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myoblast fusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038471/myoblasts-and-macrophages-are-required-for-therapeutic-morpholino-antisense-oligonucleotide-delivery-to-dystrophic-muscle
#1
James S Novak, Marshall W Hogarth, Jessica F Boehler, Marie Nearing, Maria C Vila, Raul Heredia, Alyson A Fiorillo, Aiping Zhang, Yetrib Hathout, Eric P Hoffman, Jyoti K Jaiswal, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Sebahattin Cirak, Terence A Partridge
Exon skipping is a promising therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), employing morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (PMO-AO) to exclude disruptive exons from the mutant DMD transcript and elicit production of truncated dystrophin protein. Clinical trials for PMO show variable and sporadic dystrophin rescue. Here, we show that robust PMO uptake and efficient production of dystrophin following PMO administration coincide with areas of myofiber regeneration and inflammation. PMO localization is sustained in inflammatory foci where it enters macrophages, actively differentiating myoblasts and newly forming myotubes...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021612/il-15-promotes-human-myogenesis-and-mitigates-the-detrimental-effects-of-tnf%C3%AE-on-myotube-development
#2
Mary F O'Leary, Graham R Wallace, Andrew J Bennett, Kostas Tsintzas, Simon W Jones
Studies in murine cell lines and in mouse models suggest that IL-15 promotes myogenesis and may protect against the inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy which occurs in sarcopenia and cachexia. The effects of IL-15 on human skeletal muscle growth and development remain largely uncharacterised. Myogenic cultures were isolated from the skeletal muscle of young and elderly subjects. Myoblasts were differentiated for 8 d, with or without the addition of recombinant cytokines (rIL-15, rTNFα) and an IL-15 receptor neutralising antibody...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978943/global-misregulation-of-genes-largely-uncoupled-to-dna-methylome-epimutations-characterizes-a-congenital-overgrowth-syndrome
#3
Zhiyuan Chen, Darren E Hagen, Tieming Ji, Christine G Elsik, Rocío M Rivera
Assisted reproductive therapies (ART) have become increasingly common worldwide and numerous retrospective studies have indicated that ART-conceived children are more likely to develop the overgrowth syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS). In bovine, the use of ART can induce a similar overgrowth condition, which is referred to as large offspring syndrome (LOS). Both BWS and LOS involve misregulation of imprinted genes. However, it remains unknown whether molecular alterations at non-imprinted loci contribute to these syndromes...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943254/sox7-is-required-for-muscle-satellite-cell-development-and-maintenance
#4
Rashida F Rajgara, Neena Lala-Tabbert, François Marchildon, Émilie Lamarche, Jennifer K MacDonald, Daryl A Scott, Alexandre Blais, Ilona S Skerjanc, Nadine Wiper-Bergeron
Satellite cells are skeletal-muscle-specific stem cells that are activated by injury to proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to enable repair. SOX7, a member of the SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors is expressed in quiescent satellite cells. To elucidate SOX7 function in skeletal muscle, we knocked down Sox7 expression in embryonic stem cells and primary myoblasts and generated a conditional knockout mouse in which Sox7 is excised in PAX3(+) cells. Loss of Sox7 in embryonic stem cells reduced Pax3 and Pax7 expression...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923978/mcam-contributes-to-the-establishment-of-cell-autonomous-polarity-in-myogenic-and-chondrogenic-differentiation
#5
Artal Moreno-Fortuny, Laricia Bragg, Giulio Cossu, Urmas Roostalu
Cell polarity has a fundamental role in shaping the morphology of cells and growing tissues. Polarity is commonly thought to be established in response to extracellular signals. Here we used a minimal in vitro assay that enabled us to monitor the determination of cell polarity in myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in the absence of external signalling gradients. We demonstrate that the initiation of cell polarity is regulated by melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM). We found highly polarized localization of MCAM, Moesin (MSN), Scribble (SCRIB) and Van-Gogh-like 2 (VANGL2) at the distal end of elongating myotubes...
