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Amyloid beta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324600/light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-chemical-clearing-and-labeling-protocols-for-ultramicroscopy
#1
Nina Jährling, Klaus Becker, Saiedeh Saghafi, Hans-Ulrich Dodt
Light-sheet microscopy is an effective technique in neuroscience, developmental biology, and cancer research for visualizing and analyzing cellular networks and whole organs in three dimensions. Because this technique requires specimens to be translucent they commonly have to be cleared before microscopy inspection. Here, we provide 3DISCO based protocols for preparing cleared samples of immuno-stained neural networks, lectin-labeled vascular networks, and Methoxy-X04 labeled beta-amyloid plaques in mice. 3DISCO utilizes the lipophilic solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dibenzylether (DBE) for dehydration and successive clearing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324341/beta-amyloid-deposition-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-with-differing-levels-of-treatment-resistance-a-pilot-study
#2
Peng Li, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Yih Liu, Chia-Hsiang Chen, She-Yao Huang, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kuan-Yi Wu, Kun-Ju Lin
BACKGROUND: Lack of treatment response in patients with late-life depression is common. The role of brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in treatment outcome in subjects with late-life depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate brain Aβ deposition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with differing treatment outcomes in vivo using (18)F-florbetapir imaging. This study included 62 MDD patients and 18 healthy control subjects (HCs).We first employed the Maudsley staging method (MSM) to categorize MDD patients into two groups according to treatment response: mild treatment resistance (n = 29) and moderate-to-severe treatment resistance (n = 33)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324113/microrna-expression-patterns-involved-in-amyloid-beta-induced-retinal-degeneration
#3
Peirong Huang, Junran Sun, Fenghua Wang, Xueting Luo, Jingyang Feng, Qing Gu, Te Liu, Xiaodong Sun
Purpose: Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the accumulation of drusen under Bruch's membrane, and amyloid beta (Aβ) is speculated to be one of the key pathologic factors. While the detrimental effects of Aβ on retinas have been widely explored, Aβ-induced epigenetic regulatory changes have yet to be fully investigated. We therefore aimed to identify the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in an Aβ-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were intravitreally injected with Aβ1-40 or PBS and the eye tissues were collected for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, apoptosis immunofluorescence staining, and miRNA profiling...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315680/selenoprotein-s-is-required-for-clearance-of-c99-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-degradation
#4
Jun Ki Jang, Ki Jun Park, Jea Hwang Lee, Kwan Young Ko, Seongman Kang, Ick Young Kim
Amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) is normally cleaved by α-secretase, but can also be cleaved by β-secretase (BACE1) to produce C99 fragments in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. C99 is subsequently cleaved to amyloid β (Aβ), the aggregation of which is known to cause Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, C99 removing is for preventing the disease. Selenoprotein S (SelS) is an ER membrane protein participating in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), one of the stages in resolving ER stress of misfolded proteins accumulated in the ER...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303372/ellagic-acid-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-exploration-of-underlying-mechanisms
#5
Zahra Kiasalari, Rana Heydarifard, Mohsen Khalili, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Elham Zahedi, Ashkan Sanaierad, Mehrdad Roghani
RATIONALE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. Current therapies for AD are still insufficient. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the effect of ellagic acid on learning and memory deficits was evaluated in intrahippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ25-35)-microinjected rats and its modes of action were also explored. METHODS: AD rat model was induced by bilateral intrahippocampal microinjection of Aβ25-35 and ellagic acid was daily administered (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg), and learning, recognition memory, and spatial memory were evaluated in addition to histochemical assessment, oxidative stress, cholinesterases activity, and level of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)...
March 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301805/the-protective-role-of-plant-biophenols-in-mechanisms-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Syed H Omar, Christopher J Scott, Adam S Hamlin, Hassan K Obied
Self-assembly of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) into the neurotoxic oligomers followed by fibrillar aggregates is a defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of proposed hypotheses have suggested the mechanism of AD pathology, though the exact pathophysiological mechanism is not yet elucidated. The poor understanding of AD and multitude of adverse responses reported from the current synthetic drugs are the leading cause of failure in the drug development to treat or halt the progression of AD and mandate the search for safer and more efficient alternatives...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300775/protective-effects-of-fucoidan-on-a%C3%AE-25-35-and-d-gal-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-and-d-gal-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#7
Hengyun Wei, Zixiang Gao, Luping Zheng, Cuili Zhang, Zundong Liu, Yazong Yang, Hongming Teng, Lin Hou, Yuling Yin, Xiangyang Zou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which contributes to memory loss and cognitive decline in the elderly. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a complex sulfated polysaccharide and potential bioactive compound. In this study, we investigated whether fucoidan protects PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by a combination of beta-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and d-galactose (d-Gal), and improves learning and memory impairment in AD model mice. The results indicated that fucoidan could inhibit the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspases, and increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor proteins (IAPs), including livin and X-linked IAP (XIAP) in PC12 cells damaged by Aβ25-35 and d-Gal-induction...
