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Alcohol withdrawal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645616/epidemiological-and-sociodemographic-factors-associated-with-complicated-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#1
R Monte-Secades, M Blanco-Soto, J A Díaz-Peromingo, A Sanvisens-Bergé, M C Martín-González, A Barbosa, B Rosón-Hernández, M A Tejero-Delgado, R Puerta-Louro, R Rabuñal-Rey
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the influence of epidemiological and sociodemographic factors in complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicentre, observational prospective study was conducted on consecutively added patients with AWS hospitalised in internal medicine departments. We recorded sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical and progression data. Complicated AWS was defined as that which progressed with seizures or delirium tremens...
June 20, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641297/factor-analysis-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-minnesota-nicotine-withdrawal-scale-and-the-minnesota-nicotine-withdrawal-scale-revised-italian-version
#2
Andrea Svicher, Agnese Beghè, Giacomo Mangiaracina, Fiammetta Cosci
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We run Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and of the MNWS-Revised (MNWS-R). Psychometric properties were also explored. METHODS: Adult Italian smokers, 366 in all, were assessed via the MNWS-R together with rating scales measuring cigarette dependence, alcohol use, anxiety sensitivity and negative affect at baseline and after 3 months. RESULTS: The MNWS showed good psychometric properties (α = 0...
June 23, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639210/-oxytocin-and-the-mechanisms-of-alcohol-dependence
#3
REVIEW
Till Faehrmann, Gerald Zernig, Sergei Mechtcheriakov
One of the crucial purposes of treating alcohol-dependent patients is to enhance their ability to stay abstinent after detoxification therapy. Anxiety and stress vulnerability are the main factors provoking alcohol craving and relapse. In the first months of abstinence, alcohol-dependent patients frequently show sleep disturbances, irritability and depression, indicating chronic activation of stress pathways. In addition, the loss of confidence in interpersonal interactions results in social withdrawal and reduced willingness to participate in therapeutic programs...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632271/copper-promoted-direct-c-h-alkoxylation-of-s-s-functionalized-internal-olefins-with-alcohols
#4
Zhuqing Liu, Fei Huang, Jiang Lou, Quannan Wang, Zhengkun Yu
Copper-promoted direct C-H alkoxylation of S,S-functionalized internal olefins, that is, α-oxo ketene dithioacetals, was efficiently achieved with alcohols as the alkoxylating agents, (diacetoxyiodo)benzene (PhI(OAc)2) as the oxidant, and benzoquinone (BQ) as the co-oxidant. The alkoxylated olefins were thus constructed and applied for the synthesis of alkoxylated N-heterocycles. The polarization of the olefinic carbon-carbon double bond by the electron-donating dialkylthio and electron-withdrawing α-oxo functionalities plays a crucial role in making such C-H alkoxylation reactions to occur under mild conditions...
June 20, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624587/the-lateral-habenula-and-alcohol-role-of-glutamate-and-m-type-potassium-channels
#5
REVIEW
Avi Shah, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Rao Fu, Haifeng Zhang, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Our knowledge of alcoholism hinges on our understanding of its effects on the brain. This review will center on the effects of alcohol in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure that connects the forebrain with the midbrain and encodes aversive signaling. Like many addictive drugs, alcohol has both rewarding and aversive properties. While alcohol's euphoric property is believed to be important for the initiation of drinking, increasing evidence suggests that alcohol's negative affect plays a critical role in excessive drinking and alcohol dependence...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622209/the-forgotten-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-delirium-with-electroconvulsive-therapy-successful-use-in-a-very-prolonged-and-severe-case
#6
Laura Kranaster, Suna Su Aksay, Jan Malte Bumb, Christoph Janke, Alexander Sartorius
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol withdrawal delirium (AWD) is a notorious complication in alcohol withdrawal. Usually, the symptomatic treatment is efficacious; however, some patients show treatment resistance or a prolonged course of AWD. METHOD: We report the case of a patient with a prolonged and severest form of AWD. Even 11 weeks after admission, he received approximately 100 mg diazepam per week to manage the symptoms of withdrawal delirium. RESULTS: A treatment course of electroconvulsive therapy was initiated, which allowed a complete tapering off of benzodiazepines during electroconvulsive therapy without adverse effects...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605308/prevalence-of-heavy-alcohol-use-among-people-receiving-methadone-following-change-to-methadose
#7
