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Amyloid beta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168082/a-pilot-study-of-neuropsychological-functions-apoe-and-amyloid-imaging-in-patients-with-gliomas
#1
D D Correa, M Kryza-Lacombe, X Zhou, R E Baser, B J Beattie, Z Beiene, J Humm, L M DeAngelis, I Orlow, W Weber, J Osborne
Brain tumor patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) often develop cognitive dysfunction, and recent studies suggest that the APOE ε-4 allele may influence cognitive outcome. The ε-4 allele is known to promote beta (β) amyloid deposition in the cortex, and preliminary evidence suggests that RT may be associated with this process. However, it is unknown whether β-amyloid accumulation contributes to treatment neurotoxicity. In this pilot study, we assessed neuropsychological functions and β-amyloid retention using (18)F-florbetaben (FBB) PET in a subset of brain tumor patients who participated in our study of APOE polymorphisms and cognitive functions...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166002/structure-and-affinity-of-cu-i-bound-to-human-serum-albumin
#2
Madison Sendzik, M Jake Pushie, Ewelina Stefaniak, Kathryn L Haas
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a major Cu carrier in human blood and in cerebrospinal fluid. A major assumption is that Cu bound to HSA is in the Cu(II) oxidation state; thus, interactions between HSA and Cu(II) have been intensely investigated for over four decades. HSA has been reported previously to support the reduction of Cu(II) to the Cu(I) oxidation state in the presence of the weak reductant, ascorbate; however, the interactions between HSA and Cu(I) have not been explicitly investigated. Here, we characterize both the apparent affinity of HSA for Cu(I) using solution competition experiments and the coordination structure of Cu(I) bound to HSA using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in silico modeling...
November 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165985/nanoscale-dynamics-of-amyloid-beta-42-oligomers-as-revealed-by-high-speed-atomic-force-microscopy
#3
Siddhartha Banerjee, Zhiqiang Sun, Eric Y Hayden, David B Teplow, Yuri L Lyubchenko
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) oligomers are emerging as potent neurotoxic species in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Detailed characterization of oligomer structure and dynamics are necessary to develop oligomer-specific therapeutic agents. However, oligomers exist transiently, which complicates their structural analysis. One approach to mitigate these problems has been photochemical cross-linking of native oligomers. In these states, the oligomers can be isolated and purified for physical and chemical studies...
November 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164616/protection-against-%C3%AE-amyloid-neurotoxicity-by-a-non-toxic-endogenous-n-terminal-%C3%AE-amyloid-fragment-and-its-active-hexapeptide-core-sequence
#4
Kelly H Forest, Naghum Alfulaij, Komal Arora, Ruth Taketa, Tessi Sherrin, Cedomir Todorovic, James L M Lawrence, Gene T Yoshikawa, Ho-Leung Ng, Victor J Hruby, Robert A Nichols
High levels (μM) of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are known to trigger neurotoxic effects, leading to synaptic impairment, behavioral deficits and apoptotic cell death. The hydrophobic C-terminal domain of Aβ, together with sequences critical for oligomer formation, is essential for this neurotoxicity. However, Aβ at low levels (pM-nM) has been shown to function as a positive neuromodulator and this activity resides in the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of Aβ. An N-terminal Aβ fragment (1-15/16), found in cerebrospinal fluid, was also shown to be a highly active neuromodulator and to reverse Aβ-induced impairments of long-term potentiation...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164474/microcystic-calcifying-epithelial-odontogenic-tumor
#5
Celeste Sánchez-Romero, Román Carlos, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Mário José Romañach
Microcystic variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor is rare. We herein describe an additional well-documented case of microcystic CEOT. The affected patient is a Guatemalan 42-year-old female with an expansile well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion located in the right posterior mandible. The lesion was associated to an unerupted third molar. Histopathologic examination revealed nests and cords of moderately pleomorphic, eosinophilic polyhedral epithelial cells surrounded by a fibromyxoid stroma...
