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myoblast fusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458172/modelling-human-myoblasts-survival-upon-xenotransplantation-into-immunodeficient-mouse-muscle
#1
Christophe Praud, Karine Vauchez, Pascal Zongo, Jean-Thomas Vilquin
Cell transplantation has been challenged in several clinical indications of genetic or acquired muscular diseases, but therapeutic success were mitigated. To understand and improve the yields of tissue regeneration, we aimed at modelling the fate of CD56-positive human myoblasts after transplantation. Using immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice as recipients, we assessed the survival, integration and satellite cell niche occupancy of human myoblasts by a triple immunohistochemical labelling of laminin, dystrophin and human lamin A/C...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444710/a-novel-in-vitro-model-for-the-assessment-of-postnatal-myonuclear-accretion
#2
Anita Kneppers, Lex Verdijk, Chiel de Theije, Mark Corten, Ellis Gielen, Luc van Loon, Annemie Schols, Ramon Langen
BACKGROUND: Due to the post-mitotic nature of myonuclei, postnatal myogenesis is essential for skeletal muscle growth, repair, and regeneration. This process is facilitated by satellite cells through proliferation, differentiation, and subsequent fusion with a pre-existing muscle fiber (i.e., myonuclear accretion). Current knowledge of myogenesis is primarily based on the in vitro formation of syncytia from myoblasts, which represents aspects of developmental myogenesis, but may incompletely portray postnatal myogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444187/a-real-time-monitoring-platform-of-myogenesis-regulators-using-double-fluorescent-labeling
#3
Etai Sapoznik, Guoguang Niu, Yu Zhou, Peter M Prim, Tracy L Criswell, Shay Soker
Real-time, quantitative measurement of muscle progenitor cell (myoblast) differentiation is an important tool for skeletal muscle research and identification of drugs that support skeletal muscle regeneration. While most quantitative tools rely on sacrificial approach, we developed a double fluorescent tagging approach, which allows for dynamic monitoring of myoblast differentiation through assessment of fusion index and nuclei count. Fluorescent tagging of both the cell cytoplasm and nucleus enables monitoring of cell fusion and the formation of new myotube fibers, similar to immunostaining results...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425714/leucyl-trna-synthetase-is-required-for-the-myogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts-but-not-for-hypertrophy-or-metabolic-alteration-of-myotubes
#4
Yoriko Sato, Yusuke Sato, Reiko Suzuki, Kodwo Obeng, Fumiaki Yoshizawa
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling controls skeletal muscle cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism by sensing the intracellular energy status and nutrients. Recently, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (Lars) was identified as an intracellular sensor of leucine involved in the activation of mTOR signaling. However, there is still no evidence for the activation of mTOR signaling by Lars and its physiological roles in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we determined the potential roles of Lars for the activation of mTOR signaling, skeletal muscle cell differentiation, hypertrophy, and metabolism using small interfering (si)-RNA knockdown...
February 6, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401478/asymmetric-cellular-responses-in-primary-human-myoblasts-using-sera-of-different-origin-and-specification
#5
Amarjit Saini, Eric Rullman, Mats Lilja, Mirko Mandić, Michael Melin, Karl Olsson, Thomas Gustafsson
For successful growth and maintenance of primary myogenic cells in vitro, culture medium and addition of sera are the most important factors. At present it is not established as to what extent sera of different origin and composition, supplemented in media or serum-free media conditions influence myoblast function and responses to different stimuli. By assessing markers of proliferation, differentiation/fusion, quiescence, apoptosis and protein synthesis the aim of the current study was to elucidate how primary human myoblasts and myotubes are modulated by different commonly used serum using FCS (foetal calf serum), (CS-FCS charcoal-stripped FCS, a manufacturing process to remove hormones and growth factors from sera), HS (horse serum) as well as in serum free conditions (DMEM)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386054/myoblast-fusion-confusion-the-resolution-begins
#6
REVIEW
Srihari C Sampath, Srinath C Sampath, Douglas P Millay
The fusion of muscle precursor cells is a required event for proper skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Numerous proteins have been implicated to function in myoblast fusion; however, the majority are expressed in diverse tissues and regulate numerous cellular processes. How myoblast fusion is triggered and coordinated in a muscle-specific manner has remained a mystery for decades. Through the discovery of two muscle-specific fusion proteins, Myomaker and Myomerger-Minion, we are now primed to make significant advances in our knowledge of myoblast fusion...