September 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895623/comprehensive-analytics-of-actovegin%C3%A2-and-its-effect-on-muscle-cells
#6
Franz-Xaver Reichl, Lesca Miriam Holdt, Daniel Teupser, Gregor Schütze, Alan J Metcalfe, Reinhard Hickel, Christof Högg, Wilhelm Bloch
The ingredients of Actovegin(®) were analyzed and its effects on the muscle cell proliferation were investigated. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in medium. Actovegin(®) was added in five different concentrations (1, 5, 25, 125, and 250 µg) to the differentiation medium. The formations of proliferation factor Ki67 and myosin heavy chains were measured by immunofluorescence. The first primary antibody was anti-Ki67 and anti-Mf20. Cells were washed and treated with the second fluorochrome. Thirty-one Actovegin(®) ingredients were found to contain significantly higher concentrations and twenty-nine ingredients were found to contain significantly lower concentrations, compared to the mean ranges as described in the literature for the normal physiological concentrations in human adult serum/plasma...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885620/oxidative-stress-induced-s100b-accumulation-converts-myoblasts-into-brown-adipocytes-via-an-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-yy1-mir-133-axis-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-yy1-bmp-7-axis
#7
Giulio Morozzi, Sara Beccafico, Roberta Bianchi, Francesca Riuzzi, Ilaria Bellezza, Ileana Giambanco, Cataldo Arcuri, Alba Minelli, Rosario Donato
Muscles of sarcopenic people show hypotrophic myofibers and infiltration with adipose and, at later stages, fibrotic tissue. The origin of infiltrating adipocytes resides in fibro-adipogenic precursors and nonmyogenic mesenchymal progenitor cells, and in satellite cells, the adult stem cells of skeletal muscles. Myoblasts and brown adipocytes share a common Myf5(+) progenitor cell: the cell fate depends on levels of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7), a TGF-β family member. S100B, a Ca(2+)-binding protein of the EF-hand type, is expressed at relatively high levels in myoblasts from sarcopenic humans and exerts anti-myogenic effects via NF-κB-dependent inhibition of MyoD, a myogenic transcription factor acting upstream of the essential myogenic factor, myogenin...
September 8, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870988/a-fluorescent-toolkit-for-spatiotemporal-tracking-of-apoptotic-cells-in-living-drosophila-tissues
#8
Sonia Schott, Arnaud Ambrosini, Audrey Barbaste, Corinne Benassayag, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
Far from being passive, apoptotic cells influence their environment. For instance, they promote tissue folding, myoblast fusion and modulate tumor growth. Understanding the role of apoptotic cells necessitates their efficient tracking within living tissues, a task which is currently challenging. In order to easily spot apoptotic cells in developing Drosophila tissues, we generated a series of fly lines expressing different fluorescent sensors of caspase activity. We show that three of these reporters (GFP, Cerulean and Venus derived molecules) are detected specifically in apoptotic cells and throughout the whole process of programmed cell death...
