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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777828/depression-anxiety-and-smartphone-addiction-in-university-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Jocelyne Matar Boumosleh, Doris Jaalouk
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms, and to ascertain whether depression or anxiety, independently, contributes to smartphone addiction level among a sample of Lebanese university students, while adjusting simultaneously for important sociodemographic, academic, lifestyle, personality trait, and smartphone-related variables. METHODS: A random sample of 688 undergraduate university students (mean age = 20.64 ±1.88 years; 53% men) completed a survey composed of a) questions about socio-demographics, academics, lifestyle behaviors, personality type, and smartphone use-related variables; b) 26-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) Scale; and c) brief screeners of depression and anxiety (PHQ-2 and GAD-2), which constitute the two core DSM-IV items for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777674/dsm-5-tobacco-use-disorder-and-sleep-disturbance-findings-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii-nesarc-iii
#2
Amie C Hayley, Con Stough, Luke A Downey
INTRODUCTION: The DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder diagnosis incorporates tobacco misuse, addictive behaviors and withdrawal symptomology. Tobacco use is bidirectionally associated with sleep pathology; however, no epidemiological studies have yet evaluated the associations between DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder and self-reported sleep disturbance. The current study aimed to evaluate health, medical and sleep-related factors among individuals within this diagnostic stratum. METHOD: A total of N = 36,177 adults who participated in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) were included for analyses...
August 4, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760077/mothers-experiences-of-coping-with-adolescent-substance-abuse-a-phenomenological-inquiry
#3
Candice Groenewald, Arvin Bhana
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Research shows that adolescent substance abuse significantly impacts on the lives of mothers. The stresses that mothers endure as a result of the adolescents' substance abuse prompt them to find ways to cope with these stressful experiences. This paper explores the coping responses of South African mothers whose adolescents have been admitted to treatment for alcohol or drug abuse. DESIGN AND METHOD: An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) framework was adopted in this study using a multiple case study design...
August 1, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753046/levetiracetam-in-toxic-seizures
#4
Ted Lee, Brandon J Warrick, Preeyaporn Sarangarm, Robert L Alunday, Silas Bussmann, Susan C Smolinske, Steven A Seifert
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The use of levetiracetam (LEV) in the management of drug-induced seizures has not been systematically investigated. Repetitive and continuous seizures that do not respond to benzodiazepines require second line therapy. Levetiracetam has a unique receptor binding site, rapid absorption, no known cardiac effects at therapeutic doses, and is theoretically a good candidate for use in drug-induced seizures. We evaluate the safety of LEV and its association with seizure cessation in this retrospective chart review of patients who received LEV as a control agent in drug-induced seizures...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749523/questionnaire-of-core-beliefs-related-to-drug-use-and-craving-for-assessment-of-relapse-risk
#5
José Miguel Martínez-González, Raquel Vilar López, Oscar Lozano-Rojas, Antonio Verdejo-García
This study was aimed at designing a questionnaire for the assessment of addiction-related core beliefs and craving. The sample comprised 215 patients (85.8% males and 14.2% females) in treatment for dependence to alcohol (40%), cocaine (36.3%) and cannabis (23.7%). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Variance, regression and factorial analyses were conducted to study the questionnaire structure and its relation with variables such as abstinence and craving. Items about drug-related beliefs yielded a four-factor structure: what patient think that they could not do without drug use, lack of withdrawal, conditions required to use drugs again, and use of drugs as the only way to feel good...
July 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748375/attenuation-of-ethanol-abstinence-induced-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behavior-by-the-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-rolipram-in-rodents
#6
Mei-Fang Gong, Rui-Ting Wen, Ying Xu, Jian-Chun Pan, Ning Fei, Yan-Meng Zhou, Jiang-Ping Xu, Jian-Hui Liang, Han-Ting Zhang
RATIONALE: Withdrawal symptoms stand as a core feature of alcohol dependence. Our previous results have shown that inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) decreased ethanol seeking and drinking in alcohol-preferring rodents. However, little is known about whether PDE4 is involved in ethanol abstinence-related behavior. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the role of PDE4 in the development of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior induced by abstinence from ethanol exposure in different animal models...
