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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920252/group-i-paks-promote-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#1
Giselle A Joseph, Min Lu, Maria Radu, Jennifer K Lee, Steven J Burden, Jonathan Chernoff, Robert S Krauss
Skeletal myogenesis is regulated by signal transduction, but the factors and mechanisms involved are not well understood. The group I Paks, Pak1 and Pak2, are related protein kinases and direct effectors of Cdc42 and Rac1. Group I Paks are ubiquitously expressed and specifically required for myoblast fusion in Drosophila We report that both Pak1 and Pak2 are activated during mammalian myoblast differentiation. One pathway of activation is initiated by N-cadherin ligation, and involves the cadherin co-receptor Cdo with its downstream effector, Cdc42...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911334/matrix-metalloproteinases-and-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinases-in%C3%A2-inflammation-and-fibrosis-of-skeletal-muscles
#2
Hala S Alameddine, Jennifer E Morgan
In skeletal muscles, levels and activity of Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of MetalloProteinases (TIMPs) have been involved in myoblast migration, fusion and various physiological and pathological remodeling situations including neuromuscular diseases. This has opened perspectives for the use of MMPs' overexpression to improve the efficiency of cell therapy in muscular dystrophies and resolve fibrosis. Alternatively, inhibition of individual MMPs in animal models of muscular dystrophies has provided evidence of beneficial, dual or adverse effects on muscle morphology or function...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906069/the-beneficial-role-of-proteolysis-in-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-stress-adaptation
#3
REVIEW
Ryan A V Bell, Mohammad Al-Khalaf, Lynn A Megeney
Muscle atrophy derived from excessive proteolysis is a hallmark of numerous disease conditions. Accordingly, the negative consequences of skeletal muscle protein breakdown often overshadow the critical nature of proteolytic systems in maintaining normal cellular function. Here, we discuss the major cellular proteolysis machinery-the ubiquitin/proteosome system, the autophagy/lysosomal system, and caspase-mediated protein cleavage-and the critical role of these protein machines in establishing and preserving muscle health...
April 6, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836432/macrophage-ppar%C3%AE-a-lipid-activated-transcription-factor-controls-the-growth-factor-gdf3-and-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#4
Tamas Varga, Rémi Mounier, Andreas Patsalos, Péter Gogolák, Matthew Peloquin, Attila Horvath, Attila Pap, Bence Daniel, Gergely Nagy, Eva Pintye, Szilárd Poliska, Sylvain Cuvellier, Sabrina Ben Larbi, Brian E Sansbury, Matthew Spite, Chester W Brown, Bénédicte Chazaud, Laszlo Nagy
Tissue regeneration requires inflammatory and reparatory activity of macrophages. Macrophages detect and eliminate the damaged tissue and subsequently promote regeneration. This dichotomy requires the switch of effector functions of macrophages coordinated with other cell types inside the injured tissue. The gene regulatory events supporting the sensory and effector functions of macrophages involved in tissue repair are not well understood. Here we show that the lipid activated transcription factor, PPARγ, is required for proper skeletal muscle regeneration, acting in repair macrophages...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825154/growth-factors-for-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#5
Brian C Syverud, Keith W VanDusen, Lisa M Larkin
Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle holds promise as a source of graft tissue for repair of volumetric muscle loss and as a model system for pharmaceutical testing. To reach this potential, engineered tissues must advance past the neonatal phenotype that characterizes the current state of the art. In this review, we describe native skeletal muscle development and identify important growth factors controlling this process. By comparing in vivo myogenesis to in vitro satellite cell cultures and tissue engineering approaches, several key similarities and differences that may potentially advance tissue-engineered skeletal muscle were identified...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825107/in-vivo-myomaker-mediated-heterologous-fusion-and-nuclear-reprogramming
#6
Yasuyuki Mitani, Ronald J Vagnozzi, Douglas P Millay
Knowledge regarding cellular fusion and nuclear reprogramming may aid in cell therapy strategies for skeletal muscle diseases. An issue with cell therapy approaches to restore dystrophin expression in muscular dystrophy is obtaining a sufficient quantity of cells that normally fuse with muscle. Here we conferred fusogenic activity without transdifferentiation to multiple non-muscle cell types and tested dystrophin restoration in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. We previously demonstrated that myomaker, a skeletal muscle-specific transmembrane protein necessary for myoblast fusion, is sufficient to fuse 10T 1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts in vitro...
