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myoblast fusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698658/intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1-augments-myoblast-adhesion-and-fusion-through-homophilic-trans-interactions
#1
Francis X Pizza, Ryan A Martin, Evan M Springer, Maxwell S Leffler, Bryce R Woelmer, Isaac J Recker, Douglas W Leaman
The overall objective of the study was to identify mechanisms through which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) augments the adhesive and fusogenic properties of myogenic cells. Hypotheses were tested using cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts, which do not constitutively express ICAM-1, and myoblasts and fibroblasts forced to express full length ICAM-1 or a truncated form lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 mediated myoblast adhesion and fusion were quantified using novel assays and cell mixing experiments...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683400/azidothymidine-triphosphate-impairs-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-disrupting-the-quality-control-system
#2
Ryosuke Nomura, Takeya Sato, Yuka Sato, Jeffrey A Medin, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teruyuki Yanagisawa
Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) has been used to block the progression and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although it decreases morbidity and mortality, clinical use of HAART has also been linked to various adverse effects such as severe cardiomyopathy resulting from compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, the mechanistic basis for these effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a key component of HAART, 3ꞌ-azido-3ꞌ-deoxythymidine (AZT), particularly, its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 cells derived from rat embryonic myoblasts, which serve as a model for cardiomyopathy...
June 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681861/a-defect-in-myoblast-fusion-underlies-carey-fineman-ziter-syndrome
#3
Silvio Alessandro Di Gioia, Samantha Connors, Norisada Matsunami, Jessica Cannavino, Matthew F Rose, Nicole M Gilette, Pietro Artoni, Nara Lygia de Macena Sobreira, Wai-Man Chan, Bryn D Webb, Caroline D Robson, Long Cheng, Carol Van Ryzin, Andres Ramirez-Martinez, Payam Mohassel, Mark Leppert, Mary Beth Scholand, Christopher Grunseich, Carlos R Ferreira, Tyler Hartman, Ian M Hayes, Tim Morgan, David M Markie, Michela Fagiolini, Amy Swift, Peter S Chines, Carlos E Speck-Martins, Francis S Collins, Ethylin Wang Jabs, Carsten G Bönnemann, Eric N Olson, John C Carey, Stephen P Robertson, Irini Manoli, Elizabeth C Engle
Multinucleate cellular syncytial formation is a hallmark of skeletal muscle differentiation. Myomaker, encoded by Mymk (Tmem8c), is a well-conserved plasma membrane protein required for myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes in mouse, chick, and zebrafish. Here, we report that autosomal recessive mutations in MYMK (OMIM 615345) cause Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome in humans (CFZS; OMIM 254940) by reducing but not eliminating MYMK function. We characterize MYMK-CFZS as a congenital myopathy with marked facial weakness and additional clinical and pathologic features that distinguish it from other congenital neuromuscular syndromes...
July 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665998/igfn1_v1-is-required-for-myoblast-fusion-and-differentiation
#4
Xiang Li, Jane Baker, Tobias Cracknell, Andrew R Haynes, Gonzalo Blanco
Igfn1 is a complex locus that codes for multiple splicing variants of Immunoglobulin- and Fibronectin-like domain containing proteins predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. To reveal possible roles for Igfn1, we applied non-selective knock-down by shRNAs as well as specific targeting of Igfn1 exon 13 by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis in C2C12 cells. Decreased expression of Igfn1 variants via shRNAs against the common 3'-UTR region caused a total blunting of myoblast fusion, but did not prevent expression of differentiation markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637676/editorial-focus-on-balance-between-s-nitrosylation-and-denitrosylation-modulates-myoblast-proliferation-independently-of-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-activation
#5
Hugo P Monteiro, Fernando T Ogata
Myogenesis involves a complex series of signaling events that will result in the formation of muscle fibers. The participation of nitric oxide (NO) in myogenesis is well established. NO generation in skeletal muscle comes from the neuronal isoform of the NO synthase (nNOS). NO signals through cGMP production and s-nitrosylation of proteins in skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, nNOS interacts with two domains of caveolin-3 which is part of caveolae, and forms a signaling complex through additional interactions with Src kinase and p21Ras...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623958/knockdown-of-subunit-3-of-the-cop9-signalosome-inhibits-c2c12-myoblast-differentiation-via-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#6
Mariam A Ba, Jeffrey Surina, Cherie A Singer, Maria L Valencik
BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex composed of 8 subunits designated CSN1-CSN8. CSN3 represents the third subunit of the CSN and maintains the integrity of the complex. CSN3 binds to the striated muscle-specific β1D integrin tail, and its subcellular localization is altered in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. However, the role of CSN3 in skeletal muscle differentiation is unknown. The main goal of this study was to identify whether CSN3 participates in myoblast differentiation and the signalling mechanisms involved using C2C12 cells as a skeletal muscle cell model...
