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Antibiotic shortage

L Schneidewind, J Kranz, D Schlager, A E Pelzer
BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance is a current and severe problem in medicine, especially in urology. Multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship programmes are an important approach to counteract increasing resistance rates. This approach includes collaboration between urologists and microbiologists. OBJECTIVES: The primary endpoint was to describe the current setting of interdisciplinary work of urologists and microbiologists in university hospitals in Germany...
January 31, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Ali Pourmand, Larissa May
Millions of patients are evaluated every year in the emergency department (ED) for bacterial infections. Emergency physicians often diagnose and prescribe initial antibiotic therapy for a variety of bacterial infections, ranging from simple urinary tract infections to severe sepsis. In life-threatening infections, inappropriate choice of initial antibiotic has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. As such, initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy on the part of the emergency physician is critical...
January 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mojtaba Bagheri, Robert E W Hancock
The emergence of multiresistant bacteria worldwide together with the shortage of effective antibiotics in the market emphasizes the need for the design and development of the promising agents for the treatment of superbug-associated infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been considered as excellent candidates to tackle this issue, and thousands of peptides of different lengths, amino acid compositions, and mode of action have been discovered and prepared to date. Nevertheless, it is of great importance to develop innovative formulation strategies for delivering these AMPs and to improve their low bioavailability and metabolic stability, particularly against proteases, if these peptides are to find applications in the clinic and administered orally or parenterally or used as dietary supplements...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kevin Hsueh, Maria Reyes, Tamara Krekel, Ed Casabar, David J Ritchie, S Reza Jafarzadeh, Amanda J Hays, Michael A Lane, Michael J Durkin
We present the first description of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) used to successfully manage a multi-antimicrobial drug shortage. Without resorting to formulary restriction, meropenem utilization decreased by 69% and piperacillin-tazobactam by 73%. During the shortage period, hospital mortality decreased (P=.03), while hospital length of stay remained unchanged. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-4.
December 5, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Cameron R Strachan, Julian Davies
The development and rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens has tarnished the dream of a world without infectious diseases. However, our understanding of these processes, paired with sequence information from terrestrial bacterial populations, indicates that there is no shortage of novel natural products that could be developed into new medicines. Regardless, their therapeutic success in the clinic will depend on the introduction of mandatory controls and use restrictions.
October 28, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Andreas Helfenstein, Mikko Vahermo, Dorota A Nawrot, Fatih Demirci, Gökalp İşcan, Sara Krogerus, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Vânia M Moreira, Päivi Tammela
Abietic and dehydroabietic acid are interesting diterpenes with a highly diverse repertoire of associated bioactivities. They have, among others, shown antibacterial and antifungal activity, potentially valuable in the struggle against the increasing antimicrobial resistance and imminent antibiotic shortage. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of a set of 9 abietic and dehydroabietic acid derivatives containing amino acid side chains and their in vitro antimicrobial profiling against a panel of human pathogenic microbial strains...
January 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Gunilla Skoog, Charlotta Edlund, Christian G Giske, Sigvard Mölstad, Christer Norman, Pär-Daniel Sundvall, Katarina Hedin
BACKGROUND: In 2014 the Swedish government assigned to The Public Health Agency of Sweden to conduct studies to evaluate optimal use of existing antibiotic agents. The aim is to optimize drug use and dosing regimens to improve the clinical efficacy. The present study was selected following a structured prioritizing process by independent experts. METHODS: This phase IV study is a randomized, open-label, multicenter study with non-inferiority design regarding the therapeutic use of penicillin V with two parallel groups...
September 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marianne Frieri, Krishan Kumar, Anthony Boutin
Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is a challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance patterns in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are difficult to treat and may even be untreatable with conventional antibiotics. There is currently a shortage of effective therapies, lack of successful prevention measures, and only a few new antibiotics, which require development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms are involved in multidrug resistance and can present challenges for infection control...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are among the drugs most commonly prescribed to children in hospitals and communities. Unfortunately, a great number of these prescriptions are unnecessary or inappropriate. Antibiotic abuse and misuse have several negative consequences, including drug-related adverse events, the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens, the development of Clostridium difficile infection, the negative impact on microbiota, and undertreatment risks. In this paper, the principle of and strategies for paediatric antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programs, the effects of AS interventions and the common barriers to development and implementation of AS programs are discussed...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Dmitry Antipov, Nolan Hartwick, Max Shen, Mikhail Raiko, Alla Lapidus, Pavel A Pevzner
MOTIVATION: Plasmids are stably maintained extra-chromosomal genetic elements that replicate independently from the host cell's chromosomes. Although plasmids harbor biomedically important genes, (such as genes involved in virulence and antibiotics resistance), there is a shortage of specialized software tools for extracting and assembling plasmid data from whole genome sequencing projects. RESULTS: We present the plasmidSPAdes algorithm and software tool for assembling plasmids from whole genome sequencing data and benchmark its performance on a diverse set of bacterial genomes...
November 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Shuangquan Yan, Mengmeng Xu, Xiangke Duan, Zhaoxiao Yu, Qiming Li, Longxiang Xie, Xiangyu Fan, Jianping Xie
The soaring incidences of infection by antimicrobial resistant (AR) pathogens and shortage of effective antibiotics with new mechanisms of action have renewed interest in phage therapy. This scenario is exemplified by resistant tuberculosis (TB), caused by resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteriophage SWU1 A321_gp67 encodes a putative GTPase-activating protein. Mycobacterium smegmatis with gp67 overexpression showed changed colony formation and biofilm morphology and supports the efficacy of streptomycin and capreomycin against Mycobacterium...