Jan Klimas, Evan Wood, Ekaterina Nosova, M-J Milloy, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: A recent switch in methadone formulation from methadone (1 mg/mL) to Methadose (10 mg/mL) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, was associated with increased reports of opioid withdrawal and increases in illicit opioid use. Impacts on other forms of drug use have not been assessed. Since alcohol use is common among people receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT), we assessed if switch was associated with increased prevalence of heavy alcohol use. METHODS: Drawing on data from two open prospective cohort studies of people who inject drugs in Vancouver, BC, generalized estimating equations (GEE) model examined relationship between methadone formulation change and heavy alcohol use, defined by National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604792/characteristics-clinical-course-and-outcomes-of-homeless-and-non-homeless-patients-admitted-to-icu-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Orla M Smith, Clarence Chant, Karen E A Burns, Maninder Kaur, Said Ashraf, Claudia C DosSantos, Stephen W Hwang, Jan O Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Little is known about homeless patients in intensive care units (ICUs). OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of homeless to non-homeless patients admitted to four ICUs in a large inner-city academic hospital. METHODS: 63 randomly-selected homeless compared to 63 age-, sex-, and admitting-ICU-matched non-homeless patients. RESULTS: Compared to matched non-homeless, homeless patients (average age 48±12 years, 90% male, 87% admitted by ambulance, 56% mechanically ventilated, average APACHE II 17) had similar comorbidities and illness severity except for increased alcohol (70% vs 17%,p<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601135/novel-algorithms-for-the-prophylaxis-and-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndromes-beyond-benzodiazepines
#9
REVIEW
José R Maldonado
Benzodiazepine (BZDP) agents are the standard for the prophylaxis and treatment of all phases of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, BZDPs have their drawbacks: cognitive impairment, significant neurologic and medical side effects. There are data suggesting that the alcohol recidivism rate and abuse potential is higher for BZDPs treated patients, compared to alternatives. Clinical and research data demonstrate the efficacy and safety of various pharmacologic alternatives to benzodiazepines for the prevention and management of AWS...
July 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599772/do-adolescent-risk-behaviors-mediate-health-and-school-bullying-testing-the-stress-process-and-general-strain-frameworks
#10
Joseph C Jochman, Jacob E Cheadle, Bridget J Goosby
Adolescent bullying is a significant public health issue in the United States. The health consequences of bullying may vary, however, according to the social position and characteristics of victims and bullies within the bullying subculture. For example, research suggests that bully involved youth are more likely to engage in risky health behaviors, including social withdrawal, tobacco, and alcohol use. Yet, the extent to which health outcomes are shaped by involvements in bullying or the risk behaviors associated with bullying remains unclear...
July 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576813/evaluating-the-benefits-of-using-a-scoring-system-to-aid-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal-at-an-nhs-district-general-hospital
#11
Peter Foulser, Leesa Everett, Margaret Parsons, Kuldeep Cheent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574532/association-between-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-use-and-clinical-deterioration-in-ward-patients
#12
Patrick G Lyons, Ashley Snyder, Sarah Sokol, Dana P Edelson, Babak Mokhlesi, Matthew M Churpek
BACKGROUND: Opioids and benzodiazepines are frequently used in hospitals, but little is known about outcomes among ward patients receiving these medications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between opioid and benzodiazepine administration and clinical deterioration. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: 500-bed academic urban tertiary-care hospital. PATIENTS: All adults hospitalized on the wards from November 2008 to January 2016 were included...
June 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568647/standardized-passiflora-incarnata-l-extract-reverts-the-analgesia-induced-by-alcohol-withdrawal-in-rats
#13
Rebeca Vargas Antunes Schunck, Isabel Cristina Macedo, Gabriela Laste, Andressa de Souza, Marina Tuerlinckx Costa Valle, Janaína L O Salomón, Ellen Almeida Nunes, Andreia Cristina Wildner Campos, Simone Cristina Baggio Gnoatto, Ana Maria Bergold, Eduardo L Konrath, Eliane Dallegrave, Marcelo Dutra Arbo, Iraci L S Torres, Mirna Bainy Leal
Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) has been traditionally used for treatment of anxiety, insomnia, drug addiction, mild infections, and pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial extract of P. incarnata in the analgesia induced by alcohol withdrawal syndrome in rats. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-10 levels were evaluated in prefrontal cortex, brainstem, and hippocampus. Male adult rats received by oral gavage: (1: water group) water for 19 days, 1 day interval and water (8 days); (2: P...
