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(small vessel OR microbleed) AND atherosclerosis

Bum Joon Kim, Youngshin Yoon, Hoyon Sohn, Dong-Wha Kang, Jong S Kim, Sun U Kwon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The location of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) may differ according to ischemic stroke subtype, and the underlying pathomechanism may differ by their location. Here, we investigated the characteristics of CMBs according to various ischemic stroke subtypes to verify this issue. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke were consecutively included. The presence of CMBs was determined by gradient echo image sequence. The distribution of CMBs was classified as deep, lobar, or diffuse (both deep and lobar)...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke
Johanna M U Silvola, Helena Virtanen, Riikka Siitonen, Sanna Hellberg, Heidi Liljenbäck, Olli Metsälä, Mia Ståhle, Tiina Saanijoki, Meeri Käkelä, Harri Hakovirta, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Pekka Saukko, Matti Jauhiainen, Tibor Z Veres, Sirpa Jalkanen, Juhani Knuuti, Antti Saraste, Anne Roivainen
Given the important role of inflammation and the potential association of the leukocyte trafficking-associated adhesion molecule vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) with atherosclerosis, this study examined whether functional VAP-1 is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions and, if so, whether it could be targeted by positron emission tomography (PET). First, immunohistochemistry revealed that VAP-1 localized to endothelial cells of intra-plaque neovessels in human carotid endarterectomy samples from patients with recent ischemic symptoms...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katerina Jezkova, Jana Rathouska, Ivana Nemeckova, Petra Fikrova, Eva Dolezelova, Michala Varejckova, Barbora Vitverova, Kristyna Tysonova, Agnieszka Serwadczak, Elzbieta Buczek, Carmelo Bernabeu, Jose M Lopez-Novoa, Stefan Chlopicki, Petr Nachtigal
AIMS: A soluble form of endoglin (sEng) was proposed to participate in the induction of endothelial dysfunction in small blood vessels. Here, we tested the hypothesis that high levels of sEng combined with a high-fat diet induce endothelial dysfunction in an atherosclerosis-prone aorta. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six-month-old female and male transgenic mice overexpressing human sEng (Sol-Eng+) with low (Sol-Eng+low) or high (Sol-Eng+high) levels of plasma sEng were fed a high-fat rodent diet containing 1...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
Stavros Giaglis, Sinuhe Hahn, Paul Hasler
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation represents a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis, by which invading pathogens are simultaneously entangled and potentially eliminated. Increased NET formation is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated small vessel vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), and psoriasis. NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity by exposing cryptic autoepitopes, which may facilitate the generation of autoantibodies, induce the production of interferons, and activate the complement cascade...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Toshiyuki Uehara, Kazuo Minematsu, Tomoyuki Ohara, Kazumi Kimura, Yasushi Okada, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Norio Tanahashi, Akifumi Suzuki, Shigeharu Takagi, Jyoji Nakagawara, Kazumasa Arii, Shinji Nagahiro, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Masayasu Matsumoto, Koji Iihara, Kazunori Toyoda
BACKGROUND: Incidence and predictors of ischemic stroke in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) have not been fully clarified outside Europe and North America. AIMS: We undertook the present prospective, multicenter study to clarify the incidence, predictors, and etiology of ischemic stroke within one year of TIA onset in Japan. METHODS: The study subjects were patients within seven days of TIA onset who were enrolled in a prospective register from 57 hospitals between June 2011 and December 2013...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Á Sánchez-Larsen, J García-García, O Ayo-Martín, F Hernández-Fernández, I Díaz-Maroto, E Fernández-Díaz, M Monteagudo, T Segura
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether the aetiology of ischaemic stroke has changed in recent years and, if so, to ascertain the possible reasons for these changes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed the epidemiological history and vascular risk factors of all patients diagnosed with ischaemic stroke at Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA) from 2009 to 2014. Ischaemic stroke subtypes were established using the TOAST criteria. Our results were compared to data from the classic Stroke Data Bank (SDB); in addition, both series were compared to those of other hospital databases covering the period between the two...
