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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912077/nlrp3-activation-induces-il-18-synthesis-and-affects-the-epithelial-barrier-function-in-reactive-cholangiocytes
#1
Luca Maroni, Laura Agostinelli, Stefania Saccomanno, Claudio Pinto, Debora Giordano, Chiara Rychlicki, Samuele De Minicis, Luciano Trozzi, Jesus M Banales, Espen Melum, Tom H Karlsen, Antonio Benedetti, Gianluca Svegliati Baroni, Marco Marzioni
Microbial products are thought to influence the progression of cholangiopathies, in particular primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Inflammasomes are molecular platforms that respond to microbial products through the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. We investigated the role of inflammasome activation in cholangiocyte response to injury. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (Nlrp3) expression was tested in cholangiocytes of normal and cholestatic livers...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810310/probiotic-with-or-without-fiber-controls-body-fat-mass-associated-with-serum-zonulin-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Lotta K Stenman, Markus J Lehtinen, Nils Meland, Jeffrey E Christensen, Nicolas Yeung, Markku T Saarinen, Michael Courtney, Rémy Burcelin, Marja-Leena Lähdeaho, Jüri Linros, Dan Apter, Mika Scheinin, Hilde Kloster Smerud, Aila Rissanen, Sampo Lahtinen
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is interlinked with obesity, but direct evidence of effects of its modulation on body fat mass is still scarce. We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalisssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters. METHODS: 225 healthy volunteers (healthy, BMI 28-34.9) were randomized into four groups (1:1:1:1), using a computer-generated sequence, for 6months of double-blind, parallel treatment: 1) Placebo, microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 2) LU, 12g/d; 3) B420, 10(10)CFU/d in microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 4) LU+B420, 12g+10(10)CFU/d...
October 26, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779706/effect-of-colorectal-cancer-on-the-number-of-normal-stem-cells-circulating-in-peripheral-blood
#3
Wojciech Marlicz, Katarzyna Sielatycka, Karol Serwin, Ewa Kubis, Marta Tkacz, Rafał Głuszko, Andrzej Białek, Teresa Starzyńska, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Bone marrow (BM) residing stem cells are mobilized from their BM niches into peripheral blood (PB) in several pathological situations including tissue organ injury and systemic inflammation. We recently reported that the number of BM-derived stem cells (SCs) increases in patients with pancreatic and stomach cancer. Accordingly, we observed higher numbers of circulating very small embryonic/epiblast‑like stem cells (VSELs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were associated with the activation of pro-mobilizing complement cascade and an elevated level of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) in PB plasma...
October 18, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693318/accuracies-of-fecal-calprotectin-lactoferrin-m2-pyruvate-kinase-neopterin-and-zonulin-to-predict-the-response-to-infliximab-in-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Anne-Claire Frin, Jérôme Filippi, Gilles Boschetti, Bernard Flourie, Jocelyne Drai, Patricia Ferrari, Xavier Hebuterne, Stéphane Nancey
BACKGROUND: Fecal markers might predict the response to anti-TNFα in ulcerative colitis (UC). AIMS: To compare the performance of fecal calprotectin (fCal), lactoferrin (fLact), M2-PK (fM2-PK), neopterin (fNeo), and zonulin (fZon) to predict the response to therapy in active UC patients. METHODS: Disease activity from 31 consecutive patients with an active UC, treated with infliximab (IFX) was assessed by the Mayo score at baseline and at week 14 and by the partial Mayo score at W52 and stool samples collected for fecal marker measurements at W0, W2, and W14...
September 13, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690129/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteropathy-inflammation-stunting-and-impaired-growth-in-children-in-northeast-brazil
#5
Richard L Guerrant, Alvaro M Leite, Relana Pinkerton, Pedro H Q S Medeiros, Paloma A Cavalcante, Mark DeBoer, Margaret Kosek, Christopher Duggan, Andrew Gewirtz, Jonathan C Kagan, Anna E Gauthier, Jonathan Swann, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, David T Bolick, Elizabeth A Maier, Marjorie M Guedes, Sean R Moore, William A Petri, Alexandre Havt, Ila F Lima, Mara de Moura Gondim Prata, Josyf C Michaleckyj, Rebecca J Scharf, Craig Sturgeon, Alessio Fasano, Aldo A M Lima
Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6-26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting) in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684049/an-orally-administered-butyrate-releasing-derivative-reduces-neutrophil-recruitment-and-inflammation-in-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-murine-colitis
#6
Raffaele Simeoli, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Claudio Pirozzi, Adriano Lama, Anna Santoro, Roberto Russo, Trinidad Montero-Melendez, Roberto Berni Canani, Antonio Calignano, Mauro Perretti, Rosaria Meli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Butyrate has shown benefits in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, its oral administration is infrequent due to rancid smell and unpleasant taste. The efficacy of a more palatable butyrate-releasing derivative, N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenylethyl) butyramide (FBA), was evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male 10-week-old BALB/c mice received DSS (2.5%) in drinking water (for 5d) followed by DSS-free water for 7d (DSS group)...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641757/low-grade-endotoxemia-and-platelet-activation-in-cirrhosis
#7
Valeria Raparelli, Stefania Basili, Roberto Carnevale, Laura Napoleone, Maria Del Ben, Cristina Nocella, Simona Bartimoccia, Cristina Lucidi, Giovanni Talerico, Oliviero Riggio, Francesco Violi
: Patients with cirrhosis may display impaired or enhanced platelet activation but the reasons for these equivocal findings are unclear. We investigated if bacterial lipo-polysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in platelet activation. In a cross-sectional study, conducted in an ambulatory care clinic and hospital, comparing 69 cirrhotic patients and 30 controls matched for sex, age and atherosclerotic risk factors, serum levels of LPS, soluble CD40L (sCD40L) and p-Selectin (sPs), two markers of platelet activation, and zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, were investigated...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560928/rifaximin-exerts-beneficial-effects-independent-of-its-ability-to-alter-microbiota-composition
