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Alcohol withdrawal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145545/treatment-of-alcohol-induced-psychotic-disorder-alcoholic-hallucinosis-a-systematic-review
#1
Barkat Masood, Peter Lepping, Dmitry Romanov, Rob Poole
Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of evidence based treatments for alcohol-induced psychotic disorder (AIPD) as described by ICD-10 and DSM-5, a condition that is distinct from schizophrenia and has a close relationship with alcohol withdrawal states. Method: Systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Results: Of 6205 abstracts found, fifteen studies and ten case reports met criteria and were examined. Larger studies examined the use of first-generation antipsychotic drugs, reporting full or partial remission in most patients...
November 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145260/reversible-severe-fatty-liver-induced-by-capecitabine-a-case-report
#2
Yiyan Jiang, Qiancheng He, Suxia Li, Chang Shi, Xiaolei Yang
RATIONALE: Capecitabine (CAP) is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat breast and gastrointestinal cancers. The most common adverse reactions of CAP primarily included gastrointestinal and dermatological effects. Whereas, the CAP-induced fatty liver had never been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study, a-69-year old female presented a history of hypertension with regulated blood pressure, whereas diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hepatitis were excluded...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145198/heavy-alcohol-consumption-effects-on-blood-pressure-and-on-kidney-structure-persist-after-long-term-withdrawal
#3
Sandra Leal, Dinis-Oliveira Ricardo Jorge, Barbosa Joana, Silva Susana Maria, Sá Susana Isabel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heavy ethanol consumption is a risk factor for hypertension and prompts organ damage. There is no information regarding the impact of long-term heavy ethanol consumption on kidney structure and function linking to their hypertensive effects nor the repercussions after withdrawal. METHODS: Rats were exposed to ethanol for 24 weeks and, afterwards, a group was assigned to withdrawal for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was measured and serum biochemical parameters were quantified...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139560/the-mammalian-circadian-clock-exhibits-chronic-ethanol-tolerance-and-withdrawal-induced-glutamate-hypersensitivity-accompanied-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-trkb-receptor-proteins
#4
Jonathan H Lindsay, Rebecca A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal-induced effects are criteria for alcohol use disorders listed by the DSM-V. Although tolerance and withdrawal have been studied over many decades, there is still uncertainty regarding mechanistic distinctions that characterize these different forms of ethanol (EtOH)-induced plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock develops both acute and rapid tolerance to EtOH inhibition of glutamate-induced circadian phase shifts...
November 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135112/symptom-triggered-alcohol-vapor-inhalation-for-postoperative-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-carcinoma
#5
Fengwei Kong, Miao Zhang, Heng Wang, Dong Liu, Ying Wu, Ning Chai, Wenbin Wu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of alcohol vapor inhalation during fasting time for cancer patients with alcohol withdrawal symptoms (AWS) after surgery. METHODS: The data of 51 patients after esophagectomy or gastrectomy for gastroesophageal carcinoma in two hospitals from January 2011 to December 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. These patients were diagnosed with AWS with Clinic Institute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Scale (CIWA-Ar) score ≥ 9 in two hospitals during fasting time from January 2011 to December 2016, and they were accordingly divided into alcohol vapor group (n=25) and diazepam group (n=26)...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132075/alcohol-induced-disinhibition-is-associated-with-impulsivity-depression-and-suicide-attempt-a-nationwide-community-sample-of-korean-adults
#6
Kwan Woo Choi, Eun Jin Na, Jin Pyo Hong, Maeng Je Cho, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Hana Cho, Hong Jin Jeon
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced disinhibition (AID) is defined as a "loss of restraint over some form of behavior after drinking alcohol regardless of its amount". Although many previous studies have investigated on alcohol use disorder and suicide attempt, few studies have focused on AID and suicide. METHODS: A total of 9461 adults who had a history of drinking completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) with the Suicide Module, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130427/reduction-of-anxiety-sensitivity-in-relation-to-nicotine-withdrawal-symptoms-during-smoking-cessation-an-examination-among-successful-quitters
#7