September 16, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Shinji Ito, Masaki Takao, Toshio Fukutake, Hiroyuki Hatsuta, Sayaka Funabe, Nobuo Ito, Yutaka Shimoe, Toshiro Niki, Imaharu Nakano, Masashi Fukayama, Shigeo Murayama
Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is a nonhypertensive hereditary cerebral small vessel disease that is caused by mutations in a single gene, HTRA1 The HTRA1 protein normally represses transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and its mutations result in vascular changes. Ten homozygous, 1 compound heterozygous, and 1 homozygous frameshift mutation have been identified in the HTRA1 gene of patients with genetically confirmed CARASIL...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Tanja Celic, Valérie Metzinger-Le Meuth, Isabelle Six Ziad A Massy, Laurent Metzinger
The discovery of small RNAs has shed new light on microRNA (mRNA) regulation and a range of biological processes. The recognition that miRNAs-221 and -222 are sensitive regulators in the endothelium may enable the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Given that endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of atherosclerosis and contributes to the development of cardiovascular damage, circulating miRNAs produced by endothelial cells (ECs) are putative biomarkers for a wide range of cardiovascular diseases...
September 14, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
S Curtze, G Sibolt, S Melkas, S Mustanoja, E Haapaniemi, J Putaala, T Sairanen, M Tiainen, T Tatlisumak, D Strbian
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of intracerebral hemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) can be influenced by various confounders related to the underlying vessel and tissue conditions. There are some data on association of cause of the stroke and the hemorrhage transformation. We tested the hypothesis that the cause of stroke is associated with the development of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) following IVT. METHODS: A consecutive cohort of 2485 IVT-treated patients at the Helsinki University Central Hospital was classified according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria...
September 3, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Printha Wijesinghe, S K Shankar, T C Yasha, Catherine Gorrie, Dhammika Amaratunga, Sanjayah Hulathduwa, K Sunil Kumara, Kamani Samarasinghe, Yoo-Hun Suh, Harry W M Steinbusch, K Ranil D De Silva
BACKGROUND: Evidence from various consortia on vascular contributions has been inconsistent in determining the etiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular pathologies associated in manifestation of AD-related neuropathological changes of an elderly population. METHODS: Postmortem brain samples from 76 elderly subjects (≥50 years) were used to study genetic polymorphisms, intracranial atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis (IASCW), and microscopic infarcts in deep white matters...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Xiaoming Ling, Yansong Zheng, Jing Tao, Zhezhou Zheng, Lidian Chen
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is the main cause of mortality and disability in older people worldwide. Recently epidemiological studies indicate that ischemic stroke is a complex disorder with a strong genetic component. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) locus in ABO gene. Our study examined the association between four variants in the ABO gene and the risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small-vessel diseases (SVD) in the Chinese population...
2016: BMC Neurology
A Silva-Pinto, A Costa, R Serrão, A Sarmento, P Abreu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to provide insights into the contributions of HIV infection stage, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vascular risk factors to the occurrence of ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of HIV-infected patients followed in our clinic. We compared patients hospitalized between January 2006 and June 2014 with an ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack to age- and gender-matched controls without stroke...
August 18, 2016: HIV Medicine
Hyung-Suk Lee, Hye Lim Lee, Ho-Seong Han, Minju Yeo, Ji Seon Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Dong-Ick Shin
Ankle brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) are widely used noninvasive modalities to evaluate atherosclerosis. Recently, evidence has increased supporting the use of ABI and baPWV as markers of cerebrovascular disease. This study sought to examine the relationship between ABI and baPWV with ischemic stroke. This study also aimed to determine which pathogenic mechanism, large artery disease (LAD) or small vessel disease (SVD), is related to ABI or baPWV. Retrospectively, 121 patients with ischemic stroke and 38 subjects with no obvious ischemic stroke history were recruited...