June 1, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564576/the-endocannabinoid-system-as-a-target-for-addiction-treatment-trials-and-tribulations
#14
REVIEW
Matthew E Sloan, Joshua L Gowin, Vijay A Ramchandani, Yasmin L Hurd, Bernard Le Foll
Addiction remains a major public health concern, and while pharmacotherapies can be effective, clinicians are limited by the paucity of existing interventions. Endocannabinoid signaling is involved in reward and addiction, which raises the possibility that drugs targeting this system could be used to treat substance use disorders. This review discusses findings from randomized controlled trials evaluating cannabinergic medications for addiction. Current evidence suggests that pharmacotherapies containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, such as dronabinol and nabiximols, are effective for cannabis withdrawal...
May 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561068/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-increases-resting-state-limbic-perfusion-and-body-and-emotion-awareness-in-humans
#15
Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Michael M Havranek, Dario Dornbierer, Robin von Rotz, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABA-B receptor agonist inducing a broad spectrum of subjective effects including euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. It is used as treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders including narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal, but is also a drug of abuse. Non-medical users report enhancement of body and emotion awareness during intoxication. However, the neuronal underpinnings of such awareness alterations under GHB are unknown so far. The assessment of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) enables the elucidation of drug-induced functional brain alterations...
May 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559182/time-dependent-effect-of-chronic-embryonic-exposure-to-ethanol-on-zebrafish-morphology-biochemical-and-anxiety-alterations
#16
Nurul Farhana Ramlan, Nurul Syafida Asma Mohd Sata, Siti Norhidayah Hassan, Noraini Abu Bakar, Syahida Ahmad, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim
Exposure to ethanol during critical period of development can cause severe impairments in the central nervous system (CNS). This study was conducted to assess the neurotoxic effects of chronic embryonic exposure to ethanol in the zebrafish, taking into consideration the time dependent effect. Two types of exposure regimen were applied in this study. Withdrawal exposure group received daily exposure starting from gastrulation until hatching, while continuous exposure group received daily exposure from gastrulation until behavioural assessment at 6dpf (days post fertilization)...
May 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557960/accuracy-of-diagnosis-and-international-classification-of-diseases-tenth-revision-coding-for-alcohol-dependence-alcohol-withdrawal-and-alcohol-withdrawal-delirium-among-inpatients-at-a-university-hospital
#17
Wandee Wansrisuthon, Woraphat Ratta-Apha, Lakkhana Thongchot, Pornjira Pariwatcharakul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554848/sex-and-hormone-dependent-alterations-in-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-and-corticolimbic-endocannabinoid-signaling
#18
Angela M Henricks, Anthony L Berger, Janelle M Lugo, Lydia N Baxter-Potter, Kennedy V Bieniasz, Gavin Petrie, Martin A Sticht, Matthew N Hill, Ryan J McLaughlin
Alcohol dependence is associated with anxiety during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system participates in the neuroendocrine and behavioral response to stress and changes in corticolimbic ECB signaling may contribute to alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Moreover, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal differ between sexes and sexual dimorphism in withdrawal-induced ECB recruitment may be a contributing factor. Herein, we exposed intact male and female rats and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with or without estradiol (E2) replacement to 6 weeks of chronic intermittent alcohol vapor and measured anxiety-like behavior, ECB content, and ECB-related mRNA in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
May 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554528/lobeline-attenuates-ethanol-abstinence-induced-depression-like-behavior-in-mice
#19
Monzurul Amin Roni, Shafiqur Rahman
Evidence indicates that the brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) ligand lobeline reduces depression-like behaviors, ethanol drinking, and nicotine withdrawal-induced depression-like behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of lobeline on ethanol abstinence-induced depression-like behavior and associated neuroadaptive changes in mice. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were allowed to drink 10% ethanol for 4 weeks using a two-bottle choice procedure. Mice were tested after 24 h and 14 days of ethanol abstinence in a forced swim test (FST), a measure for depression-like behavior...
June 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546434/behavioral-deficits-following-withdrawal-from-chronic-ethanol-are-influenced-by-slo-channel-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Luisa L Scott, Scott J Davis, Rachel C Yen, Greg J Ordemann, Sarah K Nordquist, Deepthi Bannai, Jonathan T Pierce
Symptoms of withdrawal from chronic alcohol use are a driving force for relapse in alcohol dependence. Thus, uncovering molecular targets to lessen their severity is key to breaking the cycle of dependence. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we tested whether one highly conserved ethanol target, the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (known as the BK channel or Slo1), modulates ethanol withdrawal. Consistent with a previous report, we found that C. elegans displays withdrawal-related behavioral impairments after cessation of chronic ethanol exposure...
May 25, 2017: Genetics
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