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myoblast fusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211034/glucocorticoids-improve-myogenic-differentiation-in-vitro-by-suppressing-the-synthesis-of-versican-a-transitional-matrix-protein-overexpressed-in-dystrophic-skeletal-muscles
#1
Natasha McRae, Leonard Forgan, Bryony McNeill, Alex Addinsall, Daniel McCulloch, Chris Van der Poel, Nicole Stupka
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) directly exacerbates pathology. Glucocorticoids are beneficial therapeutics in DMD, and have pleiotropic effects on the composition and processing of ECM proteins in other biological contexts. The synthesis and remodelling of a transitional versican-rich matrix is necessary for myogenesis; whether glucocorticoids modulate this transitional matrix is not known. Here, versican expression and processing were examined in hindlimb and diaphragm muscles from mdx dystrophin-deficient mice and C57BL/10 wild type mice...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208068/in-vitro-supplementation-with-the-porcine-plasma-product-betagro%C3%A2-stimulates-activity-of-porcine-fetal-myoblasts-and-neonatal-satellite-cells-in-a-divergent-manner
#2
M A Vaughn, K J Phelps, J M Gonzalez
Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of betaGRO® supplementation on in vitro porcine fetal myoblasts (PFM) and porcine satellite cells (PSC) proliferation, fusion and myotube thickness. The PFM and PSC were isolated from the m. longissimus dorsi of day 60 of gestation fetuses and piglets within 24 h of birth, respectively. Proliferation assays were conducted as 4×3 factorial arrangements with time of culture (24, 48, 72, 96 h) and media treatment (standard porcine media supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum (HS); HS without 10% fetal bovine serum (LS); and LS supplemented with 10 mg/ml betaGRO® (BG)) as main effects...
December 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202462/paracrine-osteoprotegerin-and-%C3%AE-catenin-stabilization-support-synovial-sarcomagenesis-in-periosteal-cells
#3
Jared J Barrott, Benjamin E Illum, Huifeng Jin, Matthew L Hedberg, Yanliang Wang, Allie Grossmann, Malay Haldar, Mario R Capecchi, Kevin B Jones
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma that is often discovered during adolescence and young adulthood. Despite the name, synovial sarcoma does not typically arise from a synoviocyte but instead arises in close proximity to bones. Previous work demonstrated that mice expressing the characteristic SS18-SSX fusion oncogene in myogenic factor 5-expressing (Myf5-expressing) cells develop fully penetrant sarcomagenesis, suggesting skeletal muscle progenitor cell origin. However, Myf5 is not restricted to committed myoblasts in embryos but is also expressed in multipotent mesenchymal progenitors...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196500/reduced-prostaglandin-i2-signaling-in-arid5b-primary-skeletal-muscle-cells-attenuates-myogenesis
#4
Jennifer Murray, Robert H Whitson, Keiichi Itakura
The AT-rich interaction domain (ARID) family of proteins regulates gene expression, development, and differentiation. Although Arid5b has important functions in adipogenesis and chondrogenesis, the role of Arid5b in skeletal muscle myogenesis has not been investigated. Therefore, we isolated primary skeletal muscle cells from Arid5b+/+ and Arid5b-/- mice and characterized differentiation in these cells. We found that Arid5b-/- primary skeletal muscle cells showed differentiation defects and impaired sarcomeric assembly...
December 1, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193437/silencing-of-gelatinase-expression-delays-myoblast-differentiation-in-vitro
#5
Nowak Eliza, Gawor Marta, Ciemerych Maria Anna, Zimowska Malgorzata
Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration relies on the activation of muscle specific stem cells, i.e. satellite cells. The activation and differentiation of satellite cells into myoblasts, as well as their migration, proliferation, and fusion of mononuclear myoblasts into a functional, multi-nucleated muscle fiber, are associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) protein synthesis and degradation. The extracellular environment is dynamically adapting to the changes accompanying skeletal muscle growth or repair...
