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Alcohol withdrawal

Ashley C Nelson, Stephanie B Williams, Stephanie S Pistorius, Hyun J Park, Taylor J Woodward, Andrew J Payne, J Daniel Obray, Samuel I Shin, Jennifer K Mabey, Scott C Steffensen
The neural mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence are not well-understood. GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a relevant target for ethanol. They are inhibited by ethanol at physiologically-relevant levels in vivo and display marked hyperexcitability during withdrawal. In the present study, we examined the effects of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol on VTA neurons ex vivo following withdrawal from acute and chronic ethanol exposure. We used standard cell-attached mode electrophysiology in the slice preparation to evaluate the effects of muscimol on VTA GABA neuron firing rate following exposure to acute and chronic ethanol in male CD-1 GAD-67 GFP mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brittany A Matthews, Junchao Tong, Sophia Attwells, Xin Xu, Anh Le, Stephen J Kish, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: A key component of alcohol dependence (AD), a severe form of alcohol use disorder, is the negative emotional state during withdrawal. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important enzyme that metabolizes monoamines and creates oxidative stress. Elevations in MAO-A level, especially in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC), are associated with low mood states, including the dysphoria of early alcohol withdrawal in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic alcohol vapor exposure causes an upregulation of MAO-A activity or level in the PFC and ACC of rodents during acute withdrawal...
February 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Manon Auffret, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin
Apomorphine is now recognized as the oldest antiparkinsonian drug on the market. Though still underused, it is increasingly prescribed in Europe for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with motor fluctuations. However, its history is far from being limited to movement disorders. This paper traces the history of apomorphine, from its earliest empirical use, to its synthesis, pharmacological development, and numerous indications in human and veterinary medicine, in light of its most recent uses and newest challenges...
March 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
V Clergue-Duval, E Pot, J Azuar
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are fully concerned with the care of patients suffering from addiction and must have the support of a specialized network. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of the addict follow-up care by GPs, their use of addictological care facilities and their needs in communicating with specialists. METHODS: Private and salaried GPs working in the 9th, 10th, 18th and 19th districts of Paris were contacted by phone, and a questionnaire was sent to those who agreed to respond...
March 12, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
P Staiger, V Manning, D Leung, K Hall, A Verdejo-Garcia, L Hughes
This has been removed as it was published accidentally. The authors listed wish it to be known that this article was not presented at the conference for which this volume is the proceedings. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at
April 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Igam Bagra, Vijay Krishnan, Ravindra Rao, Alok Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Use of various psychoactive substances can influence outcomes of patients on opioid agonist treatment (OAT). While use of alcohol and cocaine has shown to adversely affect OAT results, associated cannabis use shows mixed results. This study aimed to assess the pattern of cannabis use among opioid-dependent patients maintained on buprenorphine. Additionally, the study compared the dose of buprenorphine, opioid-related craving and withdrawals, productivity, and also quality of life between those with and without recent (past 90-day) cannabis use...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Lone Baandrup, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Jesper Ø Rasmussen, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Birte Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological interventions can facilitate benzodiazepine tapering. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions to facilitate discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Julia M Lappin, Muhammad H Ayub, David Rogers, Madeleine Morgan, Jean-Yves Kanyamibwa, Anthony Shakeshaft
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a routine screening and triage tool for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in improving clinical care delivery in an ED setting. METHODS: In a regional ED in Australia, a screening and triage tool for AWS was introduced to routine ED assessment for a 13 week period. Subjects were all presentations to ED aged 16 and above with relevant presenting problems during the pre-intervention phase (1 January 2015-31 December 2016) and the post-intervention phase (8 August 2016-4 November 2016)...
March 12, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Michelle McKenzie, Alexandria Macmadu, Sarah Larney, Nickolas Zaller, Emily Dauria, Josiah Rich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Chien-Hua Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Long-Bin Jeng
PURPOSE: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) can cause fat or bile acid malabsorption due to exocrine insufficiency. Fat or bile acid malabsorption has been reported to increase the risk of urolithiasis through increased intestinal oxalate absorption. However, no studies have reported an association between CP and urolithiasis. METHODS: We identified 15,848 patients (age: ≥20 years) diagnosed as having CP between 2000 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the study cohort...
2018: PloS One
John Peyton Bohnsack, Benjamin A Hughes, Todd K O'Buckley, Kamyra Edokpolor, Joyce Besheer, A Leslie Morrow
Alcohol use disorders are chronic debilitating diseases characterized by severe withdrawal symptoms that contribute to morbidity and relapse. GABAA receptor (GABAA R) adaptations have long been implicated in the chronic effects of alcohol and contribute to many withdrawal symptoms associated with alcohol dependence. In rodents, GABAA R hypofunction results from decreases in Gabra1 expression, although the underlying mechanism controlling Gabra1 expression after chronic ethanol exposure is still unknown. We found that chronic ethanol exposure using either ethanol gavage or two-bottle choice voluntary access paradigms decreased Gabra1 expression and increased Hdac2 and Hdac3 expression...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Prabin Sharma, Rodrigo Aguilar, Mark Abi Nader, Shaheryar Siddiqui, Ramkaji Baniya, Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Carmen Elena Cervantes, Ricardo Correa, Amir Masoud
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the difference in overall outcomes between weekend admissions for acute pancreatitis (AP) and weekday admissions. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2012, data were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample on adult patients with AP. Exclusion criteria were applied for chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic and biliary malignancies. In-hospital mortality, length of stay, hospitalization costs, comorbidities, complications, and intervention rates were compared between the weekend and weekday admissions...