#8
Dae J Kang, Genta Kakiyama, Naga S Betrapally, Jeremy Herzog, Hiroshi Nittono, Phillip B Hylemon, Huiping Zhou, Ian Carroll, Jing Yang, Patrick M Gillevet, Chunhua Jiao, Hajime Takei, William M Pandak, Takashi Iida, Douglas M Heuman, Sili Fan, Oliver Fiehn, Takao Kurosawa, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, R B Sartor, Jasmohan S Bajaj
OBJECTIVES: Rifaximin has clinical benefits in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) but the mechanism of action is unclear. The antibiotic-dependent and -independent effects of rifaximin need to be elucidated in the setting of MHE-associated microbiota. To assess the action of rifaximin on intestinal barrier, inflammatory milieu and ammonia generation independent of microbiota using rifaximin. METHODS: Four germ-free (GF) mice groups were used (1) GF, (2) GF+rifaximin, (3) Humanized with stools from an MHE patient, and (4) Humanized+rifaximin...
2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551722/protective-effects-of-bifidobacterium-on-intestinal-barrier-function-in-lps-induced-enterocyte-barrier-injury-of-caco-2-monolayers-and-in-a-rat-nec-model
#9
Xiang Ling, Peng Linglong, Du Weixia, Wei Hong
Zonulin protein is a newly discovered modulator which modulates the permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier by disassembling intercellular tight junctions (TJ). Disruption of TJ is associated with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It has been shown bifidobacterium could protect the intestinal barrier function and prophylactical administration of bifidobacterium has beneficial effects in NEC patients and animals. However, it is still unknown whether the zonulin is involved in the gut barrier dysfunction of NEC, and the protective mechanisms of bifidobacterium on intestinal barrier function are also not well understood...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500282/rosuvastatin-decreases-intestinal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-i-fabp-but-does-not-alter-zonulin-or-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-lbp-levels-in-hiv-infected-subjects-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Nicholas T Funderburg, Morgan Boucher, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Danielle Labbato, Bruce I Kinley, Grace A McComsey
INTRODUCTION: Altered gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity and subsequent microbial translocation may contribute to immune activation in HIV infection. We have reported that rosuvastatin improved several markers of immune activation in HIV+ participants, but the effect of statin treatment on markers of GI barrier dysfunction is unknown. METHODS: SATURN-HIV is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the effect of rosuvastatin (10mg/daily) on markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and immune activation in ART-treated patients...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478897/infantile-colic-is-associated-with-low-grade-systemic-inflammation
#11
Anna Pärtty, Marko Kalliomäki, Seppo Salminen, Erika Isolauri
OBJECTIVE: Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the taxonomic composition of the gut bacteria occurring during the critical stages of development, induces lasting shifts in the immunological and metabolic phenotype if accompanied by an inflammatory response. As altered gut microbiota and successful treatment with probiotics have both been demonstrated in cases of colic, we hypothesized here that infants with colic might have low-grade inflammation. METHODS: In 28 infants with colic and in 12 healthy controls at the age of one month, we measured the following serum immunological biomarkers: cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β); IL-6; IL-10; tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); interferon γ (IFN-γ); chemokines IL-8; monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1); macrophage inflammatory protein1β (MIP-1β) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16); intestinal-fatty-acid-binding protein (ifabp), a biomarker of enterocyte damage and zonulin, a biomarker of intestinal permeability...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473078/new-markers-of-insulin-resistance-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
K Polak, A Czyzyk, T Simoncini, B Meczekalski
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. The diagnostic criteria include two out of three features: hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound and menstrual irregularities (Rotterdam Criteria 2003). PCOS patients are more vulnerable to develop diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is prevalent in women with PCOS independently of obesity and is critically involved in reproductive and metabolic complications of the syndrome...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466607/gut-microbiota-richness-and-composition-and-dietary-intake-of-overweight-pregnant-women-are-related-to-serum-zonulin-concentration-a-marker-for-intestinal-permeability
#13
Kati Mokkala, Henna Röytiö, Eveliina Munukka, Sami Pietilä, Ulla Ekblad, Tapani Rönnemaa, Erkki Eerola, Asta Laiho, Kirsi Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Increased intestinal permeability may precede adverse metabolic conditions. The extent to which the composition of the gut microbiota and diet contribute to intestinal permeability during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether the gut microbiota and diet differ according to serum zonulin concentration, a marker of intestinal permeability, in overweight pregnant women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 100 overweight women [mean age: 29 y; median body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30] in early pregnancy (<17 wk of gestation; median: 13 wk)...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403788/low-grade-endotoxemia-and-clotting-activation-in-the-early-phase-of-pneumonia
#14
Roberto Cangemi, Patrizia Della Valle, Camilla Calvieri, Gloria Taliani, Patrizia Ferroni, Marco Falcone, Roberto Carnevale, Simona Bartimoccia, Armando D'angelo, Francesco Violi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. We investigated if, in patients with CAP, a pro-thrombotic state does exist and its relationship with serum levels of endotoxins. METHODS: A total of 104 consecutive patients with CAP were prospectively recruited and followed up until discharge. At admission and at discharge, serum endotoxins, systemic markers of clotting activation and zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, were analysed...
