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Antibiotic shortage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764806/the-relationship-of-primary-care-providers-to-dental-practitioners-in-rural-and-remote-australia
#1
Tony Barnett, Ha Hoang, Jackie Stuart, Len Crocombe
BACKGROUND: Rural residents have poorer oral health and more limited access to dental services than their city counterparts. In rural communities, health care professionals often work in an extended capacity due to the needs of the community and health workforce shortages in these areas. Improved links and greater collaboration between resident rural primary care and dental practitioners could help improve oral health service provision such that interventions are both timely, effective and lead to appropriate follow-up and referral...
August 1, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635638/antibiotic-concentrations-decrease-during-wastewater-treatment-but-persist-at-low-levels-in-reclaimed-water
#2
Prachi Kulkarni, Nathan D Olson, Greg A Raspanti, Rachel E Rosenberg Goldstein, Shawn G Gibbs, Amir Sapkota, Amy R Sapkota
Reclaimed water has emerged as a potential irrigation solution to freshwater shortages. However, limited data exist on the persistence of antibiotics in reclaimed water used for irrigation. Therefore, we examined the fate of nine commonly-used antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, oxacillin, oxolinic acid, penicillin G, pipemidic acid, and tetracycline) in differentially treated wastewater and reclaimed water from two U.S. regions. We collected 72 samples from two Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest treatment plants, as well as one Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444166/the-effect-of-a-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage-on-antimicrobial-prescribing-and-clostridium-difficile-risk-in-88-u-s-medical-centers
#3
Alan E Gross, Richard S Johannes, Vikas Gupta, Ying P Tabak, Arjun Srinivasan, Susan C Bleasdale
Background: Anti-infective shortages are a pervasive problem in the U.S. The objective of this study was to identify any associations between changes in antibiotic prescribing during a piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) shortage and hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) risk in 88 U.S medical centers. Methods: We analyzed electronically captured microbiology and antibiotic use data from a network of U.S. hospitals from July 2014 through June 2015...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420365/social-determinants-of-antibiotic-misuse-a-qualitative-study-of-community-members-in-haryana-india
#4
Anna K Barker, Kelli Brown, Muneeb Ahsan, Sharmila Sengupta, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global public health crisis. In India alone, multi-drug resistant organisms are responsible for over 58,000 infant deaths each year. A major driver of drug resistance is antibiotic misuse, which is a pervasive phenomenon worldwide. Due to a shortage of trained doctors, access to licensed allopathic doctors is limited in India's villages. Pharmacists and unlicensed medical providers are commonly the primary sources of healthcare. Patients themselves are also key participants in the decision to treat an illness with antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412382/use-of-nebulized-antimicrobials-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-infections-in-invasively-mechanically-ventilated-adults-a-position-paper-from-the-european-society-of-clinical-microbiology-and-infectious-diseases
#5
Jordi Rello, Candela Solé-Lleonart, Jean-Jacques Rouby, Jean Chastre, Stijn Blot, Garyfallia Poulakou, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Jordi Riera, Lucy B Palmer, Jose M Pereira, Tim Felton, Jayesh Dhanani, Matteo Bassetti, Tobias Welte, Jason A Roberts
With an established role in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis, nebulized antibiotics are increasingly being used to treat respiratory infections in critically ill invasively mechanically ventilated adult patients. Although there is limited evidence describing their efficacy and safety, in an era of need for new strategies to enhance antibiotic effectiveness because of a shortage of new agents and increases in antibiotic resistance, the potential of nebulization of antibiotics to optimize therapy is considered of high interest, particularly in patients infected with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383153/silver-potentiates-aminoglycoside-toxicity-by-enhancing-their-uptake
#6
Marion Herisse, Yohann Duverger, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete, Frédéric Barras, Benjamin Ezraty
The predicted shortage in new antibiotics has prompted research for chemicals that could act as adjuvant and enhance efficacy of available antibiotics. In this study, we tested the effects of combining metals with aminoglycosides on Escherichia coli survival. The best synergizing combination resulted from mixing aminoglycosides with silver. Using genetic and aminoglycoside uptake assays, we showed that silver potentiates aminoglycoside action in by-passing the PMF-dependent step, but depended upon protein translation...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365115/antibiotic-treatment-of-metritis-in-dairy-cows-a-meta-analysis
#7
P Haimerl, S Arlt, S Borchardt, W Heuwieser
