Cell-cell fusion is also pivotal for muscle fiber formation and repair, where the myotubes are formed from the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts into large multinucleated structures. Here we show, taking advantage of mice knocked out for syncytins, that these captured genes contribute to myoblast fusion, with a >20% reduction in muscle mass, mean muscle fiber area and number of nuclei per fiber in knocked out mice for one of the two murine syncytin genes...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Jacob M Loupe, Patrick J Miller, Benjamin P Bonner, Elaine C Maggi, Jyothi Vijayaraghavan, Jovanny Zabaleta, Christopher M Taylor, Fern Tsien, Judy S Crabtree, Andrew D Hollenbach
While many solid tumors are defined by the presence of a particular oncogene, the role that this oncogene plays in driving transformation through the acquisition of aneuploidy and overcoming growth arrest are often not known. Further, although aneuploidy is present in many solid tumors, it is not clear whether it is the cause or effect of malignant transformation. The childhood sarcoma, Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), is primarily defined by the t(2;13)(q35;q14) translocation, creating the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein...
August 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Tomoya Kitakaze, Tomotaka Sakamoto, Takehiro Kitano, Naoki Inoue, Fumihito Sugihara, Naoki Harada, Ryoichi Yamaji
The majority of studies on possible roles for collagen hydrolysates in human health have focused on their effects on bone and skin. Hydroxyprolyl-glycine (Hyp-Gly) was recently identified as a novel collagen hydrolysate-derived dipeptide in human blood. However, any possible health benefits of Hyp-Gly remain unclear. Here, we report the effects of Hyp-Gly on differentiation and hypertrophy of murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells. Hyp-Gly increased the fusion index, the myotube size, and the expression of the myotube-specific myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and tropomyosin structural proteins...
September 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Agnieszka Kulesza, Anna Burdzinska, Izabela Szczepanska, Weronika Zarychta-Wisniewska, Beata Pajak, Kamil Bojarczuk, Bartosz Dybowski, Leszek Paczek
Both myoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) take part in the muscle tissue regeneration and have been used as experimental cellular therapy in muscular disorders treatment. It is possible that co-transplantation approach could improve the efficacy of this treatment. However, the relations between those two cell types are not clearly defined. The aim of this study was to determine the reciprocal interactions between myoblasts and MSC in vitro in terms of the features important for the muscle regeneration process...
2016: PloS One
Julia Hamp, Andreas Löwer, Christine Dottermusch-Heidel, Lothar Beck, Bernard Moussian, Matthias Flötenmeyer, Susanne-Filiz Önel
The fusion of founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) is crucial for muscle formation in Drosophila Characteristic events of myoblast fusion include the recognition and adhesion of myoblasts, and the formation of branched F-actin by the Arp2/3 complex at the site of cell-cell contact. At the ultrastructural level, these events are reflected by the appearance of finger-like protrusions and electron-dense plaques that appear prior to fusion. Severe defects in myoblast fusion are caused by the loss of Kette (a homolog of Nap1 and Hem-2, also known as NCKAP1 and NCKAP1L, respectively), a member of the regulatory complex formed by Scar or WAVE proteins (represented by the single protein, Scar, in flies)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Stéphanie Langlois, Kyle N Cowan
Pannexins are newly discovered channels that are now recognized as mediators of adenosine triphosphate release from several cell types allowing communication with the extracellular environment. Pannexins have been associated with various physiological and pathological processes including apoptosis, inflammation, and cancer. However, it is only recently that our work has unveiled a role for Pannexin 1 and Pannexin 3 as novel regulators of skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Myoblast differentiation is an ordered multistep process that includes withdrawal from the cell cycle and the expression of key myogenic factors leading to myoblast differentiation and fusion into multinucleated myotubes...
August 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Patrick F Connolly, Howard O Fearnhead
Differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes is essential for skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 are required for efficient myoblast differentiation. The caspase-activated endonuclease activity, CAD, and the DNA-damage repair protein XRCC1 have also been shown to be required to complete differentiation. DNA-damage associated with differentiation is accompanied by phosphorylation of Histone 2AX, an event normally catalysed by kinases ATR, ATM or DNA-PK. However, the kinase responsible for phosphorylation during differentiation is not known...
October 2016: FEBS Journal
Francine Parker, Kathryn White, Siȏn Phillips, Michelle Peckham
Traditionally, muscle cell lines are cultured on glass coverslips and differentiated to investigate myoblast fusion and differentiation. Efficient differentiation of myoblasts produces a dense network of myotubes with the correct organisation for contraction. Here we have tested the ability of artificially generated, precisely controlled peptide surfaces to enhance the efficiency of myoblast differentiation. We focused on specific short peptides from α-laminin-2 (IKVSV, VQLRNGFPYFSY and GLLFYMARINHA) as well as residues 15-155 from FGF1...
October 2016: Cytotechnology
Dagan Segal, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Eyal D Schejter, Ben-Zion Shilo
Indirect flight muscles (IFMs) in Drosophila are generated during pupariation by fusion of hundreds of myoblasts with larval muscle templates (myotubes). Live observation of these muscles during the fusion process revealed multiple long actin-based protrusions that emanate from the myotube surface and require Enabled and IRSp53 for their generation and maintenance. Fusion is blocked when formation of these filopodia is compromised. While filopodia are not required for the signaling process underlying critical myoblast cell-fate changes prior to fusion, myotube-myoblast adhesion appears to be filopodia dependent...
August 8, 2016: Developmental Cell
Ditte C Andersen, Charlotte H Jensen, Ida Skovrind, Rikke Helin Johnsen, Gunnhildur Asta Traustadottir, Katrine S Aagaard, Suganya Ganesalingam, Søren P Sheikh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epicardium-derived progenitor cells (EPDCs) differentiate into all heart cell types in the embryonic heart, yet their differentiation into cardiomyocytes in the adult heart is limited and poorly described. This may be due to EPDCs lacking myogenic potential or the inert adult heart missing regenerative signals essential for directed differentiation of EPDCs. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the myogenic potential of neonatal EPDCs in adult and neonatal mouse myocardium, as well as in skeletal muscle...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Ali M Afzali, Tobias Ruck, Alexander M Herrmann, Janette Iking, Claudia Sommer, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Corinna Preuβe, Werner Stenzel, Thomas Budde, Heinz Wiendl, Stefan Bittner, Sven G Meuth
Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels influence basic cellular parameters such as resting membrane potential, cellular excitability, or intracellular Ca(2+)-concentration [Ca(2+)]i While the physiological importance of K2P channels in different organ systems (e.g., heart, central nervous system, or immune system) has become increasingly clear over the last decade, their expression profile and functional role in skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) remain largely unknown. The mouse SkMC cell line C2C12, wild-type mouse muscle tissue, and primary mouse muscle cells (PMMs) were analyzed using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical stainings as well as functional analysis including patch-clamp measurements and Ca(2+) imaging...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
K Grzelkowska-Kowalczyk, J Tokarska, K Grabiec, M Gajewska, M Milewska, M Błaszczyk
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in the regulation of myogenesis. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) modifies ECM during differentiation of mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Exogenous TNF-α (1 ng/ml) stimulated myoblast fusion on the 3rd day (by 160% vs control) but not on the 5th day of myogenesis. The level of integrin α5 was significantly augmented by TNF-α during 5 day-differentiation; however, integrin β1 was higher than control only on the 3rd day of cytokine treatment. Both the abundance of integrin α5 bound to actin and the level of integrin β1 complexed with integrin α5 increased in the presence of TNF-α, especially on the 3rd day of differentiation...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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