November 28, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186180/clonogenic-myogenic-progenitors-expressing-mcam-cd146-are-incorporated-as-adventitial-reticular-cells-in-the-microvascular-compartment-of-human-post-natal-skeletal-muscle
#6
Tiziana Persichini, Alessia Funari, Marco Colasanti, Benedetto Sacchetti
Recent observation identifies subendothelial (mural) cells expressing MCAM, a specific system of clonogenic, self-renewing, osteoprogenitors (a.k.a, "mesenchymal stem cells") in the microvascular compartment of post-natal human bone marrow (BM). In this study, we used MCAM/CD146, as a marker to localize, isolate and assay subendothelial clonogenic cells from the microvasculature of postnatal human skeletal muscle. We show here that these cells share with their BM counterpart, anatomic position (subendothelial/adventitial) and ex vivo clonogenicity (CFU-Fs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158520/myd88-promotes-myoblast-fusion-in-a-cell-autonomous-manner
#7
Sajedah M Hindi, Jonghyun Shin, Yann S Gallot, Alex R Straughn, Adriana Simionescu-Bankston, Lubna Hindi, Guangyan Xiong, Robert P Friedland, Ashok Kumar
Myoblast fusion is an indispensable step for skeletal muscle development, postnatal growth, and regeneration. Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that mediates Toll-like receptors and interleukin-1 receptor signaling. Here we report a cell-autonomous role of MyD88 in the regulation of myoblast fusion. MyD88 protein levels are increased during in vitro myogenesis and in conditions that promote skeletal muscle growth in vivo. Deletion of MyD88 impairs fusion of myoblasts without affecting their survival, proliferation, or differentiation...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146144/drosophila-adult-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122742/myotube-migration-to-cover-and-shape-the-testis-of-drosophila-depends-on-heartless-cadherin-catenin-and-myosin-ii
#9
Silke Rothenbusch-Fender, Katharina Fritzen, Maik C Bischoff, Detlev Buttgereit, Susanne F Oenel, Renate Renkawitz-Pohl
During Drosophila metamorphosis, nascent testis myotubes migrate from the prospective seminal vesicle of the genital disc onto pupal testes and then further to cover the testes with multinucleated smooth-like muscles. Here we show that DWnt2 is likely required for determination of testis-relevant myoblasts on the genital disc. Knock down of FGFR Heartless by RNAi and a dominant-negative version revealed multiple functions of Heartless, namely regulation of the amount of myoblasts on the genital disc, connection of seminal vesicles and testes, and migration of muscles along the testes...
November 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120098/functions-at-the-junction-membrane-proteins-and-myoblast-fusion
#10
Patrick Williamson
The fusion of myoblasts is an essential step in the formation of multinucleated muscle fibres and the molecular underpinnings of this process are being actively investigated. In this issue, Kim et al. report that the membrane protein Xkr8 plays a role in myotube fusion, adding another class of membrane proteins to the list of potential contributors to myoblast differentiation and fusion.
November 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104120/methylmercury-exposure-causes-a-persistent-inhibition-of-myogenin-expression-and-c2c12-myoblast-differentiation
#11
Lisa M Prince, Matthew D Rand
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, best known for its selective targeting of the developing nervous system. MeHg exposure has been shown to cause motor deficits such as impaired gait and coordination, muscle weakness, and muscle atrophy, which have been associated with disruption of motor neurons. However, recent studies have suggested that muscle may also be a target of MeHg toxicity, both in the context of developmental myogenic events and of low-level chronic exposures affecting muscle wasting in aging...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101004/acting-on-identity-myoblast-fusion-and-the-formation-of-the-syncytial-muscle-fiber
#12
REVIEW
Su Deng, Mafalda Azevedo, Mary Baylies
The study of Drosophila muscle development dates back to the middle of the last century. Since that time, Drosophila has proved to be an ideal system for studying muscle development, differentiation, function, and disease. As in humans, Drosophila muscle forms via a series of conserved steps, starting with muscle specification, myoblast fusion, attachment to tendon cells, interactions with motorneurons, and sarcomere and myofibril formation. The genes and mechanisms required for these processes share striking similarities to those found in humans...
October 31, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078404/requirement-of-the-fusogenic-micropeptide-myomixer-for-muscle-formation-in-zebrafish
#13
Jun Shi, Pengpeng Bi, Jimin Pei, Hui Li, Nick V Grishin, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Elizabeth H Chen, Eric N Olson
Skeletal muscle formation requires fusion of mononucleated myoblasts to form multinucleated myofibers. The muscle-specific membrane proteins myomaker and myomixer cooperate to drive mammalian myoblast fusion. Whereas myomaker is highly conserved across diverse vertebrate species, myomixer is a micropeptide that shows relatively weak cross-species conservation. To explore the functional conservation of myomixer, we investigated the expression and function of the zebrafish myomixer ortholog. Here we show that myomixer expression during zebrafish embryogenesis coincides with myoblast fusion, and genetic deletion of myomixer using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis abolishes myoblast fusion in vivo...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062100/irisin-is-a-pro-myogenic-factor-that-induces-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-and-rescues-denervation-induced-atrophy
#14
Musarrat Maisha Reza, Nathiya Subramaniyam, Chu Ming Sim, Xiaojia Ge, Durgalakshmi Sathiakumar, Craig McFarlane, Mridula Sharma, Ravi Kambadur
