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Alcohol withdrawal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110168/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-uhplc-ms-ms-for-determination-of-ghb-precursors-and-metabolites-in-different-specimens-application-to-clinical-and-forensic-cases
#1
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Emilia Marchei, Roberta Pacifici, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, Simona Pichini
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Sodium salt of GHB has been used as a medication for narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal. Moreover, GHB and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), are illegal recreational drugs of abuse. A procedure based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and hair for acute and chronic exposure to GHB and in seized preparations coming from black market...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108359/synaptic-targets-chronic-alcohol-actions
#2
REVIEW
Marisa Roberto, Florence Varodayan
Alcohol acts on numerous cellular and molecular targets to regulate neuronal communication within the brain. Chronic alcohol exposure and acute withdrawal generate prominent neuroadaptations at synapses, including compensatory effects on the expression, localization and function of synaptic proteins, channels and receptors. The present article reviews the literature describing the synaptic effects of chronic alcohol exposure and their relevance for synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This review is not meant to be comprehensive, but rather to highlight the effects that have been observed most consistently and that are thought to contribute to the development of alcohol dependence and the negative aspects of withdrawal...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108358/neurochemical-and-metabolic-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-in-the-human-brain-studies-with-positron-emission-tomography
#3
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Ruben Baler
The use of Positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on the human brain has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's rewarding effects, the neuroadaptations from chronic exposure that contribute to tolerance and withdrawal, and the changes in fronto-striatal circuits that lead to loss of control and enhanced motivation to drink that characterize alcohol use disorders (AUD). These include studies showing that alcohol's reinforcing effects may result not only from its enhancement of dopaminergic, GABAergic and opioid signaling but also from its caloric properties...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107511/environmental-enrichment-blunts-ethanol-consumption-after-restraint-stress-in-c57bl-6-mice
#4
Priscila Marianno, Karina Possa Abrahao, Rosana Camarini
Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h) or continuous (24 h) EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress) to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105790/a-qualitative-study-of-patients-knowledge-and-views-of-about-oral-health-and-acceptability-of-related-intervention-in-an-australian-inpatient-alcohol-and-drug-treatment-facility
#5
Alison Li Sun Cheah, Ram Pandey, Mark Daglish, Pauline J Ford, Sue Patterson
Social factors, health behaviours and the direct effects of substances contribute to the poor oral health and restricted access to dental services experienced by people who are dependent on drugs and/or alcohol. Admission for inpatient withdrawal management provides an opportunity for intervention to promote oral health but to be effective it must be acceptable to patients. To support intervention design, we examined patients' views about oral health, practices and treatment access, and appropriateness of health-promoting intervention in this context...
January 20, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101764/diazepam-in-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-alcohol-withdrawal
#6
Steven J Weintraub
Benzodiazepines ameliorate or prevent the symptoms and complications of moderate to severe alcohol withdrawal, which can include autonomic hyperactivity, agitation, combativeness, hallucinations, seizures, delirium, and death. The benzodiazepines most commonly used for this purpose are lorazepam, chlordiazepoxide, oxazepam, and diazepam. It is widely asserted that no member of this group is superior to the others for treatment of alcohol withdrawal. However, of these, diazepam has the shortest time to peak effect, which facilitates both rapid control of symptoms and accurate titration to avoid over-sedation...
