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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458189/impact-of-time-of-day-on-diffusivity-measures-of-brain-tissue-derived-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Cibu Thomas, Neda Sadeghi, Amrita Nayak, Aaron Trefler, Joelle Sarlls, Chris Baker, Carlo Pierpaoli
Diurnal fluctuations in MRI measures of structural and functional properties of the brain have been reported recently. These fluctuations may have a physiological origin, since they have been detected using different MRI modalities, and cannot be explained by factors that are typically known to confound MRI measures. While preliminary evidence suggests that measures of structural properties of the brain based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fluctuate as a function of time-of-day (TOD), the underlying mechanism has not been investigated...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457220/event-related-potentials-of-emotional-and-neutral-memories-the-role-of-encoding-position-and-delayed-testing
#2
Janine Wirkner, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Paul Schulz, Alfons O Hamm, Mathias Weymar
Previous research found that memory is not only better for emotional information but also for neutral information that has been encoded in the context of an emotional event. In the present ERP study, we investigated two factors that may influence memory for neutral and emotional items: temporal proximity between emotional and neutral items during encoding, and retention interval (immediate vs. delayed). Forty-nine female participants incidentally encoded 36 unpleasant and 108 neutral pictures (36 neutral pictures preceded an unpleasant picture, 36 followed an unpleasant picture, and 36 neutral pictures were preceded and followed by neutral pictures) and participated in a recognition memory task either immediately (N = 24) or 1 week (N = 25) after encoding...
February 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456798/-18-f-radiolabeled-panobinostat-allows-for-positron-emission-tomography-guided-delivery-of-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor
#3
Harikrishna Kommidi, Umberto Tosi, Uday B Maachani, Hua Guo, Christopher S Marnell, Benedict Law, Mark M Souweidane, Richard Ting
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is becoming an increasingly popular approach to treat cancer, as HDAC overexpression is common in many malignancies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents systemically delivered drugs from reaching brain at effective concentration, making small-molecule-HDAC inhibition in brain tumors particularly challenging. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes for administering therapeutics are being considered in the clinic, and a need exists for drugs whose deliveries can be directly imaged, so that effective delivery across the BBB can be monitored...
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456495/structural-variation-of-chondroitin-sulfate-chains-contributes-to-the-molecular-heterogeneity-of-perineuronal-nets
#4
Shinji Miyata, Satomi Nadanaka, Michihiro Igarashi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan, forms lattice-like extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Neocortical PNNs primarily ensheath parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (parvalbumin, PV cells) late in brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that PNNs promote the maturation of PV cells by enhancing the incorporation of homeobox protein Otx2 and regulating experience-dependent neural plasticity. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific plant lectin, binds to the CS chains of aggrecan and has been widely used to visualize PNNs...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456257/irc-10-216-in-3-d-morphology-of-a-tp-agb-star-envelope
#5
M Guélin, N A Patel, M Bremer, J Cernicharo, A Castro-Carrizo, J Pety, J P Fonfría, M Agúndez, M Santander-García, G Quintana-Lacaci, L Velilla Prieto, R Blundell, P Thaddeus
During their late pulsating phase, AGB stars expel most of their mass in the form of massive dusty envelopes, an event that largely controls the composition of interstellar matter. The envelopes, however, are distant and opaque to visible and NIR radiation: their structure remains poorly known and the mass-loss process poorly understood. Millimeter-wave interferometry, which combines the advantages of longer wavelength, high angular resolution and very high spectral resolution is the optimal investigative tool for this purpose...
February 2018: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455792/left-ventricular-structure-and-diastolic-function-by-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#6
Binita Riya Chacko, Gauri R Karur, Kim A Connelly, Raymond T Yan, Anish Kirpalani, Rachel Wald, Laura Jimenez-Juan, John Roshan Jacob, Djeven P Deva, Andrew T Yan
OBJECTIVE: Diastolic dysfunction is common in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and hypertensive heart disease (HHD), but its relationships with left ventricular (LV) parameters have not been well studied. Our objective was to assess the relationship of various measures of diastolic function, and maximum left ventricular wall thickness (MLVWT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in HCM, HHD and normal controls using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). We also assessed LV parameters and diastolic function in relation to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy in HCM...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455616/is-the-fetal-cerebroplacental-ratio-better-that-the-estimated-fetal-weight-in-predicting-adverse-perinatal-outcomes-in-a-low-risk-cohort
#7
Christopher Flatley, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVE: In high-risk pregnancies combining the cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) with the estimated fetal weight (EFW) improves the identification of vulnerable fetuses. The purpose of this study was to assess the CPR and EFW's ability to predict adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes in a low-risk pregnancy, when measured late in gestation. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of women who birthed at Mater Mothers Hospitals, Brisbane, Australia between 2010 and 2015...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454761/diagnostic-accuracy-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-in-acute-myocarditis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Christos P Kotanidis, Maria-Anna Bazmpani, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Charalambos Karvounis, Charalambos Antoniades, Theodoros D Karamitsos
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to explore the diagnostic accuracy of various cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) index tests for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis in adult patients. BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis remains one of the most challenging diagnoses in cardiology. CMR has emerged as the diagnostic tool of choice to detect acute myocardial injury and necrosis in patients with suspected myocarditis. METHODS: We considered all diagnostic cohort and case-control studies...