June 17, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621431/adhesion-molecule-kirrel3-neph2-is-required-for-the-elongated-shape-of-myocytes-during-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#7
Yael Tamir-Livne, Raeda Mubariki, Eyal Bengal
Kirrel/Neph proteins are evolutionarily conserved members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion proteins. Kirrel3 is the mouse orthologue of Dumbfounded (Duf), a family member that regulates myoblast pre-fusion events in Drosophila. Yet, the role of Kirrel3 in mammalian myogenesis has not been demonstrated. Experiments performed here indicate that the mouse Kirrel3 protein regulates morphological changes of myoblasts that are required for their subsequent fusion into multinucleated myotubes. We show that Kirrel3 is transiently expressed at the tips of myocytes during early myoblast differentiation and that its expression is dependent on the myogenic transcription factor, MyoD...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607928/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-affect-myogenic-processes-in-c2c12-myoblasts-role-of-gap-junction-mediated-intercellular-communication
#8
Caterina Morabito, Nathalie Steimberg, Francesca Rovetta, Jennifer Boniotti, Simone Guarnieri, Giovanna Mazzoleni, Maria A Mariggiò
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can interact with biological systems. Although they are successfully used as therapeutic agents in physiatrics and rehabilitative practice, they might represent environmental pollutants and pose a risk to human health. Due to the lack of evidence of their mechanism of action, the effects of ELF-EMFs on differentiation processes in skeletal muscle were investigated. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to ELF-EMFs generated by a solenoid. The effects of ELF-EMFs on cell viability and on growth and differentiation rates were studied using colorimetric and vital dye assays, cytomorphology, and molecular analysis of MyoD and myogenin expression, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600496/dysregulation-of-nuclear-receptor-coup-tfii-impairs-skeletal-muscle-development
#9
Hui-Ju Lee, Chung-Yang Kao, Shih-Chieh Lin, Mafei Xu, Xin Xie, Sophia Y Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai
Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) has been shown to inhibit myogenesis and skeletal muscle metabolism in vitro. However, its precise role and in vivo function in muscle development has yet to be clearly defined. COUP-TFII protein expression level is high in undifferentiated progenitors and gradually declines during differentiation, raising an important question of whether downregulation of COUP-TFII expression is required for proper muscle cell differentiation. In this study, we generated a mouse model ectopically expressing COUP-TFII in myogenic precursors to maintain COUP-TFII activity during myogenesis and found that elevated COUP-TFII activity resulted in inefficient skeletal muscle development...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599653/dynamics-of-transcriptional-re-programming-of-syncytial-nuclei-in-developing-muscles
#10
Laetitia Bataillé, Hadi Boukhatmi, Jean-Louis Frendo, Alain Vincent
BACKGROUND: A stereotyped array of body wall muscles enables precision and stereotypy of animal movements. In Drosophila, each syncytial muscle forms via fusion of one founder cell (FC) with multiple fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs). The specific morphology of each muscle, i.e. distinctive shape, orientation, size and skeletal attachment sites, reflects the specific combination of identity transcription factors (iTFs) expressed by its FC. Here, we addressed three questions: Are FCM nuclei naive? What is the selectivity and temporal sequence of transcriptional reprogramming of FCMs recruited into growing syncytium? Is transcription of generic myogenic and identity realisation genes coordinated during muscle differentiation? RESULTS: The tracking of nuclei in developing muscles shows that FCM nuclei are competent to be transcriptionally reprogrammed to a given muscle identity, post fusion...
