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Amyloid beta

Rui Gao, Guangjian Zhang, Xueqi Chen, Aimin Yang, Gwenn Smith, Dean F Wong, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD...
2016: PloS One
K Rygiel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Jian Yang, Jing Yang, Steven H Liang, Yungen Xu, Anna Moore, Chongzhao Ran
In brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are significantly higher than that of healthy brains. Evidence suggests that, during AD onset and progression, a vicious cycle revolves around amyloid beta (Aβ) production, aggregation, plaque formation, microglia/immunological responses, inflammation, and ROS production. In this cycle, ROS species play a central role, and H2O2 is one of the most important ROS species. In this report, we have designed a fluorescent imaging probe CRANAD-88, which is capable of cascade amplifying near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) signals at three levels upon interacting with H2O2 in AD brains...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Shuenn-Jyi Sheu, Chung-Hsin Wu
In this study, we have reported the herbal formula B401 that has neuroprotective effects via multifunction, multitarget characteristics. It is possible that the herbal formula B401 may also provide new insights for AD. Here, we studied protective effects in the Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cell model and the APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic mouse model by the herbal formula B401. In in vitro experiments, we showed that the herbal formula B401 treatment effectively reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase activity in Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cells...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Lara Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Adrián Posado-Fernández, Davoud Ahmadvand, Barbara Lettiero, Linping Wu, Marta Antón, Orfeu Flores, Seyed Moein Moghimi, Francisco Wandosell
The accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (hyper-phosphorylated Tau) in the brain are two major neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Active and passive immunotherapy may limit cerebral Aβ deposition and/or accelerate its clearance. With the aid of a newly characterized monoclonal anti-Aβ antibody we constructed immunoPEGliposomes with high avidity for capturing Aβ in the periphery. The functionality of these vesicles in modulating Aβ uptake by both human brain capillary endothelial hCMEC/D3 cells (suppressing uptake) and THP-1 phagocytes (stimulating uptake) was confirmed in vitro...
August 2, 2016: Biomaterials
Rosalia Pellitteri, Roberta Bonfanti, Michela Spatuzza, Maria Teresa Cambria, Mariacristina Ferrara, Giuseppina Raciti, Agata Campisi
Herein, we assessed in a particular glial cell type, called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), the effect of some growth factors (GFs) on tissue transglutaminase (TG2) overexpression induced by amyloid-beta (Aβ) with native full-length peptide 1-42 or by fragments, 25-35 or 35-25, as control. Previously, we demonstrated that TG2 overexpression induced by some stressors was down-regulated by GFs exposure in OECs. To monitor cell viability, an MTT test was used, while TG2 expression was examined using immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Natarajan Suganthy, Kasi Pandima Devi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Quercetin, a ubiquitous flavonoid that is widely distributed in plants is classified as a cognitive enhancer in traditional and oriental medicine. The protective effects of quercetin for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and cerebrovascular diseases have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The free radical scavenging activity of quercetin has been well-documented, wherein quercetin has been observed to exhibit protective effects against oxidative stress mediated neuronal damage by modulating the expression of NRF-2 dependent antioxidant responsive elements, and attenuation of neuroinflammation by suppressing NF-κB signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1)...
October 15, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tengfei Guo, Matthias Brendel, Timo Grimmer, Axel Rominger, Igor Yakushev
: Knowledge about spatial and temporal patterns of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is essential for understanding Alzheimer's disease (AD) and for design of anti-amyloid drug trials. Here, we tested if the regional pattern of longitudinal Aβ accumulation can be predicted by baseline amyloid PET. METHODS: Analyzed were baseline and 2 years follow-up (18)F-florbetapir PET data from 58 patients with incipient and manifest dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). By determining how fast amyloid deposits in a given region relative to the whole brain grey matter, a pseudo-temporal accumulation rate for each region was calculated...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Kumju Youn, Ji-Hyun Park, Jinhyuk Lee, Woo-Sik Jeong, Chi-Tang Ho, Mira Jun
Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the enzyme involved in the abnormal production of the amyloidogenic peptide Aβ, one of the major causes of histological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, BACE1 represents a key target protein in the development of new potential target for the prevention and treatment of AD. In this study, in vitro anti-AD activity of biochanin A, a dietary isoflavone found in legumes and most notably red clover, were evaluated via human recombinant BACE1 inhibition assay, as well as enzyme kinetic and molecular docking predictions...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sverre Kjeldsen
There is a whole armament of good drugs for treatment of hypertension including diuretics, calcium antagonist, angiotensin receptor antagonists and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Secondary drugs mostly used for special indications include beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (aldosterone antagonists), renin-inhibitors, centrally acting drugs, direct vasodilators and others.A variety of new drugs targeting different pressor mechanism exist and have partly been studies experimentally but will unlikely make it to clinical use in human hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Juliane Schelle, Lisa Häsler, Jens C Göpfert, Thomas O Joos, Hugo Vanderstichele, Erik Stoops, Ulf Neumann, Derya R Shimshek, Matthias Staufenbiel, Mathias Jucker, Stephan A Kaeser
INTRODUCTION: The inhibition of the beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a main therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported an age-related increase of tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. METHODS: APP transgenic mice were treated with a potent BACE1 inhibitor. CSF tau and CSF Aβ levels were assessed. A novel high-sensitivity tau sandwich immunoassay was developed...