July 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
Tae-Jin Song, Young Dae Kim, Joonsang Yoo, Jinkwon Kim, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Geu Ru Hong, Chi Young Shim, Dongbeom Song, Ji Hoe Heo, Hyo Suk Nam
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVDs) are related with large artery atherosclerosis. However, the association between aortic atheroma (AA) and cerebral small vessel disease has rarely been reported. This study evaluated the relationship between presence and burden of AAs and those of SVDs in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We included 737 consecutive patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of acute stroke...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke
Magdy A Mostafa, Lobna M El-Nabiel, Nagia Aly Fahmy, Hany Aref, Edrees Shreef, Fathy Abd El-Tawab, Osama M Abdulghany
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) is a crucial player in vascular homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. The present study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in Egyptian population. Also, we analyzed the ACE gene I/D polymorphism as a risk factor for small-vessel (SV) versus large-vessel (LV) disease. METHODS: Sixty patients with ischemic stroke were included: 30 with SV disease and 30 with LV disease...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Asma Kefi, Thara Larbi, Meya Abdallah, Amira El Ouni, Neil Bougacha, Kamel Bouslama, Saloua Hamzaoui, Skander M'rad
PURPOSE: There is wanting data regarding young ischemic stroke in developing countries, especially in Tunisia. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors and etiologies of young ischemic stroke in Tunisian and make a comparison with previous reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 102 young ischemic stroke patients (15-45 years old) were admitted, between January 1996 and August 2007, to eleven departments of internal medicine in different Tunisian hospitals...
July 18, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Azra Zafar, Fahd A Al-Khamis, Aishah I Al-Bakr, Abdulla A Alsulaiman, Amir H Msmar
OBJECTIVE: To identify the different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke, and estimate the frequency of various risk factors among these patients. METHODS: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, we reviewed the medical records of patients admitted with the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia from March 2008 till December 2015. The demographic characteristics, subtypes of stroke, risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease) and other relevant data were documented on pre-defined data sheets...
July 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Sameer Tatavarty, Stefan Buchholz
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with or without accompanying antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS) is known to cause myocardial ischemia via multiple mechanisms, including accelerated coronary atherosclerosis, impaired coronary vasomotor function, spontaneous intracoronary thrombus formation, or endothelial dysfunction in the context of cardiac syndrome X (CSX). We present the case of a young woman with SLE and APLS who presented with myocardial ischemia and peculiar echocardiographic evidence of multiple small septal perforator infarcts despite a normal coronary angiogram, a rare combination...
December 2013: Journal of Echocardiography
A Tuenter, M Selwaness, A Arias Lorza, J C H Schuurbiers, L Speelman, M Cibis, A van der Lugt, M de Bruijne, A F W van der Steen, O H Franco, M W Vernooij, J J Wentzel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carotid artery plaques with vulnerable plaque components are related to a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. It is unknown which factors drive vulnerable plaque development. Shear stress, the frictional force of blood at the vessel wall, is known to influence plaque formation. We evaluated the association between shear stress and plaque components (intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), lipid rich necrotic core (LRNC) and/or calcifications) in relatively small carotid artery plaques in asymptomatic persons...
August 2016: Atherosclerosis
Ekaterina O Gubernatorova, Ernesto Perez-Chanona, Ekaterina P Koroleva, Christian Jobin, Alexei V Tumanov
Intestinal ischemia is a life-threatening condition associated with a broad range of clinical conditions including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hypotension, necrotizing enterocolitis, bowel transplantation, trauma and chronic inflammation. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a consequence of acute mesenteric ischemia, caused by inadequate blood flow through the mesenteric vessels, resulting in intestinal damage. Reperfusion following ischemia can further exacerbate damage of the intestine. The mechanisms of IR injury are complex and poorly understood...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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