February 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454355/temporal-changes-of-fine-root-overyielding-and-foraging-strategies-in-planted-monoculture-and-mixed-forests
#9
Weiwei Shu, Xiaoxiao Shen, Pifeng Lei, Wenhua Xiang, Shuai Ouyang, Wende Yan
BACKGROUND: Mixed forests are believed to enhance ecosystem functioning and sustainability due to complementary resource use, environmental benefits and improved soil properties. The facilitation between different species may induce overyielding. Meanwhile, the species-specific fine root foraging strategies and tradeoffs would determine the structure and dynamics of plant communities. Here the aim was to investigate the admixing effects of fine-root biomass, vertical distribution and morphology in Pinus massoniana-Cinnamomum camphora mixed plantations and corresponding monocultures at 10-, 24- and 45-year old stands...
February 17, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452387/oas1-2-and-3-significance-during-active-tb
#10
Gina Leisching, Ian Wiid, Bienyameen Baker
Evidence to-date collectively points to a detrimental role of the type I IFN response during tuberculosis. The mechanisms underpinning the IFNαβ-mediated exacerbation of the disease is unclear. The 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS), namely OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3 are part of the interferon-induced genes which until now have been synonymous with an anti-viral function. Blood transcriptome profiling has continuously observed their upregulation in a number of gene expression signatures which discriminate active TB from latent TB infection, however the role of the OASs and the effect that their expression has on the pathogenesis and persistence of TB is unknown...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451849/a-comprehensive-review-of-eggs-choline-and-lutein-on-cognition-across-the-life-span
#11
Taylor C Wallace
In 2030, one in five Americans will be older than 65 years, and with that an increase in the number of individuals who experience loss in cognitive capacity is to be expected. At the same time, nutrition within the first 1000 days postconception has been suggested to strongly influence cognitive outcomes across the life-span in humans. Eggs are a primary source of both choline and the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein in the western diet, and both have been suggested to influence cognitive function in humans. This comprehensive review critically examines the effects of eggs, choline, and lutein on cognition across the life-span...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451783/sufex-click-chemistry-enabled-late-stage-drug-functionalization
#12
Zilei Liu, Jie Li, Suhua Li, Gencheng Li, K Barry Sharpless, Peng Wu
Sulfur(VI) Fluoride Exchange (SuFEx) is a new family of click chemistry transformations which relies on readily available materials to produce compounds bearing the S VI -F motif. The potential of SuFEx in drug discovery has just started to be explored. We report the first method of SuFEx chemistry for the conversion of phenolic compounds to their respective arylfluorosulfate derivatives in situ in 96-well plates. This method is compatible with automated synthesis and screening to quickly assess the biological activities of the in situ generated, crude products...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451413/quantitative-analysis-of-enhanced-malignant-and-benign-lesions-on-contrast-enhanced-spectral-mammography
#13
Chih-Ying Deng, Yu-Hsiang Juan, Yun Chung Cheung, Yu-Ching Lin, Yung-Feng Lo, GiGin Lin, Shin-Cheh Chen, Shu-Hang Ng
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyse the quantitative measurement and kinetic enhancement among pathologically proven benign and malignant lesions using contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). METHODS: We investigated the differences in enhancement between 44 benign and 108 malignant breast lesions in CESM, quantifying the extent of enhancements and the relative enhancements between early (between 2-3 minutes after contrast medium injection) and late (3-6 minutes) phases...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451010/assessment-of-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-vaccine-efficacy-in-a-co-infection-challenge-model-with-qx-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#14
Dauda G Bwala, Solomon Ponman, Neil Duncan, Daniel B R Wandrag, Celia Abolnik
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the primary cause of chronic respiratory disease in poultry. We investigated the protective efficacy of the live attenuated ts-11 and 6/85 MG vaccines against a local MG strain, and in order to enhance symptoms and mimic a typical field situation, we co-infected birds with a virulent strain of QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Both vaccines showed similar ability to protect infected chickens from clinical signs, although ts-11 performed slightly better. Despite the lower protection against clinical disease, 6/85-vaccinated birds had significantly (P≤0...
