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myoblast fusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625624/an-rnai-based-screen-in-drosophila-larvae-identifies-fascin-as-a-regulator-of-myoblast-fusion-and-myotendinous-junction-structure
#1
Jaclyn M Camuglia, Torrey R Mandigo, Richard Moschella, Jenna Mark, Christine H Hudson, Derek Sheen, Eric S Folker
BACKGROUND: A strength of Drosophila as a model system is its utility as a tool to screen for novel regulators of various functional and developmental processes. However, the utility of Drosophila as a screening tool is dependent on the speed and simplicity of the assay used. METHODS: Here, we use larval locomotion as an assay to identify novel regulators of skeletal muscle function. We combined this assay with muscle-specific depletion of 82 genes to identify genes that impact muscle function by their expression in muscle cells...
April 6, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595878/akt2-is-the-predominant-akt-isoform-expressed-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#2
Ronald W Matheny, Alyssa V Geddis, Mary N Abdalla, Luis A Leandry, Michael Ford, Holly L McClung, Stefan M Pasiakos
Skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism are regulated by complex networks of intracellular signaling pathways. Among many of these pathways, the protein kinase AKT plays a prominent role. While three AKT isoforms have been identified (AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3), surprisingly little is known regarding isoform-specific expression of AKT in human skeletal muscle. To address this, we examined the expressions of each AKT isoform in muscle biopsy samples collected from the vastus lateralis of healthy male adults at rest...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581287/fusogenic-micropeptide-myomixer-is-essential-for-satellite-cell-fusion-and-muscle-regeneration
#3
Pengpeng Bi, John R McAnally, John M Shelton, Efrain Sánchez-Ortiz, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Regeneration of skeletal muscle in response to injury occurs through fusion of a population of stem cells, known as satellite cells, with injured myofibers. Myomixer, a muscle-specific membrane micropeptide, cooperates with the transmembrane protein Myomaker to regulate embryonic myoblast fusion and muscle formation. To investigate the role of Myomixer in muscle regeneration, we used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate conditional knockout Myomixer alleles in mice. We show that genetic deletion of Myomixer in satellite cells using a tamoxifen-regulated Cre recombinase transgene under control of the Pax7 promoter abolishes satellite cell fusion and prevents muscle regeneration, resulting in severe muscle degeneration after injury...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559321/or2h2-regulates-the-differentiation-of-human-myoblast-cells-by-its-ligand-aldehyde-13-13
#4
Benjamin Kalbe, Markus Osterloh, Viola M Schulz, Janine Altmüller, Christian Becker, Sabrina Osterloh, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory receptors (ORs) regulate various cellular processes in the human body. The receptors' participation in physiological and pathophysiological processes could be demonstrated in several studies. In addition to the regulation of sperm motility, respiratory physiology, and heart contraction, ORs play a crucial role in cancer cells. In murine myoblasts, mOR23 regulates the myogenesis and branching of skeletal muscle cells. To date, the expression and physiological role of ORs in human skeletal muscle cells have not been thoroughly elucidated...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546607/dystrophin-expressing-chimeric-dec-human-cells-provide-a-potential-therapy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#5
Maria Siemionow, Joanna Cwykiel, Ahlke Heydemann, Jesus Garcia, Enza Marchese, Krzysztof Siemionow, Erzsebet Szilagyi