June 9, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592307/global-gene-expression-in-muscle-from-fasted-refed-trout-reveals-up-regulation-of-genes-promoting-myofibre-hypertrophy-but-not-myofibre-production
#11
Pierre-Yves Rescan, Aurelie Le Cam, Cécile Rallière, Jérôme Montfort
BACKGROUND: Compensatory growth is a phase of rapid growth, greater than the growth rate of control animals, that occurs after a period of growth-stunting conditions. Fish show a capacity for compensatory growth after alleviation of dietary restriction, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. To learn more about the contribution of genes regulating hypertrophy (an increase in muscle fibre size) and hyperplasia (the generation of new muscle fibres) in the compensatory muscle growth response in fish, we used high-density microarray analysis to investigate the global gene expression in muscle of trout during a fasting-refeeding schedule and in muscle of control-fed trout displaying normal growth...
June 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589919/alternately-plasma-roughened-nanosurface-of-a-hybrid-scaffold-for-aligning-myoblasts
#12
Gi Hoon Yang, Hojun Jeon, GeunHyung Kim
For successful skeletal muscle tissue regeneration, inducing alignment and fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes is critical. Many studies are ongoing to induce myoblast alignment using various micro/nanopatternings on scaffold surfaces, mechanically stretching scaffolds, or aligned micro/nanofibers. In this study, we have developed a simple method to induce myoblast alignment using a modified plasma treatment on a hybrid PCL scaffold consisting of melt-printed perpendicular PCL struts and an electrospun PCL fibrous mat...
June 7, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579197/mir-491-inhibits-skeletal-muscle-differentiation-through-targeting-myomaker
#13
Jian He, Fei Wang, Peng Zhang, Wenjiong Li, Jing Wang, Jinglong Li, Hongju Liu, Xiaoping Chen
The myogenesis of skeletal muscle has several stages, including satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, fusion and specific muscle formation. Recent studies have shown that myomaker, a muscle-specific transmembrane protein, was critical for myoblasts fusion. However, the regulatory mechanism of myomaker and its effects on myogenesis remain elusive. In this study, miR-491 was identified as a post-transcriptional regulator of myomaker, which binds specifically to its 3' untranslated region leading to its down-regulation...
June 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574820/differentiation-capacities-of-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-in-lantang-and-landrace-piglets
#14
Chun-Qi Gao, Yin-Long Xu, Cheng-Long Jin, Xiao-Chao Hu, Hai-Chang Li, Guang-Xu Xing, Hui-Chao Yan, Xiu-Qi Wang
We isolated and cultured satellite cells (SCs) from the longissimus dorsi muscles of 1-day-old male Landrace and Lantang piglets to compare the SC differentiation capacity in the two breeds. Lantang piglets yielded more (P < 0.05) SCs per gram of muscle than Landrace piglets (5.2 ± 0.9×104 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2×104). Transcription of the differentiation markers myogenin and myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I) in the longissimus dorsi muscle was higher in Lantang than Landrace piglets (P < 0.05). Protein levels of myogenin (P < 0...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569755/myomerger-induces-fusion-of-non-fusogenic-cells-and-is-required-for-skeletal-muscle-development
#15
Malgorzata E Quinn, Qingnian Goh, Mitsutoshi Kurosaka, Dilani G Gamage, Michael J Petrany, Vikram Prasad, Douglas P Millay
Despite the importance of cell fusion for mammalian development and physiology, the factors critical for this process remain to be fully defined, which has severely limited our ability to reconstitute cell fusion. Myomaker (Tmem8c) is a muscle-specific protein required for myoblast fusion. Expression of myomaker in fibroblasts drives their fusion with myoblasts, but not with other myomaker-expressing fibroblasts, highlighting the requirement of additional myoblast-derived factors for fusion. Here we show that Gm7325, which we name myomerger, induces the fusion of myomaker-expressing fibroblasts...