April 2018: Pancreas
Kai H Lee, Michael Qiu, Jiandong Sun
OBJECTIVES: The algorithm for maxillofacial trauma management is well defined; however, provision of alcohol assessment for patients after trauma is not widely practiced. This study aims to investigate the rate of alcohol assessment achieved within the demographic characteristics of patients with facial trauma and the circumstances where this intervention was implemented. STUDY DESIGN: This study retrospectively examined the Victorian Admitted Episodes Data Set (VAED) from 2004 to 2013...
February 1, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Leon G Coleman, Fulton T Crews
Innate immune signaling is an important feature in the pathology of alcohol use disorders. Alcohol abuse causes persistent innate immune activation in the brain. This is seen in postmortem human alcoholic brain specimens, as well as in primate and rodent models of alcohol consumption. Further, in vitro models of alcohol exposure in neurons and glia also demonstrate innate immune activation. The activation of the innate immune system seems to be important in the development of alcohol use pathology, as anti-immune therapies reduce pathology and ethanol self-administration in rodent models...
March 3, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Prosper N'Gouemo
Voltage-sensitive Ca2+ (CaV ) channels are the primary route of depolarization-induced Ca2+ entry in neurons and other excitable cells, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ). The resulting increase in [Ca2+ ]i activates a wide range of Ca2+ -dependent processes in neurons, including neurotransmitter release, gene transcription, activation of Ca2+ -dependent enzymes, and activation of certain K+ channels and chloride channels. In addition to their key roles under physiological conditions, CaV channels are also an important target of alcohol, and alcohol-induced changes in Ca2+ signaling can disturb neuronal homeostasis, Ca2+ -mediated gene transcription, and the function of neuronal circuits, leading to various neurological and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders, including alcohol withdrawal induced-seizures and alcoholism...
March 3, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Jennifer G Bray, Kenneth C Reyes, Amanda J Roberts, Donna L Gruol
CNS actions of the chemokine CCL2 are thought to play a role in a variety of conditions that can have detrimental consequences to CNS function, including alcohol use disorders. We used transgenic mice that express elevated levels of CCL2 in the CNS (CCL2-tg) and their non-transgenic (non-tg) littermate control mice to investigate long-term consequences of CCL2/alcohol/withdrawal interactions on hippocampal synaptic function, including excitatory synaptic transmission, somatic excitability, and synaptic plasticity...
February 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Laura B Ferguson, R Adron Harris, Roy Dayne Mayfield
The alcohol research field has amassed an impressive number of gene expression datasets spanning key brain areas for addiction, species (humans as well as multiple animal models), and stages in the addiction cycle (binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative effect, and preoccupation/anticipation). These data have improved our understanding of the molecular adaptations that eventually lead to dysregulation of brain function and the chronic, relapsing disorder of addiction. Identification of new medications to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD) will likely benefit from the integration of genetic, genomic, and behavioral information included in these important datasets...
March 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Snehalata V Gajbhiye, Raakhi K Tripathi, Anup Uttam Petare, Anirudha Vyankatesh Potey, Arun Shankar
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and negative sensations due to alcohol withdrawal are factors leading to alcohol relapse and addiction. Minocycline, an antibiotic, can decrease alcohol consumption in rats, however, its effects on alcohol withdrawal anxiety and relapse have not been studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Part 1: Forced alcohol drinking in gradually increasing concentration was administered till day 22 in rats. Effect of drugs on anxiety was assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM) and two chambered box apparatus, after removal of alcohol...
February 27, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Yoonsun Mo, Michael C Thomas, Corey S Laskey, Natalia Shcherbakova, Megan L Bankert, Robert H Halloran
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine current practice patterns surrounding the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the Northeast region of the United States. Methods: A survey questionnaire with several treatment options related to current practice in the management of AWS was developed. All hospitals with 100 beds or more located in the Northeast region were selected, and 512 surveys were mailed to pharmacy directors of those hospitals...
March 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Verena Ertl, Melissa Preuße, Frank Neuner
Background and Aims: Since alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent and destructive mental disorders, it is critical to address factors contributing to their development and maintenance. Drinking motives are relevant driving factors for consumption. Identifying groups of drinkers with similar motivations may help to specialize intervention components and make treatment more effective and efficient. We aimed to identify and describe distinct motive types of drinkers in dependent males from two diverse cultures (Uganda and Germany) and to explore potential differences and similarities in addiction-related measures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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