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Alcohol withdrawal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196024/clinical-and-morphological-features-of-paraduodenal-pancreatitis-an-italian-experience-with-120-patients
#2
Nicolò de Pretis, Fabiana Capuano, Antonio Amodio, Mattia Pellicciari, Luca Casetti, Riccardo Manfredi, Giuseppe Zamboni, Paola Capelli, Riccardo Negrelli, Pietro Campagnola, Arnaldo Fuini, Armando Gabbrielli, Claudio Bassi, Luca Frulloni
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological features and clinical outcomes of paraduodenal pancreatitis (PP). METHODS: A final diagnosis of PP was based on surgical specimens in resected patients and on imaging in nonoperated patients. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data were collected and reevaluated. RESULTS: We studied 120 patients, 97.5% of whom were drinkers and 97.5% were smokers. Symptoms at clinical onset were acute pancreatitis in 78 patients (65%) and continuous pain in 68 patients (55...
February 14, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190519/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-central-amygdala-in-control-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#3
Marzena Stefaniuk, Anna Beroun, Tomasz Lebitko, Olga Markina, Szymon Leski, Ksenia Meyza, Anna Grzywacz, Jerzy Samochowiec, Agnieszka Samochowiec, Kasia Radwanska, Leszek Kaczmarek
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the glutamatergic system has been implicated in alcohol addiction; however, the molecular underpinnings of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. In the current study we have investigated the possible function of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in alcohol addiction because this protein has recently emerged as an important regulator of excitatory synaptic plasticity. METHODS: For long-term studies of alcohol drinking in mice we used IntelliCages...
January 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190432/acute-neurotoxicology-of-drugs-of-abuse
#4
S J Traub, M D Levine
Many substances can affect the central nervous system, and may cause patients to become critically ill. Acute central neurotoxicologic syndromes associated with drugs of abuse are usually caused by an overdose of sedative-hypnotic agents (including alcohol) or opioids, withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic agents, or an overdose of anticholinergic or sympathomimetic agents. Clinical findings are often syndromic, making physical examination the most important diagnostic tool in the approach to the patient with an unknown ingestion...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188055/the-emergency-medicine-management-of-severe-alcohol-withdrawal
#5
Drew Long, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use is widespread, and withdrawal symptoms are common after decreased alcohol intake. Severe alcohol withdrawal may manifest with delirium tremens, and new therapies may assist in management of this life-threatening condition. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review of the emergency medicine management of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. DISCUSSION: The underlying pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is central nervous system hyperexcitation...
February 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183022/temporal-sequencing-of-nicotine-dependence-and-major-depressive-disorder-a-u-s-national-study
#6
José M Martínez-Ortega, Silvia Franco, Jorge M Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis Gutiérrez-Rojas, Shuai Wang, Manuel Gurpegui
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Nicotine dependence (ND) often co-occur. However, little attention has been given to the temporal order between the two disorders. We compared the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals whose onset of ND preceded (ND-prior) or followed the onset of MDD (MDD-prior). Binary logistic regression models were computed to compare ND-prior (n=546) and MDD-prior (n=801) individuals from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n=43,093)...
February 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181957/use-of-nalmefene-in-patients-with-comorbid-borderline-personality-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorder-a-preliminary-report
#7
Ana Martín-Blanco, Barbara Patrizi, Joaquim Soler, Xero Gasol, Matilde Elices, Miquel Gasol, Cristina Carmona, Juan C Pascual
Comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is high and relevant as alcohol consumption seems to worsen BPD symptomatology. One of the newest treatments for AUD, nalmefene, may be useful to improve BPD symptoms not only indirectly by reducing alcohol consumption but also directly by acting on the opioid system as this system has been related to specific BPD symptoms. This open-label study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of an 8-week nalmefene treatment in reducing alcohol consumption in individuals with BPD and comorbid AUD...