October 17, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802164/nuclear-alignment-in-myotubes-requires-centrosome-proteins-recruited-by-nesprin-1
#7
Aude Espigat-Georger, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Cécile Chemin, Laurent Emorine, Andreas Merdes
Myotubes are syncytial cells generated by fusion of myoblasts. Among the numerous nuclei in myotubes of skeletal muscle fibres, the majority are equidistantly positioned at the periphery, except for clusters of multiple nuclei underneath the motor endplate. The correct positioning of nuclei is thought to be important for muscle function and requires nesprin-1 (also known as SYNE1), a protein of the nuclear envelope. Consistent with this, mice lacking functional nesprin-1 show defective nuclear positioning and present aspects of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801482/expression-of-myogenes-in-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-during-prenatal-development-in-commercial-and-local-piau-pigs
#8
Evelyze Pinheiro Dos Reis, Débora Martins Paixão, Otávio José Bernardes Brustolini, Fabyano Fonseca E Silva, Walmir Silva, Flávio Marcos Gomes de Araújo, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Guilherme Oliveira, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães
This study used qRT-PCR to examine variation in the expression of 13 myogenes during muscle development in four prenatal periods (21, 40, 70 and 90 days post-insemination) in commercial (the three-way Duroc, Landrace and Large-White cross) and local Piau pig breeds that differ in muscle mass. There was no variation in the expression of the CHD8, EID2B, HIF1AN, IKBKB, RSPO3, SOX7 and SUFU genes at the various prenatal ages or between breeds. The MAP2K1 and RBM24 genes showed similar expression between commercial and Piau pigs but greater expression (p < 0...
October 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794519/a-novel-fission-independent-role-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-in-cardiac-mitochondrial-respiration
#9
Huiliang Zhang, Pei Wang, Sara Bisetto, Yisang Yoon, Quan Chen, Shey-Shing Sheu, Wang Wang
AIMS: Mitochondria in adult cardiomyocytes exhibit static morphology and infrequent dynamic changes, despite the high abundance of fission and fusion regulatory proteins in the heart. Previous reports have indicated that fusion proteins may bear functions beyond morphology regulation. Here, we investigated the role of fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), on mitochondrial respiration regulation in adult cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: By using genetic or pharmacological approaches, we manipulated the activity or protein level of fission and fusion proteins and found they mildly influenced mitochondrial morphology in adult rodent cardiomyocytes, which is in contrast to their significant effect in H9C2 cardiac myoblasts...
October 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793012/foxo1-a-novel-insight-into-its-molecular-mechanisms-in-the-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-differentiation-and-fiber-type-specification
#10
REVIEW
Meng Xu, Xiaoling Chen, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Zhiqing Huang
FoxO1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor forkhead box protein O (FoxO) family, is predominantly expressed in most muscle types. FoxO1 is a key regulator of muscle growth, metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation. In the past two decades, many researches have indicated that FoxO1 is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation while contrasting opinions consider that FoxO1 is crucial for myoblast fusion. FoxO1 is expressed much higher in fast twitch fiber enriched muscles than in slow muscles and is also closely related to muscle fiber type specification...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775651/degree-of-suppression-of-mouse-myoblast-cell-line-c%C3%A2-c12-differentiation-varies-according-to-chondroitin-sulfate-subtype
#11
Katsuhiko Warita, Nana Oshima, Naoko Takeda-Okuda, Jun-Ichi Tamura, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C₂C12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time...
October 21, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763639/functional-kca1-1-channels-are-crucial-for-regulating-the-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-human-primary-skeletal-myoblasts
#12
Rajeev B Tajhya, Xueyou Hu, Mark R Tanner, Redwan Huq, Natee Kongchan, Joel R Neilson, George G Rodney, Frank T Horrigan, Lubov T Timchenko, Christine Beeton
Myoblasts are mononucleated precursors of myofibers; they persist in mature skeletal muscles for growth and regeneration post injury. During myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a complex autosomal-dominant neuromuscular disease, the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts into functional myotubes is impaired, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness. The mechanisms leading to this altered differentiation are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium channel, KCa1...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748060/developmental-regulation-of-rna-processing-by-rbfox-proteins
#13
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739918/the-brag-iqsec-family-of-arf-gefs
#14
Ryan S D'Souza, James E Casanova
The IQSec/BRAG proteins are a subfamily of Arf-nucleotide exchange factors. Since their discovery almost 15 y ago, the BRAGs have been reported to be involved in diverse physiological processes from myoblast fusion, neuronal pathfinding and angiogenesis, to pathophysiological processes including X-linked intellectual disability and tumor metastasis. In this review we will address how, in each of these situations, the BRAGs are thought to regulate the surface levels of adhesive and signaling receptors. While in most cases BRAGs are thought to enhance the endocytosis of these receptors, how they achieve this remains unclear...