Jafar Bakhshaie, Michael J Zvolensky, Kirsten J Langdon, Adam M Leventhal, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity has been implicated as a potential risk factor for post-quit withdrawal symptoms. The present study examined relations between the extent of change in anxiety sensitivity and the course of nicotine withdrawal symptoms experienced during the initial two weeks of a quit attempt among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample consisted of 29 adult daily smokers (34% female; Mage = 47.7, SD = 13.1) who successfully quit and maintained their abstinence. After adjusting for the effects of gender, treatment condition, use of nicotine replacement therapy, nicotine dependence, alcohol use problems, baseline levels of anxiety sensitivity, and reductions in negative affect, greater reductions in anxiety sensitivity were related to faster decreases in withdrawal symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128307/rescue-of-glutamate-transport-in-the-lateral-habenula-alleviates-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-ethanol-withdrawn-rats
#8
Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcoholism and psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety are often comorbid. Although the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are unclear, emerging evidence suggests that maladaptation of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 may play a role. Findings from animal and human studies have linked aversive states, including those related to drugs of abuse and depression, to aberrant activity in the lateral habenula (LHb). The relationship between GLT-1 maladaptation, LHb activity, and abnormal behaviors related to alcohol withdrawal, however, remains unknown...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127761/seizure-vulnerability-and-anxiety-responses-following-chronic-co-administration-and-acute-withdrawal-of-caffeine-and-ethanol-in-a-rat-model
#9
Daniel Matovu, Paul E Alele
BACKGROUND: Caffeine antagonizes the intoxicating effects of alcohol. Consequently, there has been a dramatic global increase in the consumption of caffeinated drinks together with alcohol, especially among young adults. We assessed the seizure vulnerability and anxiety responses following the chronic co-administration of, and withdrawal from, caffeine and ethanol in male rats. METHODS: The rats were randomly assigned to six groups consisting of 10 animals each: 10 mg/kg of caffeine, 20 mg/kg of caffeine, 4 g/kg of 20% ethanol, combined caffeine (20 mg/kg) and ethanol (4 g/kg of 20%), 4 mL/kg distilled water, and an untreated control group...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109058/homer2-within-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-modulates-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-in-a-mouse-model-of-binge-drinking
#10
K M Lee, M A Coelho, K R Sern, K K Szumlinski
A history of binge-drinking decreases protein expression of the glutamate-related scaffolding protein Homer2 within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), coinciding with behavioral signs of negative affect. To assess the functional relevance of this protein change for withdrawal-induced hyper-anxiety, adult (PND 56) and adolescent (PND 28) male C57BL/6J mice were administered an intra-CEA infusion of an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) carrying either cDNA to express Homer2 (H2-cDNA) or GFP as control...
November 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098672/similarities-and-differences-in-diagnostic-scales
#11
Bin Xuan, Peng Li, Liping Yang, Mingzhu Li, Jing Zhou
A scale plays an important role as a diagnostic tool in discriminating between addicts and non-addicts. At the beginning of this chapter, we have briefly introduced the development of substance and non-substance addiction scales, which not only include alcohol addiction, nicotine addiction and pathological gambling, but also the disputed exercise and sex addiction. While it was found that almost all addiction scales contain items relating to social impairment, preoccupation, withdrawal, and tolerance, the variability is more pronounced with non-substance addiction scales...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097439/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-link-intestinal-immunity-with-antibacterial-immune-defects-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#12
Antonio Riva, Vishal Patel, Ayako Kurioka, Hannah C Jeffery, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, Debbie Shawcross, Jennifer M Ryan, Alexander Evans, Sarah Azarian, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Vinood Patel, Kosha Mehta, Carlos Lopez, Marieta Simonova, Krum Katzarov, Tanya Hadzhiolova, Slava Pavlova, Julia A Wendon, Ye Htun Oo, Paul Klenerman, Roger Williams, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal permeability with systemic distribution of bacterial products are central in the immunopathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), yet links with intestinal immunity remain elusive. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in liver, blood and intestinal mucosa and are a key component of antibacterial host defences. Their role in ALD is unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: We analysed frequency, phenotype, transcriptional regulation and function of blood MAIT cells in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC) and healthy controls (HC)...