September 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
He Dong, Chuan Liu, Chang-Jian Dai
Aiming at the shortage of the Raman spectra of drugs and the current situation of drug testing, we have applied Raman spectroscopic technique to several kinds of medicine, such as antibiotics, antihistamine, hemocoagulase and antiemetics. The spectral properties for the samples with high Raman activity are investigated by observing their Raman spectra to yield the shift, intensity, and line width of the Raman peaks, as well as the line shape of Raman envelope. For those samples with weak Raman activity or complex structures that are hard to be identified, we have also made some tentative measurements or raise some suggestions for future measurement...
January 2016: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, Guang Pu
Thani Suleiman Thani, Samwel Morris Lifumo Symekher, Hamadi Boga, Joseph Oundo
INTRODUCTION: Safe water for human consumption is important, but there is a limited supply. Mombasa County has water shortages making residences rely on other sources of water including boreholes and wells. Microbiological evaluation of drinking water is important to reduce exposure to water borne enteric diseases. This cross sectional study aimed at determining the frequency and characterization of Escherichia coli (E. coli) pathotypes from water samples collected from wells and boreholes in Mombasa County...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Ewa Otręebska-Machaj, Jacqueline Chevalier, Jadwiga Handzlik, Ewa Szymańska, Jakub Schabikowski, Gérard Boyer, Jean-Michel Bolla, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Jean-Marie Pagès, Sandrine Alibert
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are an increasing health problem with the shortage of new active antibiotic agents. Among effective mechanisms that contribute to the spread of MDR Gram-negative bacteria are drug efflux pumps that expel clinically important antibiotic classes out of the cell. Drug pumps are attractive targets to restore the susceptibility toward the expelled antibiotics by impairing their efflux activity. Arylhydantoin derivatives were investigated for their potentiation of activities of selected antibiotics described as efflux substrates in Enterobacter aerogenes expressing or not AcrAB pump...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
I L Calil, G M Andrade, F H Galvao, A Z A Leite, R A Pecora, A W Lee, L A C D'Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: The number of deceased organ donors has decreased slightly over the past 4 years. Although the pool of intestinal transplantation candidates is relatively small, donor allocation is challenging because of the inability to maintain the donor in a good condition and the complexities involved in making a suitable weight match between donors and recipients. Our goal was to analyze the epidemiologic profile of potential donors based on the organs offered by the regional Organ Procurement Organization from Hospital das Clinicas-USP (OPO/HC-USP) and attempt to estimate possible matches and program viability...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Haider Abdul-Lateef Mousa
In recent years viral respiratory tract infections, especially influenza viruses, have had a major impact on communities worldwide as a result of unavailability of effective treatment or vaccine. The frequent alterations in the antigenic structures of respiratory viruses, particularly for RNA viruses, pose difficulties in production of effective vaccines. The unavailability of optimal medication and shortage of effective vaccines suggests the requirement for alternative natural therapies. Several herbal remedies were used for prevention and treatment viral respiratory illnesses...
January 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
J Christian J Ray, Michelle L Wickersheim, Ameya P Jalihal, Yusuf O Adeshina, Tim F Cooper, Gábor Balázsi
Metabolic efficiency depends on the balance between supply and demand of metabolites, which is sensitive to environmental and physiological fluctuations, or noise, causing shortages or surpluses in the metabolic pipeline. How cells can reliably optimize biomass production in the presence of metabolic fluctuations is a fundamental question that has not been fully answered. Here we use mathematical models to predict that enzyme saturation creates distinct regimes of cellular growth, including a phase of growth arrest resulting from toxicity of the metabolic process...
March 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Marc Erhardt
Infections by motile, pathogenic bacteria, such as Campylobacter species, Clostridium species, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella species, Vibrio cholerae, and Yersinia species, represent a severe economic and health problem worldwide. Of special importance in this context is the increasing emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Due to the shortage of effective antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant, pathogenic bacteria, the targeting of novel, virulence-relevant factors constitutes a promising, alternative approach...
2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Yahui Gong, Tiyuan Li, Shiyu Li, Zhenyou Jiang, Yan Yang, Junli Huang, Zhaobing Liu, Hanxiao Sun
Lactobacilli are universally recognized as probiotics that are widely used in the adjuvant treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as vaginitis and enteritis. With the overuse of antibiotics in recent years, the lactobacilli in the human body are killed, which could disrupt the microecological balance in the human body and affect health adversely. In this work, cephalosporin-resistant Lactobacillus casei RL20 was obtained successfully from the feces of healthy volunteers, which possessed a stable genetic set...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sabrina Mühlen, Petra Dersch
Resistance of important bacterial pathogens to common antimicrobial therapies and the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria are increasing at an alarming rate and constitute one of our greatest challenges in the combat of bacterial infection and accompanied diseases. The current shortage of effective drugs, lack of successful prevention measures and only a few new antibiotics in the clinical pipeline demand the development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Our increasing understanding of bacterial virulence strategies and the induced molecular pathways of the infectious disease provides novel opportunities to target and interfere with crucial pathogenicity factors or virulence-associated traits of the bacteria while bypassing the evolutionary pressure on the bacterium to develop resistance...
2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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