February 16, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450885/loser-on-the-combined-impact-of-emotional-and-person-descriptive-word-meanings-in-communicative-situations
#15
Lana Rohr, Rasha Abdel Rahman
Humans have a unique capacity to induce intense emotional states in others by simple acts of verbal communication, and simple messages such as bad can elicit strong emotions in the addressee. However, up to now, research has mainly focused on general emotional meaning aspects and paradigms of low personal relevance (e.g., word reading), thereby possibly underestimating the impact of verbal emotion. In the present study, we recorded ERPs while presenting emotional words differing in word-inherent person descriptiveness (in that they may or may not refer to or describe a person; e...
February 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450712/artifacts-during-the-arterial-phase-of-gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced-mri-multiple-arterial-phases-using-view-sharing-from-two-different-vendors-versus-single-arterial-phase-imaging
#16
Ji Hye Min, Young Kon Kim, Tae Wook Kang, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Won Jae Lee, Soohyun Ahn, Na Young Hwang
OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness of multiple arterial phase (AP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI using view-sharing of two different vendors to reduce transient severe motion (TSM) artifact in the AP. METHODS: This retrospective study included 298 patients (mean age 63 years) who underwent gadoxetic acid MRI with multiple AP from two different vendors; either triple (subcohort A, n=174) or quadruple (subcohort B, n=124) AP. 202 patients (143 vs. 59) underwent follow-up MRI with single AP...
February 15, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449279/mri-with-dwi-for-the-detection-of-posttreatment-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-why-morphologic-mri-criteria-matter
#17
A Ailianou, P Mundada, T De Perrot, M Pusztaszieri, P-A Poletti, M Becker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although diffusion-weighted imaging combined with morphologic MRI (DWIMRI) is used to detect posttreatment recurrent and second primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the diagnostic criteria used so far have not been clarified. We hypothesized that precise MRI criteria based on signal intensity patterns on T2 and contrast-enhanced T1 complement DWI and therefore improve the diagnostic performance of DWIMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 1...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447739/native-t1-and-ecv-of-noninfarcted-myocardium-and-outcome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Valentina O Puntmann, Gerry Carr-White, Andrew Jabbour, Chung-Yao Yu, Rolf Gebker, Sebastian Kelle, Andreas Rolf, Sabine Zitzmann, Elif Peker, Tommaso D'Angelo, Faraz Pathan, Elen, Silvia Valbuena, Rocio Hinojar, Christophe Arendt, Jagat Narula, Eva Herrmann, Andreas M Zeiher, Eike Nagel
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the major cause of cardiac morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the advances in treatment with coronary revascularization and modern antiremodeling therapy. Risk stratification in CAD patients is primarily based on left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF), risk scores, and the presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The prognostic role of T1 mapping in noninfarcted myocardium in CAD patients has not yet been determined...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447422/improving-childhood-cancer-survivor-care-through-web-based-platforms
#19
M Monica Gramatges, Francesca Bonaduce de Nigris, Jason King, Marc E Horowitz, Michael Fordis, David G Poplack
Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for late effects of cancer therapy, but evidence suggests that adherence to follow-up care is suboptimal. Here, we review the barriers to adherence, including those unique to childhood cancer survivors, and the rationale for distribution of a survivorship care plan. We also discuss advantages and potential limitations of delivering survivorship care plans via web-based platforms, and describe the unique features of one of these platforms, Passport for Care...
January 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447286/modeling-nearshore-offshore-exchange-in-lake-superior
#20
Paul McKinney, Kathy S Tokos, Katsumi Matsumoto
Lake Superior's ecosystem includes distinct nearshore and offshore food webs linked by hydrodynamic processes that transport water and tracers along and across shore. The scales over which these processes occur and their sensitivity to increasing summer surface temperatures are not well understood. This study investigated horizontal mixing between nearshore and offshore areas of Lake Superior over the 10-year period from 2003 to 2012 using a realistically forced three-dimensional numerical model and virtual tracers...
2018: PloS One
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