March 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299593/trehalose-and-magnesium-chloride-exert-a-common-anti-amyloidogenic-effect-towards-hen-egg-white-lysozyme
#8
Rupsa Chatterjee, Vidyalatha Kolli, Nandini Sarkar
Many degenerative disorder such as Parkinsons, Alzheimers, Huntingtons disease, etc are caused due to the deposition of amyloid fibrils, formed due to the ordered aggregation of misfolded/unfolded proteins. Misfolded or unfolded proteins aggregate mostly through hydrophobic interactions which are unexposed in native state, but become exposed upon unfolding. To counteract amyloid related diseases, inhibition of the protein self assembly into fibril is a potential therapeutic strategy. The study aims at investigating the effect of selected compounds, namely trehalose and magnesium chloride hexahydrate towards inhibition and disaggregation of amyloid fibrils using Hen Egg White Lysozyme as a model...
March 16, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298292/cellular-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Ta Yuan Chang, Yoshio Yamauchi, Mazahir Hasan, Catherine Cy Chang
Alzheimer's disease [AD] is the most common form of dementia in older adults. Currently, there is no cure for AD. The hallmark of AD is the accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of amyloid beta peptides [Abeta; especially Abeta1-42], and neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau, accompanied with chronic neuroinflammation. Abeta are derived from the amyloid precursor protein APP. The oligomeric form of Abeta is probably the most neurotoxic species; its accumulation eventually forms the insoluble and aggregated amyloid plaques...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293044/amyloid-beta-immunotherapy-the-hope-for-alzheimer-disease
#10
REVIEW
Alvaro Barrera-Ocampo, Francisco Lopera
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia of adult-onset, characterized by progressive impairment in cognition and memory. There is no cure for the disease and the current treatments are only symptomatic. Drug discovery is an expensive and time-consuming process; in the last decade no new drugs have been found for AD despite the efforts of the scientific community and pharmaceutical companies. The Aβ immunotherapy is one of the most promising approaches to modify the course of AD. This therapeutic strategy uses synthetic peptides or monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to decrease the Aβ load in the brain and slow the progression of the disease...
December 30, 2016: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291027/estrogen-and-dpp-4-inhibitor-share-similar-efficacy-in-reducing-brain-pathology-caused-by-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-both-lean-and-obese-estrogen-deprived-rats
#11
Wasana Pratchayasakul, Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Cicely Proctor, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) caused an oxidative burst, increased beta-amyloid production, and decreased dendritic spine density in the brain. However, the effect of cardiac I/R in the brain of estrogen-deprived rats who were or were not obese have not been investigated. Moreover, the benefits of estrogen or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitor therapies in those conditions have never been determined. We hypothesized that cardiac I/R aggravates brain pathology in estrogen-deprived obese rats, to a greater extent when compared with estrogen-deprived lean rats, and treatment with either estrogen or a DPP-4 inhibitor attenuates those adverse effects...
March 13, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290668/surface-assay-for-specific-detection-of-soluble-amyloid-oligomers-utilizing-pronucleon-peptides-instead-of-antibodies
#12
Evgenia G Matveeva, Jonathan R Moll, Mariam M Khan, Richard B Thompson, Richard O Cliff
Immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are widely used for diagnostics; however, antibodies as detection reagents may be insufficiently selective and have other shortcomings. We present a novel non-antibody-based detection method based on binding target molecules to peptides (used as recognition molecules): a surface assay for A-β oligomers employing a peptide comprising amino acid residues of the human β-amyloid protein (Pronucleon peptide) as the capture agent. For the sake of convenience, we term this the "Pronucleon peptide-linked immunosorbent assay", or PLISA...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289378/synaptic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-glaucoma-from-common-degenerative-mechanisms-toward-neuroprotection
#13
REVIEW
Chiara Criscuolo, Carlotta Fabiani, Elisa Cerri, Luciano Domenici
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and glaucoma are two distinct multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases, primarily affecting the elderly. Common pathophysiological mechanisms have been elucidated in the past decades. First of all both diseases are progressive, with AD leading to dementia and glaucoma inducing blindness. Pathologically, they all feature synaptic dysfunction with changes of neuronal circuitry, progressive accumulation of protein aggregates such as the beta amyloid (Aβ) and intracellular microtubule inclusions containing hyperphosphorylated tau, which belongs to microtubule associated protein family...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286225/immunological-alteration-toxic-molecular-inductions-leading-to-cognitive-impairment-neurotoxicity-in-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Manuj Ahuja, Manal Buabeid, Engy Abdel-Rehman, Mohammed Majrashi, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran, Rajesh Amin, Sindhu Ramesh, Kariharan Thiruchelvan, Satyanarayana Pondugula, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
AIMS: Inflammation is considered to be one of the crucial pathological factors associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease, although supportive experimental evidence remains undiscovered. Therefore, the current study was carried out to better understand and establish the pathophysiological involvement of chronic inflammation in a double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. MAIN METHODS: We analyzed amyloid-beta deposition, oxidative stress, biochemical, neurochemical and immunological markers in a 10month old (APΔE9) mouse model...