January 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098946/negative-association-between-mr-spectroscopic-glutamate-markers-and-gray-matter-volume-after-alcohol-withdrawal-in-the-hippocampus-a-translational-study-in-humans-and-rats
#7
Ulrich Frischknecht, Derik Hermann, Nuran Tunc-Skarka, Guo-Ying Wang, Markus Sack, Julia van Eijk, Traute Demirakca, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Bertram Krumm, Sandra Dieter, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Gabriele Ende, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: Both chronic alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal lead to neural tissue damage which partly recovers during abstinence. This study investigated withdrawal-associated changes in glutamatergic compounds, markers of neuronal integrity, and gray matter volumes during acute alcohol withdrawal in the hippocampus, a key region in development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in humans and rats. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (N = 39) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements within 24 hours after the last drink and after 2 weeks of abstinence...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096011/a-systematic-nurse-led-approach-to-withdrawal-risk-screening-prevention-and-treatment-among-inpatients-with-an-alcohol-use-disorder-in-an-ear-nose-throat-and-jaw-surgery-department-a-formative-evaluation
#8
Deborah Linda Leuenberger, Katharina Fierz, Andreas Hinck, Daniel Bodmer, Wolfgang Hasemann
INTRODUCTION: Among patients with head and neck cancer comorbid alcohol use disorder is frequent which contributes to higher risk of developing perioperative alcohol withdrawal syndrome/delirium or delirium due to medical conditions. Although guidelines emphasize prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal in hospitalized patients, a validated systematic approach for management of these patients is still lacking. Our aim was to formatively evaluate our newly developed systematic approach in view of nurses' adherence to screening patients for regular alcohol consumption and managing their withdrawal symptoms using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093021/altering-ethanol-pharmacokinetics-to-treat-alcohol-use-disorder-can-you-teach-an-old-dog-new-tricks
#9
Carolina L Haass-Koffler, Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Robert M Swift, Lorenzo Leggio
Disulfiram was the first pharmacotherapy approved to treat alcohol use disorder in the 1950s. Disulfiram alters ethanol pharmacokinetics and causes uncomfortable reactions (e.g. headache, tachycardia, nausea, flushing and hypotension) when alcohol is consumed. Subsequently, a better understanding of the neurobiological pathways involved in alcohol use disorder led to the development of other medications (e.g. naltrexone and acamprosate). These neurobiological-based medications act on alcohol use disorder-related phenotypes including craving, stress, and/or withdrawal...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092494/zebrafish-are-able-to-detect-ethanol-in-their-environment
#10
Steven Tran, Hayden Chow, Benjamin Tsang, Amanda Facciol, Prabhlene Gandhi, Priyanka Desai, Robert Gerlai
Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for studying the development of alcohol addiction. Several behavioral paradigms for studying alcohol addiction have been developed for zebrafish, including conditioned place preference, alcohol-induced tolerance, and withdrawal. However, alcohol choice preference tasks have not been established in zebrafish as of yet. The ability of zebrafish to detect alcohol in their environment is required in alcohol choice or preference tasks. To our knowledge, it is currently unknown whether zebrafish are able to detect alcohol in their environment immediately following bath immersion...
January 16, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078168/concurrent-validity-of-caffeine-problems-and-diagnostic-criteria-for-substance-use-disorders
#11
Elizabeth Harstad, Georgios Sideridis, Lon Sherritt, Lydia A Shrier, Rosemary Ziemnik, Sharon Levy
Background: The DSM-5 proposes caffeine use disorder (CUD) as a condition for further study. The objective of this study was to report on the prevalence of CUD and rates of endorsement for each substance use disorder (SUD) criterion in relation to caffeine compared to alcohol and marijuana in a sample of adolescents presenting for medical care in the primary, adolescent, and substance use clinics at an academic medical center. Methods: A convenience sample of patients (N = 213; 66.7% female) aged 12-17 presenting for medical care completed the Composite Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module questionnaire, with questions regarding use of caffeine, alcohol, and marijuana...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Caffeine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072413/decreased-hippocampal-translocator-protein-18%C3%A2-kda-expression-in-alcohol-dependence-a-11-c-pbr28-pet-study
#12
N J Kalk, Q Guo, D Owen, R Cherian, D Erritzoe, A Gilmour, A S Ribeiro, J McGonigle, A Waldman, P Matthews, J Cavanagh, I McInnes, K Dar, R Gunn, E A Rabiner, A R Lingford-Hughes
Repeated withdrawal from alcohol is clinically associated with progressive cognitive impairment. Microglial activation occurring during pre-clinical models of alcohol withdrawal is associated with learning deficits. We investigated whether there was microglial activation in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (ADP), using [(11)C]PBR28 positron emission tomography (PET), selective for the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO) highly expressed in activated microglia and astrocytes. We investigated the relationship between microglial activation and cognitive performance...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065808/bacterial-meningitis-in-alcoholic-patients-a-population-based-prospective-study
#13
Kiril E B van Veen, Matthijs C Brouwer, Arie van der Ende, Diederik van de Beek
OBJECTIVES: To study clinical features and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in alcoholic patients. METHODS: Patients with a history of alcoholism were selected from our nationwide, prospective cohort on community-acquired bacterial meningitis performed from March 2006 to October 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were prospectively collected. RESULTS: Of 1359 included episodes, 88 episodes (6%) occurred in 88 alcoholic patients...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065391/-cancer-prevention-in-france-implication-of-health-professionals
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Lasserre, Julie Gaillot, Antoine Deutsch, Claire Chauvet, Dominique Bessette, Raphaëlle Ancellin
Almost 40% of cancers are attributable to preventable cancer risk factors related to behavior. Health professionals must take into account the respective weight of the different causes of cancer to enforce effective cancer prevention. Their involvement is needed on several levels. In primary prevention, not only for vaccinations, detection and support the withdrawal of addiction, but also by a greater consideration in their patients of all cancer risk behavioral factors. This involvement is essential in the care and monitoring of patients with cancer...