June 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539819/dexamethasone-treatment-at-the-myoblast-stage-enhanced-c2c12-myocyte-differentiation
#16
Der-Sheng Han, Wei-Shiung Yang, Tung-Wei Kao
Background: Glucocorticoids induce skeletal muscle atrophy in many clinical situations; however, their hypertrophic and pro-differentiation effects on myotubes have rarely been reported. We hypothesized that dexamethasone (DEX) has a dual effect on muscle differentiation, and aimed to develop a new differentiation protocol for C2C12 cell line. Methods: Dose- and time-dependent effect of DEX on C2C12 myoblast cell line was analyzed at myoblast and myotube stage, respectively. The level of differentiation was determined by myh1, pax7, atrogin-1, and myostatin mRNA expression and fusion index...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533404/repression-of-phosphatidylinositol-transfer-protein-%C3%AE-ameliorates-the-pathology-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#17
Natassia M Vieira, Janelle M Spinazzola, Matthew S Alexander, Yuri B Moreira, Genri Kawahara, Devin E Gibbs, Lillian C Mead, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Mayana Zatz, Louis M Kunkel
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle wasting disease caused by X-linked inherited mutations in the DYSTROPHIN (DMD) gene. Absence of dystrophin protein from the sarcolemma causes severe muscle degeneration, fibrosis, and inflammation, ultimately leading to cardiorespiratory failure and premature death. Although there are several promising strategies under investigation to restore dystrophin protein expression, there is currently no cure for DMD, and identification of genetic modifiers as potential targets represents an alternative therapeutic strategy...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520772/the-chicken-embryo-as-an-efficient-model-to-test-the-function-of-muscle-fusion-genes-in-amniotes
#18
Daniel Sieiro, Nadège Véron, Christophe Marcelle
The fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes is a crucial step of muscle growth during development and of muscle repair in the adult. While multiple genes were shown to play a role in this process, a vertebrate model where novel candidates can be tested and analyzed at high throughput and relative ease has been lacking. Here, we show that the early chicken embryo is a fast and robust model in which functional testing of muscle fusion candidate genes can be performed. We have used known modulators of muscle fusion, Rac1 and Cdc42, along with the in vivo electroporation of integrated, inducible vectors, to show that the chicken embryo is a suitable model in which their function can be tested and quantified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501623/efficient-direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-into-myogenic-lineage-induced-by-co-transduction-with-mycl-and-myod1
#19
Junko Wakao, Tsunao Kishida, Shigehisa Fumino, Koseki Kimura, Kenta Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro Kotani, Katsura Mizushima, Yuji Naito, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, Tatsuro Tajiri, Osam Mazda
The skeletal muscle consists of contractile myofibers and plays essential roles for maintenance of body posture, movement, and metabolic regulation. During the development and regeneration of the skeletal muscle tissue, the myoblasts fuse into multinucleated myotubes that subsequently form myofibers. Transplantation of myoblasts may make possible a novel regenerative therapy against defects or dysfunction of the skeletal muscle. It is reported that rodent fibroblasts are converted into myoblast-like cells and fuse to form syncytium after forced expression of exogenous myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) that is a key transcription factor for myoblast differentiation...
May 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495800/mechanically-patterned-neuromuscular-junctions-in-a-dish-have-improved-functional-maturation
#20
Cassandra L Happe, Kevin P Tenerelli, Anastasia K Gromova, Frederic Kolb, Adam J Engler
Motor neuron (MN) diseases are progressive disorders resulting from degeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), which form the connection between MNs and muscle fibers. NMJ-in-a-dish models have been developed to examine human MN-associated dysfunction with disease; however such co-culture models have randomly oriented myotubes with immature synapses that contract asynchronously. Mechanically patterned (MP) extracellular matrix with alternating soft and stiff stripes improve current NMJ-in-a-dish models by inducing both mouse and human myoblast durotaxis to stripes where they aligned, differentiated, and fused into patterned myotubes...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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