October 14, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Rosemary J Jackson, Nikita Rudinskiy, Abigail G Herrmann, Shaun Croft, JeeSoo Monica Kim, Veselina Petrova, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Rose Pitstick, Susanne Wegmann, Monica Garcia-Alloza, George A Carlson, Bradley T Hyman, Tara L Spires-Jones
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of aggregates of amyloid beta (Aβ) in senile plaques and tau in neurofibrillary tangles, as well as marked neuron and synapse loss. Of these pathological changes, synapse loss correlates most strongly with cognitive decline. Synapse loss occurs prominently around plaques due to accumulations of oligomeric Aβ. Recent evidence suggests that tau may also play a role in synapse loss but the interactions of Aβ and tau in synapse loss remain to be determined...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
J M G van Bergen, X Li, J Hua, S J Schreiner, S C Steininger, F C Quevenco, M Wyss, A F Gietl, V Treyer, S E Leh, F Buck, R M Nitsch, K P Pruessmann, P C M van Zijl, C Hock, P G Unschuld
Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) MRI at 7 Tesla and 11-Carbon Pittsburgh-Compound-B PET were used for investigating the relationship between brain iron and Amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque-load in a context of increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), as reflected by the Apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE-e4) allele and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly subjects. Carriers of APOE-e4 with normal cognition had higher cortical Aβ-plaque-load than non-carriers. In MCI an association between APOE-e4 and higher Aβ-plaque-load was observable both for cortical and subcortical brain-regions...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qian Zhao, Xueqi Chen, Yun Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Xiaotian T Fang, Jonas Eriksson, Gunnar Antoni, Ulrika Yngve, Linda Cato, Lars Lannfelt, Dag Sehlin, Stina Syvänen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) into insoluble plaques. Intermediates, Aβ oligomers (Aβo), appear to be the mechanistic cause of disease. The de facto PET AD ligand, [(11)C]PIB, binds and visualizes Aβ plaque load, which does not correlate well with disease severity. Therefore, finding a dynamic target that changes with pathology progression in AD is of great interest. Aβo alter synaptic plasticity, inhibit long-term potentiation, and facilitate long-term depression; key mechanisms involved in memory and learning...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Minzhen Deng, Liping Huang, Baile Ning, Nanbu Wang, Qinxin Zhang, Caixia Zhu, Yongqi Fang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly, and studies have suggested that β-asarone has pharmacological effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ) injected in the rat hippocampus. However, the effect of β-asarone on autophagy in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse is unreported. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into six groups (n=10/group): an untreated group, an Aricept-treated group, a 3-MA-treated group, a rapamycin-treated group, an LY294002-treated group, a β-asarone-treated group...
October 10, 2016: Brain Research
Shangfu Li, Bu Yang, Dian Teguh, Lin Zhou, Jiake Xu, Limin Rong
Osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are common chronic degenerative disorders which are strongly associated with advanced age. We have previously demonstrated that amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), one of the pathological hallmarks of AD, accumulated abnormally in osteoporotic bone specimens in addition to having an activation effect on osteoclast (Bone 2014,61:164-75). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Activation of NF-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylates, and calcium oscillation signaling pathways by receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays a pivotal role in osteoclast activation...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tahir Ali, Min Ju Kim, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ashfaq Ahmad, Myeong Ok Kim
Nanomedicine is an emerging research area. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of anthocyanin-loaded polyethylene glycol-gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) for enhancing the neuroprotective efficacy of anthocyanins in an amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. We observed that both anthocyanin-loaded PEG-AuNPs and anthocyanins treatment (12 μg/g/day for 14 days) ameliorated memory impairments in the Aβ1-42-injected mice. However, the anthocyanin-loaded PEG-AuNPs were more effective than free anthocyanins...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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