Exercise induces expression of the myokine irisin, which is known to promote browning of white adipose tissue and has been shown to mediate beneficial effects following exercise. Here we show that irisin induces expression of a number of pro-myogenic and exercise response genes in myotubes. Irisin increases myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion via activation of IL6 signaling. Injection of irisin in mice induces significant hypertrophy and enhances grip strength of uninjured muscle. Following skeletal muscle injury, irisin injection improves regeneration and induces hypertrophy...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038471/myoblasts-and-macrophages-are-required-for-therapeutic-morpholino-antisense-oligonucleotide-delivery-to-dystrophic-muscle
#15
James S Novak, Marshall W Hogarth, Jessica F Boehler, Marie Nearing, Maria C Vila, Raul Heredia, Alyson A Fiorillo, Aiping Zhang, Yetrib Hathout, Eric P Hoffman, Jyoti K Jaiswal, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Sebahattin Cirak, Terence A Partridge
Exon skipping is a promising therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), employing morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (PMO-AO) to exclude disruptive exons from the mutant DMD transcript and elicit production of truncated dystrophin protein. Clinical trials for PMO show variable and sporadic dystrophin rescue. Here, we show that robust PMO uptake and efficient production of dystrophin following PMO administration coincide with areas of myofiber regeneration and inflammation. PMO localization is sustained in inflammatory foci where it enters macrophages, actively differentiating myoblasts and newly forming myotubes...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021612/il-15-promotes-human-myogenesis-and-mitigates-the-detrimental-effects-of-tnf%C3%AE-on-myotube-development
#16
Mary F O'Leary, Graham R Wallace, Andrew J Bennett, Kostas Tsintzas, Simon W Jones
Studies in murine cell lines and in mouse models suggest that IL-15 promotes myogenesis and may protect against the inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy which occurs in sarcopenia and cachexia. The effects of IL-15 on human skeletal muscle growth and development remain largely uncharacterised. Myogenic cultures were isolated from the skeletal muscle of young and elderly subjects. Myoblasts were differentiated for 8 d, with or without the addition of recombinant cytokines (rIL-15, rTNFα) and an IL-15 receptor neutralising antibody...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978943/global-misregulation-of-genes-largely-uncoupled-to-dna-methylome-epimutations-characterizes-a-congenital-overgrowth-syndrome
#17
Zhiyuan Chen, Darren E Hagen, Tieming Ji, Christine G Elsik, Rocío M Rivera
Assisted reproductive therapies (ART) have become increasingly common worldwide and numerous retrospective studies have indicated that ART-conceived children are more likely to develop the overgrowth syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS). In bovine, the use of ART can induce a similar overgrowth condition, which is referred to as large offspring syndrome (LOS). Both BWS and LOS involve misregulation of imprinted genes. However, it remains unknown whether molecular alterations at non-imprinted loci contribute to these syndromes...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943254/sox7-is-required-for-muscle-satellite-cell-development-and-maintenance
#18
Rashida F Rajgara, Neena Lala-Tabbert, François Marchildon, Émilie Lamarche, Jennifer K MacDonald, Daryl A Scott, Alexandre Blais, Ilona S Skerjanc, Nadine Wiper-Bergeron
Satellite cells are skeletal-muscle-specific stem cells that are activated by injury to proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to enable repair. SOX7, a member of the SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors is expressed in quiescent satellite cells. To elucidate SOX7 function in skeletal muscle, we knocked down Sox7 expression in embryonic stem cells and primary myoblasts and generated a conditional knockout mouse in which Sox7 is excised in PAX3(+) cells. Loss of Sox7 in embryonic stem cells reduced Pax3 and Pax7 expression...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923978/mcam-contributes-to-the-establishment-of-cell-autonomous-polarity-in-myogenic-and-chondrogenic-differentiation
#19
Artal Moreno-Fortuny, Laricia Bragg, Giulio Cossu, Urmas Roostalu
Cell polarity has a fundamental role in shaping the morphology of cells and growing tissues. Polarity is commonly thought to be established in response to extracellular signals. Here we used a minimal in vitro assay that enabled us to monitor the determination of cell polarity in myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in the absence of external signalling gradients. We demonstrate that the initiation of cell polarity is regulated by melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM). We found highly polarized localization of MCAM, Moesin (MSN), Scribble (SCRIB) and Van-Gogh-like 2 (VANGL2) at the distal end of elongating myotubes...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895623/comprehensive-analytics-of-actovegin%C3%A2-and-its-effect-on-muscle-cells
#20
Franz-Xaver Reichl, Lesca Miriam Holdt, Daniel Teupser, Gregor Schütze, Alan J Metcalfe, Reinhard Hickel, Christof Högg, Wilhelm Bloch
The ingredients of Actovegin(®) were analyzed and its effects on the muscle cell proliferation were investigated. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in medium. Actovegin(®) was added in five different concentrations (1, 5, 25, 125, and 250 µg) to the differentiation medium. The formations of proliferation factor Ki67 and myosin heavy chains were measured by immunofluorescence. The first primary antibody was anti-Ki67 and anti-Mf20. Cells were washed and treated with the second fluorochrome. Thirty-one Actovegin(®) ingredients were found to contain significantly higher concentrations and twenty-nine ingredients were found to contain significantly lower concentrations, compared to the mean ranges as described in the literature for the normal physiological concentrations in human adult serum/plasma...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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