September 4, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865032/regulation-of-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-by-drebrin
#9
Robert S Krauss
Myoblast differentiation is a complex process. As myoblasts differentiate into myofibers, they acquire a cell type-specific transcriptional program, irreversibly exit the cell cycle, and dramatically change their morphology. The morphological changes include cell elongation, alignment, and fusion into syncytial myofibers. Several lines of evidence suggest that these events may be co-regulated. However, the mechanisms that coordinate major alterations in a cell's transcriptome and its shape are not well understood...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860190/insights-into-the-localization-and-function-of-myomaker-during-myoblast-fusion
#10
Dilani G Gamage, Eugenia Leikina, Malgorzata E Quinn, Anthony Ratinov, Leonid V Chernomordik, Douglas P Millay
Multinucleated skeletal muscle fibers form through the fusion of myoblasts during development and regeneration. Previous studies identified myomaker (Tmem8c) as a muscle-specific membrane protein essential for fusion. However, the specific function of myomaker and how its function is regulated are unknown. To explore these questions, we first examined the cellular localization of endogenous myomaker. Two independent antibodies showed that while myomaker does localize to the plasma membrane in cultured myoblasts, the protein also resides in the Golgi and post-Golgi vesicles...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842901/targeted-lipidomic-analysis-of-myoblasts-by-gc-ms-and-lc-ms-ms
#11
Jordan Blondelle, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Fanny Pilot-Storck, Laurent Tiret
Lipids represent ∼10% of the cell dry mass and play essential roles in membrane composition and physical properties, energy storage, and signaling pathways. In the developing or the regenerating skeletal muscle, modifications in the content or the flipping between leaflets of membrane lipid components can modulate the fusion capacity of myoblasts, thus constituting one of the regulatory mechanisms underlying myofiber growth. Recently, few genes controlling these qualitative and quantitative modifications have started to be unraveled...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782556/an-sirna-based-screen-in-c2c12-myoblasts-identifies-novel-genes-involved-in-myogenic-differentiation
#12
Rayan Alwan, Ange-Line Bruel, Anne Da Silva, Véronique Blanquet, Khaled Bouhouche
Myogenesis is a highly regulated multi-step process involving myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although studies over the last decades have identified several factors governing these distinct major phases, many of them are not yet known. In order to identify novel genes, we took advantage of the C2C12 myoblastic line to establish a functional siRNA screen combined with quantitative-imaging analysis of a large amount of differentiated myoblasts. We knocked down 100 preselected mouse genes without a previously characterized role in muscle...
October 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782148/autonomous-xenogenic-cell-fusion-of-murine-and-chick-skeletal-muscle-myoblasts
#13
Tomohide Takaya, Yuma Nihashi, Shotaro Kojima, Tamao Ono, Hiroshi Kagami
Cell-cell fusion has been a great technology to generate valuable hybrid cells and organisms such as hybridomas. In this study, skeletal muscle myoblasts were utilized to establish a novel method for autonomous xenogenic cell fusion. Myoblasts are mononuclear myogenic precursor cells and fuse mutually to form multinuclear myotubes. We generated murine myoblasts (mMBs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) termed mMB-GFP, and the chick myoblasts (chMBs) expressing Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) termed chMB-DsRed...
August 7, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759306/skeletal-muscle-regeneration-involves-macrophage-myoblast-bonding
#14
Laura Cristina Ceafalan, Tudor Emanuel Fertig, Alexandru Cristian Popescu, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Mihail Eugen Hinescu, Mihaela Gherghiceanu
Regeneration in adult skeletal muscle relies on the activation, proliferation, and fusion of myogenic precursor cells (MPC), mostly resident satellite cells (SC). However, the regulatory mechanism during this process is still under evaluation, with the final aim to manipulate regeneration when the intrinsic mechanism is corrupted. Furthermore, intercellular connections during skeletal muscle regeneration have not been previously thoroughly documented. Our hypothesis was that a direct and close cellular interaction between SC/MPC and invading myeloid cells is a key step to control regeneration...
July 31, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698658/intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1-augments-myoblast-adhesion-and-fusion-through-homophilic-trans-interactions
#15
Francis X Pizza, Ryan A Martin, Evan M Springer, Maxwell S Leffler, Bryce R Woelmer, Isaac J Recker, Douglas W Leaman
The overall objective of the study was to identify mechanisms through which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) augments the adhesive and fusogenic properties of myogenic cells. Hypotheses were tested using cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts, which do not constitutively express ICAM-1, and myoblasts and fibroblasts forced to express full length ICAM-1 or a truncated form lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 mediated myoblast adhesion and fusion were quantified using novel assays and cell mixing experiments...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683400/azidothymidine-triphosphate-impairs-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-disrupting-the-quality-control-system
#16
Ryosuke Nomura, Takeya Sato, Yuka Sato, Jeffrey A Medin, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teruyuki Yanagisawa
Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) has been used to block the progression and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although it decreases morbidity and mortality, clinical use of HAART has also been linked to various adverse effects such as severe cardiomyopathy resulting from compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, the mechanistic basis for these effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a key component of HAART, 3ꞌ-azido-3ꞌ-deoxythymidine (AZT), particularly, its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 cells derived from rat embryonic myoblasts, which serve as a model for cardiomyopathy...