November 2, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095046/molecular-spectroscopic-studies-examining-the-interactions-between-phenobarbital-and-human-serum-albumin-in-alcohol-consumption
#13
Sheng-Feng Cui, Wei Li, Cheng-He Zhou
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is associated with a wide range of serious mental, physical, and social consequences and is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. Barbiturates, which are a first-line treatment in the clinic for alcohol withdrawal, may result in combined barbiturate and alcohol use. Their co-use abuse may promote synergistic effects between barbiturates and alcohol in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different alcohol concentrations on the synergistic effects of phenobarbital and alcohol...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080459/acute-toxicity-study-and-anti-nociceptive-activity-of-bauhinia-acuminata-linn-leaf-extracts-in-experimental-animal-models
#14
Ashika V Padgaonkar, Sachin V Suryavanshi, Vaishali Y Londhe, Yogesh A Kulkarni
Bauhinia acuminata commonly known as dwarf white orchid tree is traditionally used to treat acute and chronic pain, skin ailments, cancer, diabetes, throat infections and asthma. As there were no scientific reports on use of Bauhinia acuminata for anti-nociceptive activity, the present study was designed to evaluate possible effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts in experimentally induced pain in animals. Acute toxicity was carried out as per OECD guideline 423. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated in Swiss albino mice by hot plate, acetic acid induced writhing and tail immersion tests at three different dose levels (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of aqueous and alcoholic extracts...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078100/prenatal-substance-exposure-diagnosed-at-birth-and-infant-involvement-with-child-protective-services
#15
John J Prindle, Ivy Hammond, Emily Putnam-Hornstein
Infants have the highest rates of maltreatment reporting and entries to foster care. Prenatal substance exposure is thought to contribute to early involvement with child protective services (CPS), yet there have been limited data with which to examine this relationship or variations by substance type. Using linked birth, hospital discharge, and CPS records from California, we estimated the population prevalence of medically diagnosed substance exposure and neonatal withdrawal disorders at birth. We then explored the corresponding rates of CPS involvement during the first year of life by substance type after adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors...
October 24, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067382/extreme-halophilic-alcohol-dehydrogenase-mediated-highly-efficient-syntheses-of-enantiopure-aromatic-alcohols
#16
Diya Alsafadi, Safaa Alsalman, Francesca Paradisi
Enzymatic synthesis of enantiopure aromatic secondary alcohols (including substituted, hetero-aromatic and bicyclic structures) was carried out using halophilic alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Haloferax volcanii (HvADH2). This enzyme showed an unprecedented substrate scope and absolute enatioselectivity. The cofactor NADPH was used catalytically and regenerated in situ by the biocatalyst, in the presence of 5% ethanol. The efficiency of HvADH2 for the conversion of aromatic ketones was markedly influenced by the steric and electronic factors as well as the solubility of ketones in the reaction medium...
November 7, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061175/hepatic-artery-infusion-chemotherapy-using-mfolfox-versus-transarterial-chemoembolization-for-massive-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-prospective-non-randomized-study
#17
Min-Ke He, Yong Le, Qi-Jiong Li, Zi-Shan Yu, Shao-Hua Li, Wei Wei, Rong-Ping Guo, Ming Shi
BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is recommended as the standard care for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A-B. However, the efficacy of TACE on large (≥ 10 cm) stage A-B HCC is far from satisfactory, and it is proposed that hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) might be a better first-line treatment of this disease. Hence, we compared the safety and efficacy of HAIC with the modified FOLFOX (mFOLFOX) regimen and those of TACE in patients with massive unresectable HCC...
October 23, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056154/contribution-of-urocortin-to-the-development-of-excessive-drinking
#18
Andrey E Ryabinin, William J Giardino
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a role in alcohol consumption, and its dysregulation can contribute to alcohol use disorder. This system includes four peptide ligands: CRF, urocortin (Ucn)1, Ucn2, and Ucn3. Historically, attention focused on CRF, however, Ucn1 also plays a critical role in excessive alcohol use. This review covers evidence for this contribution and contrasts the role of Ucn1 with CRF. While CRF can promote binge consumption, this regulation occurs through generalized mechanisms that are not specific for alcohol...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056153/oxytocin-tolerance-and-the-dark-side-of-addiction
#19
Cort A Pedersen
Substance use disorders blight the lives of millions of people and inflict a heavy financial burden on society. There is a compelling need for new pharmacological treatments as current drugs have limited efficacy and other major drawbacks. A substantial number of animal and recent clinical studies indicate that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, is a particularly promising therapeutic agent for human addictions, especially alcohol use disorders. In preliminary trials, we found that oxytocin administered by the intranasal route, which produces some neuropeptide penetration into the CNS, potently blocked withdrawal and reduced alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#20
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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