November 21, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163074/the-paravascular-pathway-for-brain-waste-clearance-current-understanding-significance-and-controversy
#6
REVIEW
Andrew Bacyinski, Maosheng Xu, Wei Wang, Jiani Hu
The paravascular pathway, also known as the "glymphatic" pathway, is a recently described system for waste clearance in the brain. According to this model, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the paravascular spaces surrounding penetrating arteries of the brain, mixes with interstitial fluid (ISF) and solutes in the parenchyma, and exits along paravascular spaces of draining veins. Studies have shown that metabolic waste products and solutes, including proteins involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyloid-beta, may be cleared by this pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159056/no-association-of-cortical-amyloid-load-and-eeg-connectivity-in-older-people-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#7
Stefan Teipel, Hovagim Bakardjian, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Enrica Cavedo, Sarah Weschke, Martin Dyrba, Michel J Grothe, Marie-Claude Potier, Marie-Odile Habert, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
Changes in functional connectivity of cortical networks have been observed in resting-state EEG studies in healthy aging as well as preclinical and clinical stages of AD. Little information, however, exists on associations between EEG connectivity and cortical amyloid load in people with subjective memory complaints. Here, we determined the association of global cortical amyloid load, as measured by florbetapir-PET, with functional connectivity based on the phase-lag index of resting state EEG data for alpha and beta frequency bands in 318 cognitively normal individuals aged 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159051/interactive-versus-additive-relationships-between-regional-cortical-thinning-and-amyloid-burden-in-predicting-clinical-decline-in-mild-ad-and-mci-individuals
#8
Federico d'Oleire Uquillas, Heidi I L Jacobs, Bernard Hanseeuw, Gad A Marshall, Michael Properzi, Aaron P Schultz, Molly R LaPoint, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Patrizia Vannini
The biological mechanisms that link Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaque deposition, neurodegeneration, and clinical decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, have not been completely elucidated. Here we studied whether amyloid accumulation and neurodegeneration, independently or interactively, predict clinical decline over time in a group of memory impaired older individuals [diagnosed with either amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or mild AD dementia]. We found that baseline Aβ-associated cortical thinning across clusters encompassing lateral and medial temporal and parietal cortices was related to higher baseline Clinical Dementia Rating Sum-of-Boxes (CDR-SB)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154879/perillyl-alcohol-alleviates-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cytotoxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#9
Mohammad Faraz Zafeer, Fakiha Firdaus, Faraz Ahmad, Rizwan Ullah, Ehraz Anis, Mohd Waseem, Asif Ali, Mohammad Mobarak Hossain
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia in elderly ( >65years of age). Excessive extra cellular deposits of amyloid beta (Aβ) are a pathological feature of AD. Aβ can cause cell death through oxidative damage; recent studies have implicated opening of mPTP as a detrimental event in AD-related mitochondrial dysfunctions. Over the past few years, natural compounds with antioxidant properties have shown promise for intervention in AD.
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154274/cognitive-decline-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-amyloid-beta-versus-tauopathy
#10
Colin M Huber, Connor Yee, Taylor May, Apoorva Dhanala, Cassie S Mitchell
 We perform a large-scale meta-analysis of 51 peer-reviewed 3xTg-AD mouse publications to compare Alzheimer's disease (AD) quantitative clinical outcome measures, including amyloid-β (Aβ), total tau, and phosphorylated tau (pTau), with cognitive performance in Morris water maze (MWM) and Novel Object Recognition (NOR). "High" levels of Aβ (Aβ40, Aβ42) showed significant but weak trends with cognitive decline (MWM: slope = 0.336, R2 = 0.149, n = 259, p < 0.001; NOR: slope = 0.156, R2 = 0...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151990/robot-embodied-neuronal-networks-as-an-interactive-model-of-learning
#11
Abraham M Shultz, Sangmook Lee, Mary Guaraldi, Thomas B Shea, Holly C Yanco
Background and Objective: The reductionist approach of neuronal cell culture has been useful for analyses of synaptic signaling. Murine cortical neurons in culture spontaneously form an ex vivo network capable of transmitting complex signals, and have been useful for analyses of several fundamental aspects of neuronal development hitherto difficult to clarify in situ. However, these networks lack the ability to receive and respond to sensory input from the environment as do neurons in vivo...
2017: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150992/accelerated-aging-and-aging-process-in-the-brain
#12
Nickolay K Isaev, Elisaveta E Genrikhs, Maria V Oborina, Elena V Stelmashook
One of the approaches to the research of the problem of aging is the study of genetic pathologies leading to accelerated aging, such as the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Down syndrome. Probably, this approach can be used in an attempt to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying normal and pathological brain aging. The analysis of the current state of scientific knowledge about these pathologies shows that in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndrome, the rate of brain aging is significantly lower than the rate of whole body aging, whereas in Down syndrome, the brain ages faster than other organs due to amyloid-beta accumulation and chronic oxidative stress in the brain tissue...