October 2016: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736296/stem-cells-migration-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-the-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-and-sdf-1-cxcr7-axis
#15
Kamil Kowalski, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Maria Helena Sikorska, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Paulina Cichosz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Maria A Ciemerych, Edyta Brzoska
The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720897/cell-type-specific-and-common-characteristics-of-exosomes-derived-from-mouse-cell-lines-yield-physicochemical-properties-and-pharmacokinetics
#16
Chonlada Charoenviriyakul, Yuki Takahashi, Masaki Morishita, Akihiro Matsumoto, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted from cells and are expected to be used as drug delivery systems. Important characteristics of exosomes, such as yield, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetics, may be different among different cell types. However, there is limited information about the effect of cell type on these characteristics. In the present study, we evaluated these characteristics of exosomes derived from five different types of mouse cell lines: B16BL6 murine melanoma cells, C2C12 murine myoblast cells, NIH3T3 murine fibroblasts cells, MAEC murine aortic endothelial cells, and RAW264...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662091/editing-dna-methylation-in-the-mammalian-genome
#17
X Shawn Liu, Hao Wu, Xiong Ji, Yonatan Stelzer, Xuebing Wu, Szymon Czauderna, Jian Shu, Daniel Dadon, Richard A Young, Rudolf Jaenisch
Mammalian DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism orchestrating gene expression networks in many biological processes. However, investigation of the functions of specific methylation events remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that fusion of Tet1 or Dnmt3a with a catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) enables targeted DNA methylation editing. Targeting of the dCas9-Tet1 or -Dnmt3a fusion protein to methylated or unmethylated promoter sequences caused activation or silencing, respectively, of an endogenous reporter...
September 22, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633041/lrrc75b-is-a%C3%A2-novel-negative-regulator%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-c2c12-myogenic%C3%A2-differentiation
#18
Yuechun Zhong, Liyi Zou, Zonggui Wang, Yaqiong Pan, Zhong Dai, Xinguang Liu, Liao Cui, Changqing Zuo
Many transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in the guidance of myogenic differentiation have been investigated in previous studies. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of myogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. In the present study, by performing a meta-analysis of C2C12 myogenic differentiation microarray data, we found that leucine-rich repeat-containing 75B (Lrrc75b), also known as AI646023, a molecule of unknown biological function, was downregulated during C2C12 myogenic differentiation...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617862/coup-tfii-regulates-satellite-cell-function-and-muscular-dystrophy
#19
Xin Xie, Sophia Y Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although dystrophin deficiency in myofiber triggers the disease's pathological changes, the degree of satellite cell (SC) dysfunction defines disease progression. Here, we have identified chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) hyperactivity as a contributing factor underlying muscular dystrophy in a dystrophin-deficient murine model of DMD. Ectopic expression of COUP-TFII in murine SCs led to Duchenne-like dystrophy in the muscles of control animals and exacerbated degenerative myopathies in dystrophin-deficient mice...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589388/genetic-evidence-that-captured-retroviral-envelope-syncytins-contribute-to-myoblast-fusion-and-muscle-sexual-dimorphism-in-mice
#20
François Redelsperger, Najat Raddi, Agathe Bacquin, Cécile Vernochet, Virginie Mariot, Vincent Gache, Nicolas Blanchard-Gutton, Stéphanie Charrin, Laurent Tiret, Julie Dumonceaux, Anne Dupressoir, Thierry Heidmann
Syncytins are envelope genes from endogenous retroviruses, "captured" for a role in placentation. They mediate cell-cell fusion, resulting in the formation of a syncytium (the syncytiotrophoblast) at the fetomaternal interface. These genes have been found in all placental mammals in which they have been searched for. Cell-cell fusion is also pivotal for muscle fiber formation and repair, where the myotubes are formed from the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts into large multinucleated structures. Here we show, taking advantage of mice knocked out for syncytins, that these captured genes contribute to myoblast fusion, with a >20% reduction in muscle mass, mean muscle fiber area and number of nuclei per fiber in knocked out mice for one of the two murine syncytin genes...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
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