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Alcohol withdrawal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#1
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913843/food-and-functional-dyspepsia-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
K R Duncanson, N J Talley, M M Walker, T L Burrows
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by early satiety, post-prandial fullness or epigastric pain related to meals, which affects up to 20% of western populations. A high dietary fat intake has been linked to FD and duodenal eosinophilia has been noted in FD. We hypothesised that an allergen such as wheat is a risk factor for FD and that withdrawal will improve symptoms of FD. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food and functional dyspepsia...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904034/clinical-institute-withdrawal-assessment-for-alcohol-revised-might-be-an-unreliable-tool-in-the-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal
#3
Erin Knight, Leslie Lappalainen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898879/comparison-of-clomethiazole-and-diazepam-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-clinical-practice
#4
Hannah Sychla, Gerhard Gründer, Sarah Edith Lammertz
BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the effectivity and tolerability of diazepam and clomethiazole in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in a large clinical sample. METHODS: The data of 566 patients admitted to an intensive care psychiatric unit in Germany (2010-2014) were evaluated. The course of withdrawal was analyzed on a matched sample (n = 152) consisting of a diazepam group (n = 76) and a clomethiazole group (n = 76)...
September 13, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892881/thyroid-hormone-levels-in-chronic-alcoholic-liver-disease-patients-before-and-after-treatment
#5
Jaswanth Kumar Papineni, Venkata Bharat Kumar Pinnelli, Raghavendra Davanum
INTRODUCTION: Alcoholic liver disease affects almost all aspects of the thyroid gland including the thyroid hormone levels and the thyroid gland size. The altered thyroid hormone levels in alcoholic liver disease may affect alcohol abstinence in withdrawal period by changing hormone milieu in brain, increasing withdrawal dysphoria and increasing craving. AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the levels of thyroid hormones- free T3, free T4, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) in chronic alcoholic liver disease patients before and after treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892072/neuregulin-signaling-pathway-in-smoking-behavior
#6
R Gupta, B Qaiser, L He, T S Hiekkalinna, A B Zheutlin, S Therman, M Ollikainen, S Ripatti, M Perola, V Salomaa, L Milani, T D Cannon, P A F Madden, T Korhonen, J Kaprio, A Loukola
Understanding molecular processes that link comorbid traits such as addictions and mental disorders can provide novel therapeutic targets. Neuregulin signaling pathway (NSP) has previously been implicated in schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder with high comorbidity to smoking. Using a Finnish twin family sample, we have previously detected association between nicotine dependence and ERBB4 (a neuregulin receptor), and linkage for smoking initiation at the ERBB4 locus on 2q33. Further, Neuregulin3 has recently been shown to associate with nicotine withdrawal in a behavioral mouse model...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887627/-sepsis-masquerading-as-delirium
#7
REVIEW
A Seifert, C S Hartog, J Zweigner, W Schummer, K Reinhart
A previously healthy 60-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with severe headache, altered personality and fever. He was treated for bacterial meningitis with delirium of unknown cause but presumed to be due to alcohol withdrawal. Despite receiving the antibiotic therapy regimen recommended for bacterial meningitis the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated with profound delirium and tachypnea. The intensivist who was consulted immediately suspected sepsis-associated organ failure and admitted the patient to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
September 8, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884167/anxiolytic-effects-of-buspirone-and-mtep-in-the-porsolt-forced-swim-test
#8
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coelho, Kimberly R Sern, MacKayla A Class, Mark D Bocz, Karen K Szumlinski
Traditionally, a reduction in floating behavior or immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) is employed as a predictor of antidepressant efficacy. However, over the past several years, our studies of alcohol withdrawal-induced negative affect consistently indicate the coincidence of increased anxiety-related behaviors on various behavioral tests with reduced immobility in the FST. Further, this behavioral profile correlates with increased mGlu5 protein expression within limbic brain regions. As the role for mGlu5 in anxiety is well established, we hypothesized that the reduced immobility exhibited by alcohol-withdrawn mice when tested in the FST might reflect anxiety, possibly a hyper-reactivity to the acute swim stressor...
January 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882570/taurine-restores-the-exploratory-behavior-following-alcohol-withdrawal-and-decreases-bdnf-mrna-expression-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-chronic-alcohol-treated-rats
#9
Alana Witt Hansen, Felipe Borges Almeida, Solange Bandiera, Rianne Remus Pulcinelli, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Fragoso, Ricardo Schneider, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros, Rosane Gomez
Alcohol use disorder is an alarming health problem, and the withdrawal symptoms increase the risk of relapse. We have hypothesized that taurine, a multitarget substance acting as a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) positive modulator and a partial inhibitor of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, may reduce the withdrawal symptoms or modify behaviors when combined with alcohol. Therefore, we investigated the effects of taurine on behavior in the open field test (OFT), the GABAAR α2 subunit and BDNF mRNA expression in the frontal cortex of rats after chronic alcohol treatment or upon withdrawal...
September 5, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865912/inhibition-of-ampa-receptor-and-camkii-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-reduces-depressive-like-behavior-and-alcohol-intake-in-rats
#10
Jing Li, Seungwoo Kang, Rao Fu, Liangzhi Wu, Wei Wu, Hongwei Liu, Danielle Gregor, Wanhong Zuo, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Depression is a well-known risk factor for developing relapse drinking, but the neuronal mechanisms underlying the interactions between depression and alcohol use disorders remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has associated depression with hyperactivity of the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure in the brain that encodes aversive signals. Glutamate receptors contribute substantially to the excitability of LHb neurons. Glutamatergic synapses in LHb neurons largely express GluA1-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPAR) that can be modulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein II (CaMKII)...
