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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324846/novel-alk5-inhibitor-tp0427736-reduces-tgf-%C3%AE-%C3%A3-induced-growth-inhibition-in-human-outer-root-sheath-cells-and-elongates-anagen-phase-in-mouse-hair-follicles
#1
Takumi Naruse, Mari Aoki, Natsuko Fujimoto, Seiji Arase, Hajimu Oura, Yasuji Ueda, Akiko Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Androgenic alopecia (AGA) occurs as a result of the contraction of the anagen phase because of the action of androgens on hair follicles. TGF-β production from dermal papillae is enhanced by androgens, and growth inhibition of hair-follicle cells is induced by TGF-β, and the hair cycle progresses from the anagen phase to the catagen phase. We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo potency of the newly identified ALK5 inhibitor TP0427736 {6-[4-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]-1,3-benzothiazole}...
January 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324043/reduced-transforming-growth-factor-beta-activity-in-the-endometrium-of-women-with-heavy-menstrual-bleeding
#2
J A Maybin, L Boswell, V J Young, W C Duncan, Hod Critchley
Context: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The TGFβ superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. Objective: We hypothesised that TGFβ1 is important for endometrial repair and women with HMB have aberrant TGFβ1 activity at menses. Participants/Setting: Endometrial biopsies were collected from women and menstrual blood loss objectively measured (HMB >80ml/cycle, normal menstrual bleeding, NMB <80ml)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323768/use-of-cardiovascular-age-for-assessing-risks-and-benefits-of-menopausal-hormone-therapy
#3
Richard J Santen
The Women's Health Initiative studies and others have suggested that menopausal hormone therapy may enhance the risk of new cardiovascular (CV) events in older women and diminish the development of coronary atherosclerosis in younger women. The underlying mechanisms to explain these findings are encapsulated in the term "Timing Hypothesis." Extensive pathophysiologic studies have provided mechanistic evidence for the dichotomous effects of estrogen on coronary artery vasculature. Early in the atherosclerotic disease process, estrogen exerts protective effects on the endothelium and retards plaque formation...
March 20, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318664/risk-assessment-of-patients-with-clinical-manifestations-of-cardiac-sarcoidosis-with-positron-emission-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Paco E Bravo, Ganesh Raghu, David G Rosenthal, Shana Elman, Bradley J Petek, Laurie A Soine, Jeffrey H Maki, Kelley R Branch, Sofia C Masri, Kristen K Patton, James H Caldwell, Eric V Krieger
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) confer incremental risk assessment in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). However, the incremental prognostic value of the combined use of LGE and FDG compared to either test alone has not been investigated, and this is the aim of the present study. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of 56 symptomatic patients with high clinical suspicion for CS who underwent LGE-CMR and FDG-PET and were followed for the occurrence of death and/or malignant ventricular arrhythmias (VA)...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317398/cardiac-transplantation-towards-a-new-noninvasive-approach-of-cardiac-allograft-rejection
#5
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Athanasopoulos, Aggeliki Gouziouta, Evangelos Leontiadis, Stamatis Adamopoulos, Genovefa Kolovou
Cardiac allograft rejection (CAR) may occur after transplantation and remains silent, until hemodynamic deterioration takes place. Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is applied to early detect CAR. Although, flexible bioptoms have decreased the incidence of lethal complications, EMB remains an invasive procedure carrying risk of tamponade and permanent heart block. Therefore, a new non-invasive approach is needed. Areas covered: AlloMap molecular expression testing and graft-derived cell-free DNA (GcfDNA) test can be used as blood indices of acute and chronic CAR, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317235/astrocyte-specific-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-transfer-in-aging-female-rats-improves-stroke-outcomes
#6
Andre K Okoreeh, Shameena Bake, Farida Sohrabji
Middle aged female rats sustain larger stroke infarction and disability than younger female rats. This older group also shows age-related reduction of insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 in serum and in astrocytes, a cell type necessary for poststroke recovery. To determine the impact of astrocytic IGF-1 for ischemic stroke, these studies tested the hypothesis that gene transfer of IGF-1 to astrocytes will improve stroke outcomes in middle aged female rats. Middle aged (10-12 month old), acyclic female rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) packaged with the coding sequence of the human (h)IGF-1 gene downstream of an astrocyte-specific promoter glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (AAV5-GFP-hIGF-1) into the striatum and cortex...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316289/post-stapedectomy-granuloma-a-devastating-complication
#7
E Watts, H R F Powell, S R Saeed, R M Irving