The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of the treatment of bovine metritis with common antibiotic and nonantibiotic treatment options. Acute puerperal metritis, a systemic and potentially painful illness with rectal temperature >39.5°C and signs of toxemia due to an infection of the uterus, occurs within 21 d after parturition. Because of the infectious nature, antibiotics are considered beneficial for the treatment of acute puerperal metritis. Each use of an antimicrobial drug, however, is associated with selective pressure for eventual emergence of resistant bacteria...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#8
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144694/-nationwide-survey-among-institutes-of-microbiology-in-academic-medicine-is-the-interdisciplinary-approach-the-right-way-to-treat-patients-with-urogenital-infections
#9
L Schneidewind, J Kranz, D Schlager, A E Pelzer
BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance is a current and severe problem in medicine, especially in urology. Multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship programmes are an important approach to counteract increasing resistance rates. This approach includes collaboration between urologists and microbiologists. OBJECTIVES: The primary endpoint was to describe the current setting of interdisciplinary work of urologists and microbiologists in university hospitals in Germany...
January 31, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029487/newly-approved-antibiotics-and-antibiotics-reserved-for-resistant-infections-implications-for-emergency-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Ali Pourmand, Larissa May
Millions of patients are evaluated every year in the emergency department (ED) for bacterial infections. Emergency physicians often diagnose and prescribe initial antibiotic therapy for a variety of bacterial infections, ranging from simple urinary tract infections to severe sepsis. In life-threatening infections, inappropriate choice of initial antibiotic has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. As such, initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy on the part of the emergency physician is critical...
January 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013497/high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry-based-design-of-proteolytically-stable-antimicrobial-peptides
#11
Mojtaba Bagheri, Robert E W Hancock
The emergence of multiresistant bacteria worldwide together with the shortage of effective antibiotics in the market emphasizes the need for the design and development of the promising agents for the treatment of superbug-associated infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been considered as excellent candidates to tackle this issue, and thousands of peptides of different lengths, amino acid compositions, and mode of action have been discovered and prepared to date. Nevertheless, it is of great importance to develop innovative formulation strategies for delivering these AMPs and to improve their low bioavailability and metabolic stability, particularly against proteases, if these peptides are to find applications in the clinic and administered orally or parenterally or used as dietary supplements...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917734/effective-antibiotic-conservation-by-emergency-antimicrobial-stewardship-during-a-drug-shortage
#12
Kevin Hsueh, Maria Reyes, Tamara Krekel, Ed Casabar, David J Ritchie, S Reza Jafarzadeh, Amanda J Hays, Michael A Lane, Michael J Durkin
We present the first description of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) used to successfully manage a multi-antimicrobial drug shortage. Without resorting to formulary restriction, meropenem utilization decreased by 69% and piperacillin-tazobactam by 73%. During the shortage period, hospital mortality decreased (P=.03), while hospital length of stay remained unchanged. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:356-359.
March 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793964/the-whys-and-wherefores-of-antibiotic-resistance
#13
Cameron R Strachan, Julian Davies
The development and rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens has tarnished the dream of a world without infectious diseases. However, our understanding of these processes, paired with sequence information from terrestrial bacterial populations, indicates that there is no shortage of novel natural products that could be developed into new medicines. Regardless, their therapeutic success in the clinic will depend on the introduction of mandatory controls and use restrictions.
October 28, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793449/antibacterial-profiling-of-abietane-type-diterpenoids
#14
Andreas Helfenstein, Mikko Vahermo, Dorota A Nawrot, Fatih Demirci, Gökalp İşcan, Sara Krogerus, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Vânia M Moreira, Päivi Tammela
Abietic and dehydroabietic acid are interesting diterpenes with a highly diverse repertoire of associated bioactivities. They have, among others, shown antibacterial and antifungal activity, potentially valuable in the struggle against the increasing antimicrobial resistance and imminent antibiotic shortage. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of a set of 9 abietic and dehydroabietic acid derivatives containing amino acid side chains and their in vitro antimicrobial profiling against a panel of human pathogenic microbial strains...