March 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285126/expression-of-neprilysin-in-periodontitis-affected-gingival-tissues
#15
A Nezu, T Kubota, S Maruyama, M Nagata, K Nohno, T Morozumi, H Yoshie
OBJECTIVE: Although the pathogeneses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and periodontal diseases have overlapping features, including ageing and chronic inflammation, the association between AD and periodontitis remains unclear. To explore the pathogenesis of periodontitis, a comprehensive gene expression/transcriptome analysis in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues found that the AD pathway was significantly up-regulated in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues. AD-related genes, amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), interleukin-1 beta and compliment 1QA, were significantly elevated in periodontitis...
March 6, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281098/effect-of-metal-chelators-on-the-aggregation-of-beta-amyloid-peptides-in-the-presence-of-copper-and-iron
#16
Foozhan Tahmasebinia, Saeed Emadi
Amyloid β (Aβ) fibrils and amorphous aggregates are found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and are implicated in the etiology of AD. The metal imbalance is also among leading causes of AD, owing to the fact that Aβ aggregation takes place in the synaptic cleft where Aβ, Cu(II) and Fe(III) are found in abnormally high concentrations. Aβ40 and Aβ42 are the main components of plaques found in afflicted brains. Coordination of Cu(II) and Fe(III) ions to Aβ peptides have been linked to Aβ aggregation and production of reactive oxygen species, two key events in the development of AD pathology...
March 10, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279654/bloodstream-amyloid-beta-1-40-peptide-cognition-and-outcomes-in-heart-failure
#17
Antoni Bayes-Genis, Jaume Barallat, Marta de Antonio, Mar Domingo, Elisabet Zamora, Joan Vila, Isaac Subirana, Paloma Gastelurrutia, M Cruz Pastor, James L Januzzi, Josep Lupón
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In the brain, amyloid-beta generation participates in the pathophysiology of cognitive disorders; in the bloodstream, the role of amyloid-beta is uncertain but may be linked to sterile inflammation and senescence. We explored the relationship between blood levels of amyloid-beta 1-40 peptide (Aβ40), cognition, and mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular, and heart failure [HF]-related) in ambulatory patients with HF. METHODS: Bloodstream Aβ40 was measured in 939 consecutive patients with HF...
March 6, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278027/in-silico-investigation-on-the-inhibition-of-a%C3%AE-42-aggregation-by-a%C3%AE-40-peptide-by-potential-of-mean-force-study
#18
Mary Dutta, Venkata Satish Kumar Mattaparthi
Recent experimental data revealed that small, soluble Amyloid beta (Aβ42) oligomers, especially dimers impair synaptic plasticity and memory leading to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we have studied dimerization of Aβ42/Aβ42 homo-dimer and Aβ40/Aβ42 hetero-dimer in terms of free energy profile by all-atom simulations using the ff99SB force field. We have found that in the presence of Aβ40 peptide, there exists a strong tendency to form a hetero-dimer with Aβ42 peptide, suggesting that a possible co-oligomerization...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275649/population-based-analysis-of-pathological-correlates-of-dementia-in-the-oldest-old
#19
Maarit Tanskanen, Mira Mäkelä, Irma-Leena Notkola, Liisa Myllykangas, Sari Rastas, Minna Oinas, Perttu J Lindsberg, Tuomo Polvikoski, Pentti J Tienari, Anders Paetau
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze brain pathologies which cause dementia in the oldest old population. METHODS: All 601 persons aged ≥85 years living in the city of Vantaa (Finland), on April 1st, 1991 formed the study population of the Vantaa85 +  study, 300 of whom were autopsied during follow-up (79.5% females, mean age-at-death 92 ± 3.7 years). Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology (tau and beta-amyloid [Aβ]), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Lewy-related pathologies were analyzed...
March 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274813/possible-role-of-endothelin-receptor-against-hyperhomocysteinemia-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-ad-type-of-vascular-dementia-in-rats
#20
Major Singh, Atish Prakash
Vascular dementia (VaD) is considered as the second commonest form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study was designed to investigate the effect of endothelin receptor against β-amyloid induced AD type of vascular dementia. This disease was induced by combine administration of single ICV (intracerebroventricle) infusion of β-amyloid (Aβ) once and chronic oral administration of L-Methionine for 21 days. Bosentan (dual endothelin receptor antagonist) was administered for 21 days. Behavioral alterations were observed during different time interval of the study...
March 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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