OBJECTIVES: This paper reports three cases of severe post-stapedectomy granuloma, emphasising the variable presentation of this devastating complication and the challenges of its management. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of three cases of post-stapedectomy granuloma requiring surgical debulking between 2010 and 2015. Clinical symptoms, serial imaging, histopathology and post-operative outcomes were considered. RESULTS: Intra-operatively, extensive granulation tissue with erosion of the otic capsule was found...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315707/combined-administration-of-synthetic-rna-and-a-conventional-vaccine-improves-immune-responses-and-protection-against-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-in-swine
#8
Belén Borrego, Esther Blanco, Miguel Rodríguez Pulido, Francisco Mateos, Gema Lorenzo, Sabrina Cardillo, Eliana Smitsaart, Francisco Sobrino, Margarita Sáiz
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. We have previously reported the use of RNA transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the FMDV RNA as potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an FMD vaccine in mice. Here, we describe the enhancing effect of RNA delivery on the immunogenicity and protection induced by a suboptimal dose of a conventional FMD vaccine in pigs...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315462/implications-of-cerebrovascular-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-g1-abcg1-and-apolipoprotein-m-in-cholesterol-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#9
Alexandra Carmen Kober, Anil Paul Chirackal Manavalan, Carmen Tam-Amersdorfer, Andreas Holmér, Ahmed Saeed, Elham Fanaee Danesh, Martina Zandl, Nicole Maria Albrecher, Ingemar Björkhem, Gerhard M Kostner, Björn Dahlbäck, Ute Panzenboeck
Impaired cholesterol/lipoprotein metabolism is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebral cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by the highly efficient blood-brain barrier (BBB) and flux of the oxysterols 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol, potent liver-X-receptor (LXR) activators. HDL and their apolipoproteins are crucial for cerebral lipid transfer, and loss of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC)G1 and G4 results in toxic accumulation of oxysterols in the brain...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315329/atorvastatin-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-myocardial-hypertrophy-in-vitro-via-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE
#10
Yintao Chen, Shasha Yu, Naijin Zhang, Yuan Li, Shuang Chen, Ye Chang, Guozhe Sun, Yingxian Sun
Previous evidences suggested that atorvastatin not only reduced blood lipids but also reduced myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling. And it was reported that C/EBPβ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β) played a pivotal role both in the physiologic and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. However, it has not been reported before whether this signaling pathway of C/EBPβ participates in protective effect of atorvastatin for hypertrophy cardiomyocytes. In present study, We found that overexpression of C/EBPβ significantly abrogated the effect of atorvastatin on increasing Bcl-2/Bax and PGC-1α while the early and late apoptosis rate increased and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was reduced...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306733/hypervirulent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strain-triggers-necrotic-lung-pathology-associated-with-enhanced-recruitment-of-neutrophils-in-resistant-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Fabrício M Almeida, Thatiana L B Ventura, Eduardo P Amaral, Simone C M Ribeiro, Sanderson D Calixto, Marcelle R Manhães, Andreza L Rezende, Giliane S Souzal, Igor S de Carvalho, Elisangela C Silva, Juliana Azevedo da Silva, Eulógio C Q Carvalho, Afranio L Kritski, Elena B Lasunskaia
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that in most cases induces irreversible necrosis of lung tissue as a result of excessive inflammatory reactions. The murine model of TB in resistant C57BL/6 mice infected with reference Mtb strains is widely used in TB studies; however, these mice do not show a necrotic pathology, which restricts their use in studies of irreversible tissue damage. Recently, we demonstrated that necrotic lung lesions could be induced in the C57BL/6 mice by highly virulent Mtb strains belonging to the modern Beijing sublineage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301075/clinical-performance-of-high-resolution-late-gadolinium-enhancement-imaging-with-compressed-sensing
#12
Tamer A Basha, Mehmet Akçakaya, Charlene Liew, Connie W Tsao, Francesca N Delling, Gifty Addae, Long Ngo, Warren J Manning, Reza Nezafat
PURPOSE: To evaluate diagnostic image quality of 3D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with high isotropic spatial resolution (∼1.4 mm(3) ) images reconstructed from randomly undersampled k-space using LOw-dimensional-structure Self-learning and Thresholding (LOST). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 270 patients (181 men; 55 ± 14 years) referred for myocardial viability assessment. 3D LGE with isotropic spatial resolution of 1.4 ± 0.1 mm(3) was acquired at 1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299757/nanoparticle-delivered-chemotherapy-old-drugs-in-new-packages
#13
REVIEW
Michael S Lee, E Claire Dees, Andrew Z Wang
Cytotoxic chemotherapies have a narrow therapeutic window, with high peaks and troughs of plasma concentration. Novel nanoparticle formulations of cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs can enhance pharmacokinetic characteristics and facilitate passive targeting of drugs to tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect, thus mitigating toxicity. Nanoparticle vehicles currently in clinical use or undergoing clinical investigation for anticancer therapies include liposomes, polymeric micelles, protein-drug nanoparticles, and dendrimers...