January 31, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371959/modulating-the-metabolism-by-trimetazidine-enhances-myoblast-differentiation-and-promotes-myogenesis-in-cachectic-tumor-bearing-c26-mice
#7
Lucia Gatta, Laura Vitiello, Stefania Gorini, Sergio Chiandotto, Paola Costelli, Anna Maria Giammarioli, Walter Malorni, Giuseppe Rosano, Elisabetta Ferraro
Trimetazidine (TMZ) is a metabolic reprogramming agent able to partially inhibit mitochondrial free fatty acid β-oxidation while enhancing glucose oxidation. Here we have found that the metabolic shift driven by TMZ enhances the myogenic potential of skeletal muscle progenitor cells leading to MyoD, Myogenin, Desmin and the slow isoforms of troponin C and I over-expression. Moreover, similarly to exercise, TMZ stimulates the phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and up-regulates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), both of which are known to enhance the mitochondrial biogenesis necessary for myoblast differentiation...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368451/regulation-of-skeletal-myotube-formation-and-alignment-by-nanotopographically-controlled-cell-secreted-extracellular-matrix
#8
Alex Jiao, Charles T Moerk, Nisa Penland, Mikael Perla, Jinsung Kim, Alec S T Smith, Charles Murry, Deok-Ho Kim
Skeletal muscle has a well-organized tissue structure comprised of aligned myofibers and an encasing extracellular matrix (ECM) sheath or lamina, within which reside satellite cells. We hypothesize that the organization of skeletal muscle tissues in culture can affect both the structure of the deposited ECM and the differentiation potential of developing myotubes. Further, we posit that cellular and ECM cues can be a strong determinant of myoblast fusion and morphology in 3D tissue culture environments. To test these, we utilized a thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) to engineer anisotropic sheets of myoblasts which could then be transferred and stacked into multilayered tissues...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367756/pax3-foxo1-drives-mir-486-5p-and-represses-mir-221-contributing-to-pathogenesis-of-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma
#9
Jason A Hanna, Matthew R Garcia, Alicia Lardennois, Patrick J Leavey, Dino Maglic, Alexandre Fagnan, Jonathan C Go, Jordan Roach, Yong-Dong Wang, David Finkelstein, Mark E Hatley
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood and histologically resembles developing skeletal muscle. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive subtype with a higher rate of metastasis and poorer prognosis. The majority of ARMS tumors (80%) harbor a PAX3-FOXO1 or less commonly a PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene. The presence of either the PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene foretells a poorer prognosis resulting in clinical re-classification as either fusion-positive (FP-RMS) or fusion-negative RMS (FN-RMS)...
January 25, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362934/effect-of-heat-stress-on-contractility-of-tissue-engineered-artificial-skeletal-muscle
#10
Shunya Takagi, Tomohiro Nakamura, Toshia Fujisato
The effects of heat stress on tissue like skeletal muscle have been widely studied. However, the mechanism responsible for the effect of heat stress is still unclear. A useful experimental tissue model is necessary because muscle function in cell culture may differ from native muscle and measuring its contractility is difficult. We previously reported three-dimensional tissue-engineered artificial skeletal muscle (TEM) that can be easily set in a measurement apparatus for quantitative evaluation of contractility...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324704/dissection-of-myogenic-differentiation-signatures-in-chickens-by-rna-seq-analysis
#11
Tingting Li, Genxi Zhang, Pengfei Wu, Lian Duan, Guohui Li, Qiuhong Liu, Jinyu Wang
A series of elaborately regulated and orchestrated changes in gene expression profiles leads to muscle growth and development. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to profile embryonic chicken myoblasts and fused myotube transcriptomes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) at four stages of myoblast differentiation. Of a total of 2484 lncRNA transcripts, 2288 were long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and 198 were antisense lncRNAs. Additionally, 1530 lncRNAs were neighboring 2041 protein-coding genes (<10 kb upstream and downstream) and functionally enriched in several pathways related to skeletal muscle development that have been extensively studied, indicating that these genes may be in cis-regulatory relationships...
January 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318389/myogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-isolated-from-porcine-adipose-tissue
#12
Derek J Milner, Massimo Bionaz, Elisa Monaco, Jo Ann Cameron, Matthew B Wheeler
Advances in stem cell biology and materials science have provided a basis for developing tissue engineering methods to repair muscle injury. Among stem cell populations with potential to aid muscle repair, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) hold great promise. To evaluate the possibility of using porcine ASC for muscle regeneration studies, we co-cultured porcine ASC with murine C2C12 myoblasts. These experiments demonstrated that porcine ASC display significant myogenic potential. Co-culture of ASC expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) with C2C12 cells resulted in GFP+ myotube formation, indicating fusion of ASC with myoblasts to form myotubes...
January 9, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305755/creation-of-dystrophin-expressing-chimeric-cells-of-myoblast-origin-as-a-novel-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#13
M Siemionow, J Cwykiel, A Heydemann, J Garcia-Martinez, K Siemionow, E Szilagyi
Over the past decade different stem cell (SC) based approaches were tested to treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a lethal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in dystrophin gene. Despite research efforts, there is no curative therapy for DMD. Allogeneic SC therapies aim to restore dystrophin in the affected muscles; however, they are challenged by rejection and limited engraftment. Thus, there is a need to develop new more efficacious SC therapies. Chimeric Cells (CC), created via ex vivo fusion of donor and recipient cells, represent a promising therapeutic option for tissue regeneration and Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) due to tolerogenic properties that eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression...