November 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150274/neuroprotective-potential-of-high-dose-biotin
#13
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
A recent controlled trial has established that high-dose biotin supplementation - 100 mg, three times daily - has a stabilizing effect on progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this effect has been attributed to an optimization of biotin's essential cofactor role in the brain, a case can be made that direct stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by pharmacological concentrations of biotin plays a key role in this regard. The utility of high-dose biotin in MS might reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of cGMP on the cerebral microvasculature, as well on oligodendrocyte differentiation and on Schwann cell production of neurotrophic factors thought to have potential for managing MS...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149631/prostaglandin-j2-promotes-o-glcnacylation-raising-app-processing-by-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-secretases-relevance-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Teneka Jean-Louis, Patricia Rockwell, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira
Regulation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by α- and β-secretases is of special interest to Alzheimer's disease (AD), as these proteases prevent or mediate amyloid beta formation, respectively. Neuroinflammation is also implicated in AD. Our data demonstrate that the endogenous mediator of inflammation prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) promotes full-length APP (FL-APP) processing by α- and β-secretases. The decrease in FL-APP was independent of proteasomal, lysosomal, calpain, caspase, and γ-secretase activities...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146293/andrographolide-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-negatively-regulates-glial-cell-derived-neurodegeneration-of-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampus-and-working-memory-impairment
#15
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143445/glycyrrhiza-uralensis-and-semilicoisoflavone-b-reduce-a%C3%AE-secretion-by-increasing-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-inhibiting-stat3-phosphorylation-to-inhibit-bace1-expression
#16
Ming-Yao Gu, Yoon Sun Chun, Dong Zhao, Ryu Shi Yong, Hyun Ok Yang
SCOPE: Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) has been reported to improve amyloid beta (Aβ) induced cognitive deficits in mice. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect and the components involved have not been previously explored. Extracellular Aβ plaques are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, decreasing Aβ levels is one strategy for preventing the etiology of AD. This study aimed to test the effect of GUE and semilicoisoflavone B (SB) on Aβ secretion and investigate the mechanism underlying this effect...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142509/using-an-nmr-metabolomics-approach-to-investigate-the-pathogenicity-of-amyloid-beta-and-alpha-synuclein
#17
M M Phelan, E Caamaño-Gutiérrez, M S Gant, R X Grosman, J Madine
Introduction: The pathogenicity at differing points along the aggregation pathway of many fibril-forming proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases is unclear. Understanding the effect of different aggregation states of these proteins on cellular processes is essential to enhance understanding of diseases and provide future options for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Objectives: To establish a robust method to probe the metabolic changes of neuronal cells and use it to monitor cellular response to challenge with three amyloidogenic proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases in different aggregation states...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142396/antioxidant-and-cholinesterase-inhibitory-activities-of-ethyl-acetate-extract-of-terminalia-chebula-cell-free-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#18
Mohamed Asik Rajmohamed, Suganthy Natarajan, Premkumar Palanisamy, Akbarsha Mohammad Abdulkader, Archunan Govindaraju
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by memory loss and impaired cognitive function. Cholinergic enzyme deficiency and oxidative stress are the two major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The symptomatic treatment, as of now, is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors toward cholinergic "downturn." Therefore, there is a search for compounds that will be useful in focused therapies. There has been suggestion that Terminalia chebula fruit would be a potential source...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142315/hiv-1-counteracts-an-innate-restriction-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-resulting-in-neurodegeneration
#19
Qingqing Chai, Vladimir Jovasevic, Viacheslav Malikov, Yosef Sabo, Scott Morham, Derek Walsh, Mojgan H Naghavi
While beta-amyloid (Aβ), a classic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, has long been known to be elevated in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected brain, why and how Aβ is produced, along with its contribution to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains ill-defined. Here, we reveal that the membrane-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia, and acts as an innate restriction against HIV-1. APP binds the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, retains it in lipid rafts and blocks HIV-1 virion production and spread...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142143/dha-supplementation-improves-cognitive-function-via-enhancing-a%C3%AE-mediated-autophagy-in-chinese-elderly-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Yan-Ping Zhang, Yinyin Lou, Jing Hu, Rujuan Miao, Fei Ma
BACKGROUND: Higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake is inversely correlated with relative risk of Alzheimer's disease. The potential benefits of DHA supplementation in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have not been fully examined. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess the effect of a 24-month DHA supplementation on cognitive function and amyloid beta (Aβ)-mediated autophagy in elderly subjects with MCI. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Tianjin, China...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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