July 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736108/chronic-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-selectively-alters-the-expression-of-g%C3%AE-subunit-isoforms-and-rgs-subtypes-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#7
D Jluessen, H Sun, M M McGinnis, B A McCool, R Chen
Chronic alcohol exposure induces pronounced changes in GPCR-mediated G-protein signaling. Recent microarray and RNA-seq analyses suggest associations between alcohol abuse and the expression of genes involved in G-protein signaling. The activity of G-proteins (e.g. Gαi/o and Gαq) is negatively modulated by regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins which are implicated in drugs of abuse including alcohol. The present study used 7 days of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure followed by 24 hour withdrawal (CIE) to investigate changes in mRNA and protein levels of G-protein subunit isoforms and RGS protein subtypes in rat prefrontal cortex, a region associated with cognitive deficit attributed to excessive alcohol drinking...
July 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736097/alcoholic-pellagra-as-a-cause-of-altered-mental-status-in-the-emergency-department
#8
Sarah Luthe Kyuragi, Ryota Sato
BACKGROUND: Pellagra, which is caused by a deficiency of niacin and tryptophan, the precursor of niacin, is a rare disease in developed countries where alcoholism is a major risk factor due to malnutrition and lack of B vitamins. Although pellagra involves treatable dementia and psychosis, it is often underdiagnosed, especially in developed countries. CASE REPORT: In Japan, a 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and seizures...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730283/blockade-of-alcohol-escalation-and-relapse-drinking-by-pharmacological-faah-inhibition-in-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Yan Zhou, Benjamin I Schwartz, Joanna Giza, Steven S Gross, Francis S Lee, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND: Anandamide (AEA)-dependent signaling is regulated by the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that FAAH and AEA are involved in the behavioral effects of alcohol. Therefore, we investigated whether a selective FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-[aminocarbonyl]-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl ester), altered alcohol intake in mice in a voluntary alcohol drinking model. METHODS: Mice, subjected to 3 weeks of chronic intermittent access (IA) in a two-bottle choice paradigm with 24-h access every other day, developed rapid escalation of alcohol intake and high preference...
July 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729845/negative-affect-and-excessive-alcohol-intake-incubate-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-binge-drinking-in-adolescent-but-not-adult-mice
#10
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coehlo, Noah R Solton, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41) are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOH(adolescents)) influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test) and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721480/intermittent-and-daily-smokers-subjective-responses-to-smoking
#11
Saul Shiffman, Lauren Terhorst
RATIONALE: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that "liking" of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare ITS' and DS' hedonic responses to smoking. METHODS: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥21, smoking ≥3 years, and not quitting smoking...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714785/effects-of-alcohol-on-inhibitory-avoidance-learning-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#12
Ricardo Rodrigues Amorim, Priscila Fernandes Silva, Ana Carolina Luchiari
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used in studies addressing the effects of drugs on learning, memory, and anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different alcohol treatments (chronic and acute) on the learning and anxiety response of zebrafish in an inhibitory avoidance paradigm. Zebrafish were initially exposed to different alcohol treatments and submitted to an inhibitory avoidance protocol, where an electroshock was applied to the fish as they swam from the white to the black side of a shuttle box tank (naturally preferred environment of zebrafish)...
July 17, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710873/mecamylamine-treatment-for-alcohol-dependence-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Ismene L Petrakis, Elizabeth Ralevski, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Stephanie S O'Malley, Albert Arias, Kevin A Sevarino, Jane S Jane, Erin O'Brien, John H Krystal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, mecamylamine, is a potential novel pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. The aims were to compare alcohol consumption between mecamylamine and placebo and test if smoking status modified treatment effects. DESIGN: Outpatient, randomized, double-blind clinical trial for 12 weeks of treatment with mecamylamine (10mg) (n=65) vs. placebo (n=63). SETTING: Connecticut, USA...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699947/fecal-occult-blood-testing-in-hospitalized-patients-with-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#14
Benji Mathews, Temple Ratcliffe, Raj Sehgal, James Abraham, Bradley Monash
A 47-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse, cirrhosis, and grade II esophageal varices is admitted for treatment of alcohol withdrawal. He reports having some dark-colored stools a week prior to admission, but his stools since then have been normal in color. A repeat hemoglobin is stable, but a fecal occult blood test is positive. What should be done next?
