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Congenital malaria and treatment

Peter Olupot-Olupot, Emma I E Eregu, Ketty Naizuli, Julie Ikiror, Linda Acom, Kathy Burgoine
BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria is the direct infection of an infant with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth. Neonatal malaria is due to an infective mosquito bite after birth. Neonatal and congenital malaria (NCM) are potentially life-threatening conditions that are believed to occur at relatively low rates in malaria endemic regions. However, recent reports suggest that the number of NCM cases is increasing, and its epidemiology remains poorly described. NCM can mimic other neonatal conditions and because it is thought to be rare, blood film examinations for malaria are not always routinely performed...
April 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
Sergey A Shiryaev, Pinar Mesci, Antonella Pinto, Isabella Fernandes, Nicholas Sheets, Sujan Shresta, Chen Farhy, Chun-Teng Huang, Alex Y Strongin, Alysson R Muotri, Alexey V Terskikh
One of the major challenges of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is to prevent congenital foetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, following ZIKV infection of pregnant women. Given the urgent need for ZIKV prophylaxis and treatment, repurposing of approved drugs appears to be a viable and immediate solution. We demonstrate that the common anti-malaria drug chloroquine (CQ) extends the lifespan of ZIKV-infected interferon signalling-deficient AG129 mice. However, the severity of ZIKV infection in these mice precludes the study of foetal (vertical) viral transmission...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Stephanie Dellicour, Esperança Sevene, Rose McGready, Halidou Tinto, Dominic Mosha, Christine Manyando, Stephen Rulisa, Meghna Desai, Peter Ouma, Martina Oneko, Anifa Vala, Maria Rupérez, Eusébio Macete, Clara Menéndez, Seydou Nakanabo-Diallo, Adama Kazienga, Innocent Valéa, Gregory Calip, Orvalho Augusto, Blaise Genton, Eric M Njunju, Kerryn A Moore, Umberto d'Alessandro, Francois Nosten, Feiko Ter Kuile, Andy Stergachis
BACKGROUND: Animal embryotoxicity data, and the scarcity of safety data in human pregnancies, have prevented artemisinin derivatives from being recommended for malaria treatment in the first trimester except in lifesaving circumstances. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies comparing the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and major congenital anomaly (primary outcomes) among first-trimester pregnancies treated with artemisinin derivatives versus quinine or no antimalarial treatment...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
Mirjam Groger, Hannah S Fischer, Luzia Veletzky, Albert Lalremruata, Michael Ramharter
BACKGROUND: Despite increased efforts to control and ultimately eradicate human malaria, Plasmodium ovale malaria is for the most part outside the focus of research or public health programmes. Importantly, the understanding of P. ovale-nowadays regarded as the two distinct species P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi-largely stems from case reports and case series lacking study designs providing high quality evidence. Consecutively, there is a lack of systematic evaluation of the clinical presentation, appropriate treatment and relapse characteristics of P...
March 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
Selvi Gülaşı, Nureddin Özdener
Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria endemic regions. We report an unusual case of a 23-day-old girl with neonatal Plasmodium vivax malaria, suspected primarily on the basis of positive maternal history that her mother had malaria during her pregnancy and was cured with chloroquine therapy. Infant presented with fever, thrombocytopenia and a significant parasitemia...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Catherine G Sutcliffe, Kelly Searle, Hellen K Matakala, Michelle P Greenman, Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity after vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within 2 ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Stephanie D Kovacs, Anna Maria van Eijk, Esperanca Sevene, Stephanie Dellicour, Noel S Weiss, Scott Emerson, Richard Steketee, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Andy Stergachis
Given the high morbidity for mother and fetus associated with malaria in pregnancy, safe and efficacious drugs are needed for treatment. Artemisinin derivatives are the most effective antimalarials, but are associated with teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in animal models when used in early pregnancy. However, several organ systems are still under development later in pregnancy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women treated with artemisinins monotherapy or as artemisinin-based combination therapy during the 2nd or 3rd trimesters relative to pregnant women who received non-artemisinin antimalarials or none at all...
2016: PloS One
Kriti Mohan
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of death and illness in children worldwide. Most cases of neonatal malaria are misdiagnosed because of the lack of specific symptoms and a general lack of awareness. Nothing much is known in literature about the haematological changes during malaria infection and outcome of disease in neonates. Neonatal malaria is an underdiagnosed entity. So this hospital based observational study aims to assess diagnostic features of neonatal malaria. METHODS: From August 2004 to August 2013, information of all slide positive for malaria cases aged 0 to 28 days admitted to our pediatric hospital was collected and analysed...