February 8, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179883/new-microrna-biomarkers-for-drug-induced-steatosis-and-their-potential-to-predict-the-contribution-of-drugs-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Mireia López-Riera, Isabel Conde, Laia Tolosa, Ángela Zaragoza, José V Castell, María J Gómez-Lechón, Ramiro Jover
Background and Aims: Drug-induced steatosis is a major reason for drug failure in clinical trials and post-marketing withdrawal; and therefore, predictive biomarkers are essential. These could be particularly relevant in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), where most patients show features of the metabolic syndrome and are prescribed with combined chronic therapies, which can contribute to fatty liver. However, specific biomarkers to assess the contribution of drugs to NAFLD are lacking. We aimed to find microRNAs (miRNAs) responsive to steatotic drugs and to investigate if they could become circulating biomarkers for drug-induced steatosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174112/epigenetic-basis-of-the-dark-side-of-alcohol-addiction
#9
REVIEW
Subhash C Pandey, Evan Kyzar, Huaibo Zhang
Alcoholism is a complex brain disease characterized by three distinct stages of the addiction cycle that manifest as neuroadaptive changes in the brain. One such stage of the addiction cycle is alcohol withdrawal and the negative affective states that promote drinking and maintain addiction. Repeated alcohol use, genetic predisposition to alcoholism and anxiety, and alcohol exposure during crucial developmental periods all contribute to the development of alcohol-induced withdrawal and negative affective symptoms...
February 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170108/caspase-cleaved-k18-fragments-increase-during-alcohol-withdrawal-and-predict-liver-related-death-in-patients-with-ald
#10
S Mueller, P Nahon, V Rausch, T Peccerella, I Silva, E Yagmur, B K Straub, C Lackner, H K Seitz, P Rufat, A Sutton, H Bantel, T Longerich
Non-invasive assessment of disease activity in patients with non-alcoholic (NALFD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is still unsettled but essential for the evaluation of disease progression. We here studied the association of total (M65) and caspase-cleaved (M30) serum keratin-18 fragments (n=204) with histological parameters (n=106) in heavy drinkers primarily admitted for alcohol withdrawal before and after alcohol detoxification. An age, gender and fibrosis-stage matched NAFLD cohort (n=30) was used for comparison...
February 7, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166603/electroacupuncture-attenuates-hyperalgesia-in-rats-withdrawn-from-chronic-alcohol-drinking-via-habenular-mu-opioid-receptors
#11
Jing Li, Caihong Fu, Hongwei Liu, Rao Fu, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Pei Chen, Danielle Gregor, Rose Paulose, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
BACKGROUND: Hyperalgesia or increased sensitivity to pain is often found in alcoholics during alcohol withdrawal and may contribute to relapse drinking. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA), through mechanisms involving opioid receptors, may reduce pain and substance dependence and withdrawal syndromes. The lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure rich in mu opioid receptors (MORs), is a critical target for both drugs of abuse and pain. We previously observed hyperalgesia in rats withdrawn from chronic ethanol (EtOH) drinking and found that EA at the acupoint Zusanli (ST36) reduced EtOH intake...
February 6, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162513/-276-role-of-ampa-receptor-regulation-in-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-prolongation-of-incisional-pain
#12
S Liu, Y Guo, H Shu, X Yang, F Tao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162419/-189-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-hyperalgesia-in-young-adult-binge-drinkers-preliminary-finding
#13
D You, M Meagher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162410/-183-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-hyperalgesia-and-alcohol-craving-in-young-adult-binge-drinkers
#14
H Hahn, D You, M Meagher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160250/thiopurines-and-methotrexate-use-in-ibd-patients-in-a-biologic-era
#15
REVIEW
Gerassimos J Mantzaris
Although we have been living in the era of biologic therapy for several decades, the use of immunomodulators (primarily thiopurines [azathioprine and mercaptopurine] and less so methotrexate) still remains an important component of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmaceutical arsenal. Thiopurines as monotherapy exert corticosteroid-sparing effects and can maintain long-term remission in a considerable proportion of patients who have frequent relapses and are or have become mesalazine and/or corticosteroid intolerant or refractory...