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and lethal disease caused by mutations of the dystrophin gene. Currently no cure exists. Stem cell therapies targeting DMD are challenged by limited engraftment and rejection despite the use of immunosuppression. There is an urgent need to introduce new stem cell-based therapies that exhibit low allogenic profiles and improved cell engraftment. In this proof-of-concept study, we develop and test a new human stem cell-based approach to increase engraftment, limit rejection, and restore dystrophin expression in the mdx/scid mouse model of DMD...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514840/the-transcriptional-co-activator-taz-is-a-potent-mediator-of-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-tumorigenesis
#6
Michael D Deel, Katherine K Slemmons, Ashley R Hinson, Katia C Genadry, Breanne A Burgess, Lisa E S Crose, Nina Kuprasertkul, Kristianne M Oristian, Rex C Bentley, Corinne M Linardic
PURPOSE: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is a childhood soft tissue sarcoma driven by the signature PAX3-FOXO1 (P3F) fusion gene. 5-year survival for aRMS is <50%, with no improvement in over four decades. Although the transcriptional co-activator TAZ is oncogenic in carcinomas, the role of TAZ in sarcomas is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TAZ in P3F-aRMS tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: After determining from public datasets that TAZ is upregulated in human aRMS transcriptomes, we evaluated whether TAZ is also upregulated in our myoblast-based model of P3F-initiated tumorigenesis, and performed IHC staining of 63 human aRMS samples from tissue microarrays...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513560/roles-of-il-1%C3%AE-%C3%AE-in-regeneration-of-cardiotoxin-injured-muscle-and-satellite-cell-function
#7
Chayanit Chaweewannakorn, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Masashi Koide, Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Yukinori Tanaka, Shinichirou Yoshida, Shunji Sugawara, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Keiichi Sasaki, Makoto Kanzaki
Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is a complex process involving interactions between inflammatory microenvironments and satellite cells. Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and exerts pleiotropic impacts on various cell types. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-1 during skeletal muscle regeneration. We herein show that IL-1α/β-double-knockout (IL-1KO) mice exhibit delayed muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin (CTX) injection, characterized by delayed infiltrations of immune cells accompanied by suppressed local production of pro-inflammatory factors including IL-6 and delayed increase of PAX7-positive satellite cells post-injury as compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466738/cry2-is-critical-for-circadian-regulation-of-myogenic-differentiation-by-bclaf1-mediated-mrna-stabilization-of-cyclin-d1-and-tmem176b
#8
Matthew Lowe, Jacob Lage, Ellen Paatela, Dane Munson, Reilly Hostager, Ce Yuan, Nobuko Katoku-Kikyo, Mercedes Ruiz-Estevez, Yoko Asakura, James Staats, Mulan Qahar, Michaela Lohman, Atsushi Asakura, Nobuaki Kikyo
Circadian rhythms regulate cell proliferation and differentiation; however, little is known about their roles in myogenic differentiation. Our synchronized differentiation studies demonstrate that myoblast proliferation and subsequent myotube formation by cell fusion occur in circadian manners. We found that one of the core regulators of circadian rhythms, Cry2, but not Cry1, is critical for the circadian patterns of these two critical steps in myogenic differentiation. This is achieved through the specific interaction between Cry2 and Bclaf1, which stabilizes mRNAs encoding cyclin D1, a G1/S phase transition regulator, and Tmem176b, a transmembrane regulator for myogenic cell fusion...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463296/nilotinib-impairs-skeletal-myogenesis-by-increasing-myoblast-proliferation
#9
Osvaldo Contreras, Maximiliano Villarreal, Enrique Brandan
BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective therapies with demonstrated antineoplastic activity. Nilotinib is a second-generation FDA-approved TKI designed to overcome Imatinib resistance and intolerance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Interestingly, TKIs have also been shown to be an efficient treatment for several non-malignant disorders such fibrotic diseases, including those affecting skeletal muscles. METHODS: We investigated the role of Nilotinib on skeletal myogenesis using the well-established C2C12 myoblast cell line...