March 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299606/three-dimensional-speckle-tracking-longitudinal-strain-is-related-to-myocardial-fibrosis-determined-by-late-gadolinium-enhancement
#14
Marco Spartera, Anna Damascelli, Ferenc Mozes, Francesco De Cobelli, Giovanni La Canna
Three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a reliable clinical tool for accurate measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF). In this prospective study, we sought to identify an association between 3DSTE longitudinal strain abnormalities and areas of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). In 50 patients (52 ± 18.5 years old) referred to our hospital for clinically indicated CMR, 3D full-volume trans-thoracic acquisitions on apical views were performed within 1 h of CMR, in order to obtain LV volumes and ejection fraction as well as global and segmental peak systolic longitudinal strain...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298361/intrarenal-signaling-mediated-by-cck-plays-a-role-in-salt-intake-induced-natriuresis
#15
Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga, Shunsuke Kimura, Kohtarou Konno, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshihiko Iwanaga
The natriuretic hormone CCK exhibits its gene transcripts in total kidney extracts. To test the possibility of CCK acting as an intrarenal mediator of sodium excretion, we examined mouse kidneys by: (i) an in situ hybridization technique for CCK mRNA in animals fed a normal or a high-sodium diet; (ii) immuno-electron microscopy for the CCK peptide, (iii) an in situ hybridization method and immunohistochemistry for the CCK-specific receptor CCKAR; (iv) confocal image analysis of receptor-mediated Ca2+ responses in isolated renal tubules; and (v) metabolic cage experiments for the measurement of urinary sodium excretion in high salt-fed mice either treated or untreated with the CCKAR antagonist lorglumide...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298350/the-acacia-ants-revisited-convergent-evolution-and-biogeographic-context-in-an-iconic-ant-plant-mutualism
#16
Philip S Ward, Michael G Branstetter
Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach-ultraconserved element sequence capture-to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group) and their associated Vachellia hostplants. In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores and competing plants...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296911/longitudinal-dynamics-of-the-hiv-specific-b-cell-response-during-intermittent-treatment-of-primary-hiv-infection
#17
Godelieve J de Bree, Adam K Wheatley, Rebecca M Lynch, Madhu Prabhakaran, Marlous L Grijsen, Jan M Prins, Stephen D Schmidt, Richard A Koup, John R Mascola, Adrian B McDermott
BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies develop in natural HIV-1 infection. Their development often takes several years and may rely on chronic virus exposure. At the same time recent studies show that treatment early in infection may provide opportunities for immune preservation. However, it is unknown how intermittent treatment in early infection affects development of the humoral immune response over time. We investigate the effect of cART in early HIV infection on the properties of the memory B cell compartment following 6 months of cART or in the absence of treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296375/-endomyocardial-fibrosis-associated-to-antiphospholipid-syndrome-case-report-and-review
#18
Carlos A Parquet, Jorge Curotto-Grasiosi, Rogelio A Machado, Bruno Peressotti, Matías B Padilla, Alberto L Bolaño
A 29-year-old man with a history of seizures, was admitted due to an episode of unconsciousness recovered and hypertension with renal disfunction. The electrocardiogram mimicked a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but, by Doppler echocardiography, this was discarded because it suggested endomyocardial fibrosis which was confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late enhancement. Since the episode of unconsciousness, brain imaging studies were performed showing vascular sequelae and microangiopathic lesions...
March 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292197/sudden-death-risk-stratification-in-non-ischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy-using-old-and-new-tools-a-clinical-challenge
#19
Antonis S Manolis
Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) remains a clinical challenge. Areas Covered: Currently, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), severity of heart failure symptoms according to NYHA classification, and morphology and duration of the QRS complex guide device management in these patients with implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and/or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Recently, the results of a randomized trial stirred some controversy regarding the utility of ICD in NIDCM patients, however, a subsequent meta-analysis confirmed prior findings of the survival-prolonging benefit of device therapy...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291786/association-of-lifelong-exposure-to-cognitive-reserve-enhancing-factors-with-dementia-risk-a-community-based-cohort-study
#20
Hui-Xin Wang, Stuart W S MacDonald, Serhiy Dekhtyar, Laura Fratiglioni
BACKGROUND: Variation in the clinical manifestation of dementia has been associated with differences in cognitive reserve, although less is known about the cumulative effects of exposure to cognitive reserve factors over the life course. We examined the association of cognitive reserve-related factors over the lifespan with the risk of dementia in a community-based cohort of older adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Information on early-life education, socioeconomic status, work complexity at age 20, midlife occupation attainment, and late-life leisure activities was collected in a cohort of dementia-free community dwellers aged 75+ y residing in the Kungsholmen district of Stockholm, Sweden, in 1987-1989...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
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