January 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289885/structural-and-biological-characterization-of-new-hybrid-drugs-joining-an-hdac-inhibitor-to-different-no-donors
#14
Sandra Atlante, Konstantin Chegaev, Chiara Cencioni, Stefano Guglielmo, Elisabetta Marini, Emily Borretto, Carlo Gaetano, Roberta Fruttero, Francesco Spallotta, Loretta Lazzarato
HDAC inhibitors and NO donors have already revealed independently their broad therapeutic potential in pathologic contexts. Here we further investigated the power of their combination in a single hybrid molecule. Nitrooxy groups or substituted furoxan derivatives were joined to the α-position of the pyridine ring of the selective class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Biochemical analysis showed that the association with the dinitrooxy compound 31 or the furoxan derivative 16 gives hybrid compounds the ability to preserve the single moiety activities...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260008/functional-validation-and-expression-analysis-of-myotubes-converted-from-skin-fibroblasts-using-a-simple-direct-reprogramming-strategy
#15
Fukuko Horio, Hidetoshi Sakurai, Yutaka Ohsawa, Shiho Nakano, Makoto Matsukura, Isao Fujii
Previously, we reported that MyoD, a master gene for myogenic cells, could efficiently convert primary skin fibroblasts into myoblasts and myotubes, thereby effecting direct reprogramming. In this study, we further demonstrated that MyoD-expressing primary fibroblasts displayed rapid movement in culture, with a movement velocity that was significantly faster, almost four times, than mouse primary myoblasts. MyoD-transduced cells obtained the characteristics of Ca2 + release and electrically-stimulated contraction, which was comparable to C2C12 myotubes, suggesting that the essential features of muscle were observed in the transduced cells...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241690/nuclear-positioning-in-skeletal-muscle
#16
REVIEW
William Roman, Edgar R Gomes
Skeletal muscle cells possess a unique cellular architecture designed to fulfill their contractile function. Muscle cells (also known as myofibers) result from the fusion of hundreds of myoblasts and grow into a fiber of several centimeters in length. Cellular structures gradually become organized during muscle development to raise a mature contractile cell. A hallmark of this singular cell architecture is the position of nuclei at the periphery of the myofiber, below the plasma membrane. Nuclei in myofibers are evenly distributed except in specialized regions like the neuromuscular or myotendinous junctions...
December 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241457/impaired-regeneration-in-calpain-3-null-muscle-is-associated-with-perturbations-in-mtorc1-signaling-and-defective-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#17
Mehmet E Yalvac, Jakkrit Amornvit, Cilwyn Braganza, Lei Chen, Syed-Rehan A Hussain, Kimberly M Shontz, Chrystal L Montgomery, Kevin M Flanigan, Sarah Lewis, Zarife Sahenk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) have suggested that calpain-3 (CAPN3) mutations result in aberrant regeneration in muscle. METHODS: To gain insight into pathogenesis of aberrant muscle regeneration in LGMD2A, we used a paradigm of cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced cycles of muscle necrosis and regeneration in the CAPN3-KO mice to simulate the early features of the dystrophic process in LGMD2A. The temporal evolution of the regeneration process was followed by assessing the oxidative state, size, and the number of metabolic fiber types at 4 and 12 weeks after last CTX injection...
December 14, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235053/classification-of-c2c12-cells-at-differentiation-by-convolutional-neural-network-of-deep-learning-using-phase-contrast-images
#18
Hirohiko Niioka, Satoshi Asatani, Aina Yoshimura, Hironori Ohigashi, Seiichi Tagawa, Jun Miyake
In the field of regenerative medicine, tremendous numbers of cells are necessary for tissue/organ regeneration. Today automatic cell-culturing system has been developed. The next step is constructing a non-invasive method to monitor the conditions of cells automatically. As an image analysis method, convolutional neural network (CNN), one of the deep learning method, is approaching human recognition level. We constructed and applied the CNN algorithm for automatic cellular differentiation recognition of myogenic C2C12 cell line...
December 13, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231808/abelson-tyrosine-protein-kinase-2-regulates-myoblast-proliferation-and-controls-muscle-fiber-length
#19
Jennifer K Lee, Steven J Burden
Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211034/glucocorticoids-improve-myogenic-differentiation-in-vitro-by-suppressing-the-synthesis-of-versican-a-transitional-matrix-protein-overexpressed-in-dystrophic-skeletal-muscles
#20
Natasha McRae, Leonard Forgan, Bryony McNeill, Alex Addinsall, Daniel McCulloch, Chris Van der Poel, Nicole Stupka
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) directly exacerbates pathology. Glucocorticoids are beneficial therapeutics in DMD, and have pleiotropic effects on the composition and processing of ECM proteins in other biological contexts. The synthesis and remodelling of a transitional versican-rich matrix is necessary for myogenesis; whether glucocorticoids modulate this transitional matrix is not known. Here, versican expression and processing were examined in hindlimb and diaphragm muscles from mdx dystrophin-deficient mice and C57BL/10 wild type mice...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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