February 20, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458172/modelling-human-myoblasts-survival-upon-xenotransplantation-into-immunodeficient-mouse-muscle
#10
Christophe Praud, Karine Vauchez, Pascal Zongo, Jean-Thomas Vilquin
Cell transplantation has been challenged in several clinical indications of genetic or acquired muscular diseases, but therapeutic success were mitigated. To understand and improve the yields of tissue regeneration, we aimed at modelling the fate of CD56-positive human myoblasts after transplantation. Using immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice as recipients, we assessed the survival, integration and satellite cell niche occupancy of human myoblasts by a triple immunohistochemical labelling of laminin, dystrophin and human lamin A/C...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444710/a-novel-in-vitro-model-for-the-assessment-of-postnatal-myonuclear-accretion
#11
Anita Kneppers, Lex Verdijk, Chiel de Theije, Mark Corten, Ellis Gielen, Luc van Loon, Annemie Schols, Ramon Langen
BACKGROUND: Due to the post-mitotic nature of myonuclei, postnatal myogenesis is essential for skeletal muscle growth, repair, and regeneration. This process is facilitated by satellite cells through proliferation, differentiation, and subsequent fusion with a pre-existing muscle fiber (i.e., myonuclear accretion). Current knowledge of myogenesis is primarily based on the in vitro formation of syncytia from myoblasts, which represents aspects of developmental myogenesis, but may incompletely portray postnatal myogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444187/a-real-time-monitoring-platform-of-myogenesis-regulators-using-double-fluorescent-labeling
#12
Etai Sapoznik, Guoguang Niu, Yu Zhou, Peter M Prim, Tracy L Criswell, Shay Soker
Real-time, quantitative measurement of muscle progenitor cell (myoblast) differentiation is an important tool for skeletal muscle research and identification of drugs that support skeletal muscle regeneration. While most quantitative tools rely on sacrificial approach, we developed a double fluorescent tagging approach, which allows for dynamic monitoring of myoblast differentiation through assessment of fusion index and nuclei count. Fluorescent tagging of both the cell cytoplasm and nucleus enables monitoring of cell fusion and the formation of new myotube fibers, similar to immunostaining results...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425714/leucyl-trna-synthetase-is-required-for-the-myogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts-but-not-for-hypertrophy-or-metabolic-alteration-of-myotubes
#13
Yoriko Sato, Yusuke Sato, Reiko Suzuki, Kodwo Obeng, Fumiaki Yoshizawa
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling controls skeletal muscle cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism by sensing the intracellular energy status and nutrients. Recently, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (Lars) was identified as an intracellular sensor of leucine involved in the activation of mTOR signaling. However, there is still no evidence for the activation of mTOR signaling by Lars and its physiological roles in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we determined the potential roles of Lars for the activation of mTOR signaling, skeletal muscle cell differentiation, hypertrophy, and metabolism using small interfering (si)-RNA knockdown...
February 6, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401478/asymmetric-cellular-responses-in-primary-human-myoblasts-using-sera-of-different-origin-and-specification
#14
Amarjit Saini, Eric Rullman, Mats Lilja, Mirko Mandić, Michael Melin, Karl Olsson, Thomas Gustafsson
For successful growth and maintenance of primary myogenic cells in vitro, culture medium and addition of sera are the most important factors. At present it is not established as to what extent sera of different origin and composition, supplemented in media or serum-free media conditions influence myoblast function and responses to different stimuli. By assessing markers of proliferation, differentiation/fusion, quiescence, apoptosis and protein synthesis the aim of the current study was to elucidate how primary human myoblasts and myotubes are modulated by different commonly used serum using FCS (foetal calf serum), (CS-FCS charcoal-stripped FCS, a manufacturing process to remove hormones and growth factors from sera), HS (horse serum) as well as in serum free conditions (DMEM)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386054/myoblast-fusion-confusion-the-resolution-begins
#15
REVIEW
Srihari C Sampath, Srinath C Sampath, Douglas P Millay
The fusion of muscle precursor cells is a required event for proper skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Numerous proteins have been implicated to function in myoblast fusion; however, the majority are expressed in diverse tissues and regulate numerous cellular processes. How myoblast fusion is triggered and coordinated in a muscle-specific manner has remained a mystery for decades. Through the discovery of two muscle-specific fusion proteins, Myomaker and Myomerger-Minion, we are now primed to make significant advances in our knowledge of myoblast fusion...