June 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681861/a-defect-in-myoblast-fusion-underlies-carey-fineman-ziter-syndrome
#17
Silvio Alessandro Di Gioia, Samantha Connors, Norisada Matsunami, Jessica Cannavino, Matthew F Rose, Nicole M Gilette, Pietro Artoni, Nara Lygia de Macena Sobreira, Wai-Man Chan, Bryn D Webb, Caroline D Robson, Long Cheng, Carol Van Ryzin, Andres Ramirez-Martinez, Payam Mohassel, Mark Leppert, Mary Beth Scholand, Christopher Grunseich, Carlos R Ferreira, Tyler Hartman, Ian M Hayes, Tim Morgan, David M Markie, Michela Fagiolini, Amy Swift, Peter S Chines, Carlos E Speck-Martins, Francis S Collins, Ethylin Wang Jabs, Carsten G Bönnemann, Eric N Olson, John C Carey, Stephen P Robertson, Irini Manoli, Elizabeth C Engle
Multinucleate cellular syncytial formation is a hallmark of skeletal muscle differentiation. Myomaker, encoded by Mymk (Tmem8c), is a well-conserved plasma membrane protein required for myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes in mouse, chick, and zebrafish. Here, we report that autosomal recessive mutations in MYMK (OMIM 615345) cause Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome in humans (CFZS; OMIM 254940) by reducing but not eliminating MYMK function. We characterize MYMK-CFZS as a congenital myopathy with marked facial weakness and additional clinical and pathologic features that distinguish it from other congenital neuromuscular syndromes...
July 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665998/igfn1_v1-is-required-for-myoblast-fusion-and-differentiation
#18
Xiang Li, Jane Baker, Tobias Cracknell, Andrew R Haynes, Gonzalo Blanco
Igfn1 is a complex locus that codes for multiple splicing variants of Immunoglobulin- and Fibronectin-like domain containing proteins predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. To reveal possible roles for Igfn1, we applied non-selective knock-down by shRNAs as well as specific targeting of Igfn1 exon 13 by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis in C2C12 cells. Decreased expression of Igfn1 variants via shRNAs against the common 3'-UTR region caused a total blunting of myoblast fusion, but did not prevent expression of differentiation markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637676/editorial-focus-on-balance-between-s-nitrosylation-and-denitrosylation-modulates-myoblast-proliferation-independently-of-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-activation
#19
Hugo P Monteiro, Fernando T Ogata
Myogenesis involves a complex series of signaling events that will result in the formation of muscle fibers. The participation of nitric oxide (NO) in myogenesis is well established. NO generation in skeletal muscle comes from the neuronal isoform of the NO synthase (nNOS). NO signals through cGMP production and s-nitrosylation of proteins in skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, nNOS interacts with two domains of caveolin-3 which is part of caveolae, and forms a signaling complex through additional interactions with Src kinase and p21Ras...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623958/knockdown-of-subunit-3-of-the-cop9-signalosome-inhibits-c2c12-myoblast-differentiation-via-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#20
Mariam A Ba, Jeffrey Surina, Cherie A Singer, Maria L Valencik
BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex composed of 8 subunits designated CSN1-CSN8. CSN3 represents the third subunit of the CSN and maintains the integrity of the complex. CSN3 binds to the striated muscle-specific β1D integrin tail, and its subcellular localization is altered in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. However, the role of CSN3 in skeletal muscle differentiation is unknown. The main goal of this study was to identify whether CSN3 participates in myoblast differentiation and the signalling mechanisms involved using C2C12 cells as a skeletal muscle cell model...
June 17, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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