January 5, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061017/feasibility-and-safety-of-extended-release-naltrexone-treatment-of-opioid-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-hiv-clinics-a-pilot-feasibility-randomized-trial
#15
P Todd Korthuis, Paula J Lum, Pamela Vergara-Rodriguez, Keith Ahamad, Evan Wood, Lynn E Kunkel, Neal L Oden, Robert Lindblad, James L Sorensen, Virgilio Arenas, Doan Ha, Raul N Mandler, Dennis Mccarty
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HIV-infected persons with substance use disorders are least likely to benefit from advances in HIV treatment. Integration of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) into HIV clinics may increase engagement in the HIV care continuum by decreasing substance use. We aimed to compare 1) XR-NTX treatment initiation, 2) retention, and 3) safety of XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU) for treating opioid use disorder (OUD) and/or alcohol use disorder (AUD) in HIV clinics...
January 6, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060200/early-fever-as-a-predictor-of-paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Holly E Hinson, Martin A Schreiber, Amber L Laurie, Ian J Baguley, Dennis Bourdette, Geoffrey S F Ling
OBJECTIVE: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is characterized by episodic, hyperadrenergic alterations in vital signs after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We sought to apply an objective scale to the vital sign alterations of PSH in order to determine whether 1 element might be predictive of developing PSH. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/DESIGN: We conducted an observational study of consecutive TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤12) and monitored the cohort for clinical evidence of PSH...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050235/primary-liver-injury-and-delayed-resolution-of-liver-stiffness-after-alcohol-detoxification-in-heavy-drinkers-with-the-pnpla3-variant-i148m
#17
Vanessa Rausch, Teresa Peccerella, Carolin Lackner, Eray Yagmur, Helmut-Karl Seitz, Thomas Longerich, Sebastian Mueller
AIM: To investigate the influence of PNPLA3 genotype in heavy drinkers on serum markers and liver stiffness (LS) during alcohol withdrawal and its association with histology. METHODS: Caucasian heavy drinkers (n = 521) with a mean alcohol consumption of 192.1 g/d (median alcohol consumption: 169.0 g/d; 95%CI: 179.0-203.3) were enrolled at the Salem Medical Center, University of Heidelberg. LS was measured by transient elastography (Fibroscan, Echosens SA, Paris, France)...
December 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045949/influence-of-volatile-anesthesia-on-the-release-of-glutamate-and-other-amino-acids-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-a-rat-model-of-alcohol-withdrawal-a-pilot-study
#18
Thomas Seidemann, Claudia Spies, Rudolf Morgenstern, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Nicolai Netzhammer
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition, which can occur when patients with alcohol use disorders undergo general anesthesia. Excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate, act as neurotransmitters and are known to play a key role in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. To understand this process better, we investigated the influence of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane anesthesia on the profile of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of alcohol-withdrawn rats (AWR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038363/relationship-of-nicotine-deprivation-and-indices-of-alcohol-use-behavior-to-implicit-alcohol-and-cigarette-approach-cognitions-in-smokers
#19
Amy Cohn, Sarah Ehlke, Caroline O Cobb
Alcohol and smoking frequently co-occur and alcohol is a primary trigger for smoking behavior and relapse back to smoking. This study examined whether several indices of alcohol use behavior and consequences of use would be associated with changes in implicit alcohol-approach versus implicit cigarette-approach cognitions under cigarette deprived and non-deprived cognitions in 109 smokers who drank at risky or non-risky levels. An Implicit Association Task (IAT) measured how quickly respondents paired alcohol and cigarette pictures with approach and avoid words...
April 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018479/acupuncture-as-an-intervention-to-reduce-alcohol-dependency-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Charlotte Southern, Charlie Lloyd, Jianping Liu, Congcong Wang, Tingting Zhang, Martin Bland, Hugh MacPherson
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for alcohol dependence. An updated and rigorously conducted systematic review is needed to establish the extent and quality of the evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture as an intervention for reducing alcohol dependence. This review aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of acupuncture for reducing alcohol dependence as assessed by changes in either craving or withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: In this systematic review, a search strategy was designed to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in either the English or Chinese literature, with a priori eligibility criteria...
2016: Chinese Medicine
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