October 20, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Ravi Bhatia, Dinesh Rajwaniya, Priti Agrawal
Although malaria is endemic in India, congenital malaria is not very common. Congenital malaria is a very rare condition in both endemic and nonendemic areas. We report a case of congenital malaria in a six-day-old neonate with fever and splenomegaly. The diagnosis was picked up accidentally on a peripheral smear examination. Congenital malaria should be kept as differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Timely detection of this condition could lead to early diagnosis and treatment, thereby preventing neonatal mortality...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Joshua Kimani, Kamija Phiri, Steve Kamiza, Stephan Duparc, Ayman Ayoub, Ricardo Rojo, Jeffery Robbins, Russell Orrico, Pol Vandenbroucke
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in African regions with moderate to high malaria transmission. However, growing resistance to SP threatens the effectiveness of IPTp-SP, and alternative drugs are needed. This study tested the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a fixed-dose combination azithromycin-chloroquine (AZCQ; 250 mg AZ/155 mg CQ base) for IPTp relative to IPTp-SP. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomized, Phase 3, open-label, multi-center study was conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Benin, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda) between October 2010 and November 2013...
2016: PloS One
Serena Braccio, Mike Sharland, Shamez N Ladhani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Athough more than 90% of syphilis cases are diagnosed in developing countries, syphilis rates in industrialized countries have been increasing since the 1980s. Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with high rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal loss, premature birth, congenital syphilis, and neonatal death. We reviewed the recent literature on adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with untreated syphilis and the benefits of early and effective treatment...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Karen A Cullen, Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is also occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
March 4, 2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Kerryn A Moore, Julie A Simpson, Moo Kho Paw, MuPawJay Pimanpanarak, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Marcus J Rijken, Podjanee Jittamala, Nicholas J White, Freya J I Fowkes, François Nosten, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Artemisinins, the most effective antimalarials available, are not recommended for falciparum malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy because of safety concerns. Therefore, quinine is used despite its poor effectiveness. Assessing artemisinin safety requires weighing the risks of malaria and its treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of first-trimester malaria and artemisinin treatment on miscarriage and major congenital malformations. METHODS: In this observational study, we assessed data from antenatal clinics on the Thai-Myanmar border between Jan 1, 1994, and Dec 31, 2013...
May 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Renée J Burger, Anna M van Eijk, Milena Bussink, Jenny Hill, Feiko O Ter Kuile
The World Health Organization recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare efficacy, safety and tolerability of ACTs versus quinine and other non-ACT antimalarials. The median PCR-adjusted failure rate by days 28 to 63 in the non-ACT group was 6 (range 0-37) per 100 women, lower in the ACT group overall (pooled risk ratio [PRR] random effects, 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Kang-ming Lin, Hai-piao Yu, Gui-ji Lu, Jun Li, Ya-ming Huang, Wei-wei Zhang, Yi-chao Yang
This article reports the process of diagnosis and treatment of one case of neonatal congenital malaria accompanied with severe thrombocytopenia.
August 2015: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Sajid Ali Shah, Zeeshan Ahmed, Munir Akmal Lodhi, Nazir Ahmed Malik
Neonates with congenital malaria may present with non-specific signs and symptoms which may be mistaken for neonatal sepsis and inborn error of metabolism resulting in delay of diagnosis.and significant mortality and morbidity. Here we present a unique case of 25 days old premature female baby who was diagnosed to have mixed malarial infection. Despite standard treatment the patient was not responding well and was also diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
July 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Michael Karl Fehrenbach, Matthias Bernhard, Manuela Siekmeyer, Norman Lippmann, Wieland Kiess, Ulf Nestler, Jürgen Meixensberger, Matthias Preuss
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a widespread mosquito-borne infectious disease with over 300 million cases and roughly 900 thousand deaths in 2013. Cerebral involvement of malaria causes 50 % of all infection-associated deaths, especially in children below the age of 5 years. Hydrocephalus is a medical condition with abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in physiological cavities and ventricles. Standard treatment is the implantation of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt device. A common problem associated with shunt treatment especially in pediatric patients is infection and consecutive shunt dysfunction caused by bacteriae or high protein levels clogging the valve...
April 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Hermann Silva, Bernaldo Laulate, Carlos Coral
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and clinical features of newborns with congenital malaria in the Hospital de Apoyo of Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional study. From January 2011 to December 2013, 14.017 newborns and their mothers were studied, of whom 52 carriers of gestational malaria were selected while their infants were hospitalized in the Neonatology Unit, and underwent clinical assessment and laboratory studies...
April 2015: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Luz Maria De-Regil, Maria N Garcia-Casal, Therese Dowswell
BACKGROUND: Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it is thought to improve other maternal and birth outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention in antenatal care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (10 January 2015)...
July 22, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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