January 31, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371959/modulating-the-metabolism-by-trimetazidine-enhances-myoblast-differentiation-and-promotes-myogenesis-in-cachectic-tumor-bearing-c26-mice
#16
Lucia Gatta, Laura Vitiello, Stefania Gorini, Sergio Chiandotto, Paola Costelli, Anna Maria Giammarioli, Walter Malorni, Giuseppe Rosano, Elisabetta Ferraro
Trimetazidine (TMZ) is a metabolic reprogramming agent able to partially inhibit mitochondrial free fatty acid β-oxidation while enhancing glucose oxidation. Here we have found that the metabolic shift driven by TMZ enhances the myogenic potential of skeletal muscle progenitor cells leading to MyoD, Myogenin, Desmin and the slow isoforms of troponin C and I over-expression. Moreover, similarly to exercise, TMZ stimulates the phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and up-regulates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), both of which are known to enhance the mitochondrial biogenesis necessary for myoblast differentiation...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368451/regulation-of-skeletal-myotube-formation-and-alignment-by-nanotopographically-controlled-cell-secreted-extracellular-matrix
#17
Alex Jiao, Charles T Moerk, Nisa Penland, Mikael Perla, Jinsung Kim, Alec S T Smith, Charles Murry, Deok-Ho Kim
Skeletal muscle has a well-organized tissue structure comprised of aligned myofibers and an encasing extracellular matrix (ECM) sheath or lamina, within which reside satellite cells. We hypothesize that the organization of skeletal muscle tissues in culture can affect both the structure of the deposited ECM and the differentiation potential of developing myotubes. Further, we posit that cellular and ECM cues can be a strong determinant of myoblast fusion and morphology in 3D tissue culture environments. To test these, we utilized a thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) to engineer anisotropic sheets of myoblasts which could then be transferred and stacked into multilayered tissues...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367756/pax3-foxo1-drives-mir-486-5p-and-represses-mir-221-contributing-to-pathogenesis-of-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma
#18
Jason A Hanna, Matthew R Garcia, Alicia Lardennois, Patrick J Leavey, Dino Maglic, Alexandre Fagnan, Jonathan C Go, Jordan Roach, Yong-Dong Wang, David Finkelstein, Mark E Hatley
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood and histologically resembles developing skeletal muscle. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive subtype with a higher rate of metastasis and poorer prognosis. The majority of ARMS tumors (80%) harbor a PAX3-FOXO1 or less commonly a PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene. The presence of either the PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene foretells a poorer prognosis resulting in clinical re-classification as either fusion-positive (FP-RMS) or fusion-negative RMS (FN-RMS)...
January 25, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362934/effect-of-heat-stress-on-contractility-of-tissue-engineered-artificial-skeletal-muscle
#19
Shunya Takagi, Tomohiro Nakamura, Toshia Fujisato
The effects of heat stress on tissue like skeletal muscle have been widely studied. However, the mechanism responsible for the effect of heat stress is still unclear. A useful experimental tissue model is necessary because muscle function in cell culture may differ from native muscle and measuring its contractility is difficult. We previously reported three-dimensional tissue-engineered artificial skeletal muscle (TEM) that can be easily set in a measurement apparatus for quantitative evaluation of contractility...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324704/dissection-of-myogenic-differentiation-signatures-in-chickens-by-rna-seq-analysis
#20
Tingting Li, Genxi Zhang, Pengfei Wu, Lian Duan, Guohui Li, Qiuhong Liu, Jinyu Wang
A series of elaborately regulated and orchestrated changes in gene expression profiles leads to muscle growth and development. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to profile embryonic chicken myoblasts and fused myotube transcriptomes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) at four stages of myoblast differentiation. Of a total of 2484 lncRNA transcripts, 2288 were long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and 198 were antisense lncRNAs. Additionally, 1530 lncRNAs were neighboring 2041 protein-coding genes (<10 kb upstream and downstream) and functionally enriched in several pathways related to skeletal muscle development that have been extensively studied, indicating that these genes may be in cis -regulatory relationships...
January 11, 2018: Genes
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