July 12, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374565/protective-effects-of-id331-triticum-monococcum-gliadin-on-in-vitro-models-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#15
Giuseppe Iacomino, Luigia Di Stasio, Olga Fierro, Gianluca Picariello, Antonella Venezia, Laura Gazza, Pasquale Ferranti, Gianfranco Mamone
A growing interest in developing new strategies for preventing coeliac disease has motivated efforts to identify cereals with null or reduced toxicity. In the current study, we investigate the biological effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin-derived peptides in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Triticum aestivum gliadin derived peptides were employed as a positive control. The effects on epithelial permeability, zonulin release, viability, and cytoskeleton reorganization were investigated. Our findings confirmed that ID331 gliadin did not enhance permeability and did not induce zonulin release, cytotoxicity or cytoskeleton reorganization of Caco-2 cell monolayers...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357093/no-differential-effect-of-beverages-sweetened-with-fructose-high-fructose-corn-syrup-or-glucose-on-systemic-or-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-normal-weight-to-obese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Jessica N Kuzma, Gail Cromer, Derek K Hagman, Kara L Breymeyer, Christian L Roth, Karen E Foster-Schubert, Sarah E Holte, David S Weigle, Mario Kratz
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354090/two-meals-with-different-carbohydrate-fat-and-protein-contents-render-equivalent-postprandial-plasma-levels-of-calprotectin-cortisol-triglycerides-and-zonulin
#17
Bodil Ohlsson, Gassan Darwiche, Bodil Roth, Peter Höglund
The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence...
November 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353603/zonulin-regulates-intestinal-permeability-and-facilitates-enteric-bacteria-permeation-in-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Chuanwei Li, Min Gao, Wen Zhang, Caiyu Chen, Faying Zhou, Zhangxu Hu, Chunyu Zeng
Several studies have reported an association between enteric bacteria and atherosclerosis. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene belong to Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. How intestinal bacteria go into blood is not known. Zonulin reversibly modulate intestinal permeability (IP), the circulating zonulin levels were increased in diabetes, obesity, all of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the circulating zonulin levels were changed in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and modulate IP...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160816/portal-vein-thrombosis-in-cirrhosis-is-not-associated-with-intestinal-barrier-disruption-or-increased-platelet-aggregability
#19
Piotr Wosiewicz, Michał Żorniak, Marek Hartleb, Kamil Barański, Maciej Hartleb, Magdalena Onyszczuk, Joanna Pilch-Kowalczyk, Sławomira Kyrcz-Krzemień
OBJECTIVE: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common complication of cirrhosis, but its pathogenesis is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that PVT is the result of platelet hyperactivity or intestinal barrier disruption. METHODS: This study included 49 patients with cirrhosis (15 females) of mixed etiology. Based on spiral computed-tomography, the patients were divided into two groups: with PVT (n=16) and without PVT (n=33). Serum biomarkers of intestinal barrier integrity were endotoxins and zonulin, and platelet activity was assessed with multiple electrode aggregometry...
December 2016: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26795282/effects-of-combined-ccr5-integrase-inhibitors-based-regimen-on-mucosal-immunity-in-hiv-infected-patients-na%C3%A3-ve-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Talia Sainz, Zhong-Min Ma, Netanya S Utay, Tae-Wook Chun, Tae Wook-Chun, Surinder Mann, Angela D Kashuba, Basile Siewe, Anthony Albanese, Paolo Troia-Cancio, Elizabeth Sinclair, Anoma Somasunderam, Tammy Yotter, Steven G Deeks, Alan Landay, Richard B Pollard, Christopher J Miller, Santiago Moreno, David M Asmuth
Whether initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens aimed at achieving greater concentrations within gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) impacts the level of mucosal immune reconstitution, inflammatory markers and the viral reservoir remains unknown. We included 12 HIV- controls and 32 ART-naïve HIV patients who were randomized to efavirenz, maraviroc or maraviroc+raltegravir, each with fixed-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. Rectal and duodenal biopsies were obtained at baseline and at 9 months of ART...
January 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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