July 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699845/development-and-implementation-of-an-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-using-a-5-item-scale-the-brief-alcohol-withdrawal-scale-baws
#15
Darius A Rastegar, Dinah Applewhite, Anika A H Alvanzo, Christopher Welsh, Timothy Niessen, Edward S Chen
BACKGROUND: The standard of care for management of alcohol withdrawal is symptom-triggered treatment using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar). Many items of this 10-question scale rely on subjective assessments of withdrawal symptoms, making it time-consuming and cumbersome to use. Therefore, there is interest in shorter and more objective methods to assess alcohol withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: A 6-item withdrawal scale developed at another institution was piloted...
July 12, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687200/ceftriaxone-reduces-alcohol-intake-in-outbred-rats-while-upregulating-xct-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#16
Bethany A Stennett, Jan C Frankowski, Joanna Peris, Lori A Knackstedt
Alcohol addiction is a chronic disease characterized by an inability to regulate drinking. A critical brain region involved in alcohol consumption is the nucleus accumbens (NA). Glutamate transmission in this region regulates alcohol consumption and relapse to alcohol-seeking. Across multiple alcohol-administration rodent models, basal extracellular glutamate levels are increased in the NA during early withdrawal. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and system xC-, containing the subunit xCT, regulate NA glutamate levels...
August 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686789/tris-2-4-6-trifluorophenyl-borane-an-efficient-hydroboration-catalyst
#17
James R Lawson, Lewis C Wilkins, Rebecca L Melen
The metal-free catalyst tris(2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)borane has demonstrated its extensive applications in the 1,2-hydroboration of numerous unsaturated reagents, namely alkynes, aldehydes and imines, consisting of a wide array of electron-withdrawing and donating functionalities. A range of over 50 borylated products are reported, with many reactions proceeding with low catalyst loading under ambient conditions. These pinacol boronate esters, in the case of aldehydes and imines, can be readily hydrolyzed to leave the respective alcohol and amine, whereas alkynyl substrates result in vinyl boranes...
July 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682229/-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-potential-therapeutic-target
#18
Rémi Legastelois, Jérôme Jeanblanc, Catherine Vilpoux, Erika Bourguet, Mickael Naassila
Alcohol use disorder is a devastating illness with a profound health impact, and its development is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. This disease occurs over time and requires changes in brain gene expression. There is converging evidence suggesting that the epigenetic processes may play a role in the alcohol-induced gene regulations and behavior such as the intervention of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Histone acetylation, like histone methylation, is a highly dynamic process regulated by two classes of enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681511/a-new-generation-of-mtorc1-inhibitor-attenuates-alcohol-intake-and-reward-in-mice
#19
Nadege Morisot, Christopher J Novotny, Kevan M Shokat, Dorit Ron
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic condition associated with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Yet, pharmacotherapies to treat behavioral phenotypes such as uncontrolled heavy drinking are limited. Studies in rodents suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in mechanisms underlying alcohol drinking behaviors as well as alcohol seeking and relapse. These preclinical evidence suggest that mTORC1 may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of AUD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potential use of newly developed mTORC1 inhibitors, RapaLink-1 and MLN0128, in preclinical mouse models of AUD...
July 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679017/a-comparison-of-qtc-intervals-in-alcohol-withdrawal-patients-versus-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients
#20
Timothy Chu, Keith Azevedo, Amy A Ernst, Dusadee Sarangarm, Steven J Weiss
OBJECTIVES: Patients with an alcohol use disorder experiencing acute intoxication or withdrawal may be at risk for electrocardiograph (ECG) abnormalities, including prolongation of repolarization (long QTc [corrected QT]) that may contribute to arrhythmias and may be associated with a threefold increase in the likelihood of sudden cardiac events. Patients with acute coronary syndrome may have prolonged QTc as well. To our knowledge, no previous studies have compared the QTc of ACS with acute ethanol (EtOH) withdrawal syndromes in the emergency department (ED)...
July 2017: Southern Medical Journal
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