August 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863056/preparing-nursing-and-social-work-students-to-care-for-patients-in-acute-alcohol-withdrawal
#11
Sharon A Gates, James R Brown
Alcohol and other drug abuse has become a national crisis with approximately 26% of general medical patients having alcohol-related problems. New nurses and social workers are often not prepared to care for patients with severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms because they lack experience in actual crisis situations. The purpose of this study was to prepare nursing and social work students to care for a patient undergoing an acute alcohol withdrawal process. Nine groups of 8-10 students participated in a 2.5-hour simulation event that included an alcohol withdrawal seizure, team meeting, and discharge of the patient...
July 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858891/recent-advances-on-bioactivities-of-black-rice
#12
Aécio L de S Dias, Barbara Pachikian, Yvan Larondelle, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. RECENT FINDINGS: Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852237/a-study-of-patterns-of-platelet-counts-in-alcohol-withdrawal
#13
Devavrat G Harshe, Harshal Thadasare, Sagar B Karia, Avinash De Sousa, Rashmin M Cholera, Sanjiv S Kale, Omkar S Mate, Nilesh Shah
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the patterns of platelet counts during the course of alcohol withdrawal and its relationship if any with liver enzymes. METHODOLOGY: Forty consecutive patients, with alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition, Text Revision criteria, willing for a 10-day inpatient detoxification program and presenting within 12 h of the last consumption of alcohol were recruited in the study...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851339/comorbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-alcohol-use-disorder-relationships-to-demography-drinking-and-neuroimmune-profile
#14
Sudan Prasad Neupane, Jørgen G Bramness, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: This study examined how alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) differed from those without PTSD in terms of demography, drinking patterns and C-reactive protein, inflammatory cytokines, tryptophan metabolism parameters, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). METHODS: A consecutive sample (N = 187) of treatment-receiving AUD individuals were recruited from Nepalese facilities. They underwent fully structured psychiatric interviews...
August 29, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844504/unsuspected-critical-illness-among-emergency-department-patients-presenting-for-acute-alcohol-intoxication
#15
Lauren R Klein, Jon B Cole, Brian E Driver, Christopher Battista, Ryan Jelinek, Marc L Martel
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits for acute alcohol intoxication are common, but this population is at risk for decompensation and occult critical illness. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence and predictors of unsuspected critical illness among patients with acute alcohol intoxication. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of ED patients from 2011 to 2016 with acute alcohol intoxication. The study cohort included patients presenting for alcohol intoxication, whose initial assessment was uncomplicated alcohol intoxication without any other active acute medical or traumatic complaints...
August 23, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836711/delirium-tremens-and-alcohol-withdrawal-nationally-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#16
David Thomas Moore, Brian Scott Fuehrlein, Robert Alan Rosenheck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol withdrawal-especially delirium tremens (DT)-is a potentially life-threatening condition. While short-term treatment regimens and factors that predispose to more severe symptomatology have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to the clinical epidemiology and long-term care of the chronic medical, addictive, psychiatric, and psychosocial problems faced by these patients. METHODS: National Veterans Health Administration data from fiscal year 2012 were examined to identify veterans diagnosed with DT; with withdrawal but not DT (WNDT); and with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) but neither DT nor WNDT...
August 24, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827047/high-drinking-in-the-dark-hdid-mice-are-sensitive-to-the-effects-of-some-clinically-relevant-drugs-to-reduce-binge-like-drinking
#17
John C Crabbe, Angela R Ozburn, Pamela Metten, Amanda Barkley-Levenson, Jason P Schlumbohm, Stephanie E Spence, Wyatt R Hack, Lawrence C Huang
BACKGROUND: There is a serious public health need for better understanding of alcohol use disorder disease mechanisms and for improved treatments. At this writing, only three drugs are approved by the Food and Drug Administration as medications to treat alcohol use disorders - disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. Binge drinking is a form of abusive alcohol drinking defined by the NIAAA as a drinking to blood alcohol levels (BALs)>0.08% during a period of approximately 2h. To model genetic risk for binge-like drinking, we have used selective breeding to create a unique animal model, High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) mice...
September 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822350/baclofen-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#18
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811950/autoscopic-hallucination-in-alcohol-dependence-syndrome-a-rare-or-missed-phenomenon
#19
Sulochana Joshi, Binita Thapa, Rabi Shakya
Autoscopic phenomenon, a psychic illusionary duplication of one's own self, has been the subject of interest in the literature and science for years. It has been reported in various diseases of the central nervous system but with an unknown mechanism. Hallucinations are a common presentation in alcohol dependence syndrome during delirium tremens and as induced disorder. However, autoscopic hallucination has been rarely reported in the cases of alcohol dependence. We present a case of a 40-year-old man who experienced autoscopic hallucination during the withdrawal state of alcohol...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811180/development-of-an-opioid-self-administration-assay-to-study-drug-seeking-in-zebrafish
#20
Gabriel D Bossé, Randall T Peterson
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an excellent tool to study mental health disorders, due to its physiological and genetic similarity to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, and feasibility of small molecule screening. Zebrafish have been shown to exhibit characteristics of addiction to drugs of abuse in non-contingent assays, including conditioned place preference, but contingent assays have been limited to a single assay for alcohol consumption. Using inexpensive electronic, mechanical, and optical components, we developed an automated opioid self-administration assay for zebrafish, enabling us to measure drug seeking and gain insight into the underlying biological pathways...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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