January 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618925/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-5-and-10%C3%A2-days-treatment-with-phenoxymethylpenicillin-for-pharyngotonsillitis-caused-by-streptococcus-group-a-a-protocol-study
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gunilla Skoog, Charlotta Edlund, Christian G Giske, Sigvard Mölstad, Christer Norman, Pär-Daniel Sundvall, Katarina Hedin
BACKGROUND: In 2014 the Swedish government assigned to The Public Health Agency of Sweden to conduct studies to evaluate optimal use of existing antibiotic agents. The aim is to optimize drug use and dosing regimens to improve the clinical efficacy. The present study was selected following a structured prioritizing process by independent experts. METHODS: This phase IV study is a randomized, open-label, multicenter study with non-inferiority design regarding the therapeutic use of penicillin V with two parallel groups...
September 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616769/antibiotic-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Marianne Frieri, Krishan Kumar, Anthony Boutin
Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is a challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance patterns in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are difficult to treat and may even be untreatable with conventional antibiotics. There is currently a shortage of effective therapies, lack of successful prevention measures, and only a few new antibiotics, which require development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms are involved in multidrug resistance and can present challenges for infection control...
July 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538503/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-paediatrics
#17
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are among the drugs most commonly prescribed to children in hospitals and communities. Unfortunately, a great number of these prescriptions are unnecessary or inappropriate. Antibiotic abuse and misuse have several negative consequences, including drug-related adverse events, the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens, the development of Clostridium difficile infection, the negative impact on microbiota, and undertreatment risks. In this paper, the principle of and strategies for paediatric antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programs, the effects of AS interventions and the common barriers to development and implementation of AS programs are discussed...
August 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466620/plasmidspades-assembling-plasmids-from-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#18
Dmitry Antipov, Nolan Hartwick, Max Shen, Mikhail Raiko, Alla Lapidus, Pavel A Pevzner
MOTIVATION: Plasmids are stably maintained extra-chromosomal genetic elements that replicate independently from the host cell's chromosomes. Although plasmids harbor biomedically important genes, (such as genes involved in virulence and antibiotics resistance), there is a shortage of specialized software tools for extracting and assembling plasmid data from whole genome sequencing projects. RESULTS: We present the plasmidSPAdes algorithm and software tool for assembling plasmids from whole genome sequencing data and benchmark its performance on a diverse set of bacterial genomes...
November 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345061/mycobacteriophage-putative-gtpase-activating-protein-can-potentiate-antibiotics
#19
Shuangquan Yan, Mengmeng Xu, Xiangke Duan, Zhaoxiao Yu, Qiming Li, Longxiang Xie, Xiangyu Fan, Jianping Xie
The soaring incidences of infection by antimicrobial resistant (AR) pathogens and shortage of effective antibiotics with new mechanisms of action have renewed interest in phage therapy. This scenario is exemplified by resistant tuberculosis (TB), caused by resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteriophage SWU1 A321_gp67 encodes a putative GTPase-activating protein. Mycobacterium smegmatis with gp67 overexpression showed changed colony formation and biofilm morphology and supports the efficacy of streptomycin and capreomycin against Mycobacterium...
September 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228751/-study-on-raman-spectra-of-some-clinical-medicine
#20
He Dong, Chuan Liu, Chang-Jian Dai
Aiming at the shortage of the Raman spectra of drugs and the current situation of drug testing, we have applied Raman spectroscopic technique to several kinds of medicine, such as antibiotics, antihistamine, hemocoagulase and antiemetics. The spectral properties for the samples with high Raman activity are investigated by observing their Raman spectra to yield the shift, intensity, and line width of the Raman peaks, as well as the line shape of Raman envelope. For those samples with weak Raman activity or complex structures that are hard to be identified, we have also made some tentative measurements or raise some suggestions for future measurement...
January 2016: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, Guang Pu
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