February 3, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159647/alcohol-stress-and-glucocorticoids-from-risk-to-dependence-and-relapse-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Sara K Blaine, Rajita Sinha
In this review, we detail the clinical evidence supporting the role of psychological and physiological stress in instrumental motivation for alcohol consumption during the development of mild to moderate alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and in the compulsive, habitual alcohol consumption seen in severe, chronic, relapsing AUDs. Traditionally, the study of AUDs has focused on the direct and indirect effects of alcohol on striatal dopaminergic pathways and their role in the reinforcing effects of alcohol. However, growing evidence also suggests that alcohol directly stimulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and has effects on glucocorticoid receptors in extrahypothalamic, limbic forebrain, and medial Prefrontal Cortex (PFC) circuits, which contribute to the development of AUDs and their progression in severity, chronicity, and relapse risk...
February 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139538/sexual-dysfunctions-in-alcohol-dependent-men-a-study-from-north-india
#17
Shreyas Pendharkar, Surendra K Mattoo, Sandeep Grover
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Sexual dysfunctions have been reported in alcohol-dependent men. Most of the studies conducted had limitation of using non-validated measures of sexual dysfunction and sampling design. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the typology, demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent men. METHODS: One hundred and one patients with alcohol dependence (AD) attending the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre and 50 healthy controls were evaluated in this cross-sectional study...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126716/joint-effects-of-the-epigenetic-alteration-of-neurotrophins-and-cytokine-signaling-a-possible-exploratory-model-of-affective-symptoms-in-alcohol-dependent-patients
#18
Annemarie Heberlein, Rilana Schuster, Alexandra Kleimann, Adrian Groh, Andreas Kordon, Birgitt Opfermann, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Michael Gröschl, Johannes Kornhuber, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Thomas Hillemacher
AIMS: Neurotrophins have been linked to the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. We aimed to investigate a possible association between the methylation of the promoters of both neurotrophins, the serum levels of the cytokines and core symptoms of alcohol dependence as withdrawal severity and anxiety. METHODS: In this study we investigated a possible association between alterations in the methylation of the BDNF IV/NGF I gene promoter and the cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 55 male alcohol-dependent patients...
January 26, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119413/promoter-polymorphism-rs886205-genotype-interacts-with-dna-methylation-of-the-aldh2-regulatory-region-in-alcohol-dependence
#19
Hansi Pathak, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich, Alexander Glahn, Annemarie Heberlein, Mani Haschemi Nassab, Thomas Hillemacher, Alexandra Burkert, Mathias Rhein
AIMS: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects cells from ethanol toxicity by metabolizing acetaldehyde. We studied the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs886205s located between a negative and a positive regulating promoter element in the ALDH2 gene. The negative regulatory region was already associated with differential DNA methylation in the two allele variations of rs886205 SNP. Another CpG island, in the positive regulatory region of the ALDH2 promoter, extends through the SNP rs886205 and a nuclear receptor response element...
January 24, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118494/strain-dependent-effects-of-acute-alcohol-on-synaptic-vesicle-recycling-and-post-tetanic-potentiation-in-medial-glutamate-inputs-to-the-mouse-basolateral-amygdala
#20
Dominic A Gioia, Brian A McCool
BACKGROUND: Inbred mouse strains are differentially sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol and are useful tools for examining how unique genomes differentially affect alcohol-related behaviors and physiology. DBA/2J mice have been shown to be sensitive to the acute anxiolytic effects of alcohol as well as the anxiogenic effects of withdrawal from chronic alcohol exposure, while B6 mice are resistant to both. Considering that the basolateral amygdala is an important brain region for the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on fear and anxiety related behaviors, we hypothesized that there would be strain-dependent differences in the acute effects of ethanol in BLA slices...
January 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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