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Behavioral disorders

Pietro Muratori, Simone Pisano, Annarita Milone, Gabriele Masi
BACKGROUND: The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), (high scores in Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior subscales), has been related to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation in children and adolescents. Our aim is to evaluate if it may be associated with auto-aggression in youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Method In 72 consecutively referred youths with ODD, emotional dysregulation was assessed with the CBCL-DP, auto-aggression and physical aggression against other persons with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Isabelle E Bauer, Martin Hautzinger, Thomas D Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are common features of bipolar disorder (BD). Not much is, however, known about the potential moderator effects of these factors on the outcome of talking therapies. The goal of our study was to explore whether learning and memory abilities predict risk of recurrence of mood episodes or interact with a psychological intervention. METHOD: We analyzed data collected as part of a clinical trial evaluating relapse rates following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Therapy (ST) (Meyer and Hautzinger, 2012)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Denise D Walker, Robert S Stephens, Claire E Blevins, Kelsey E Banes, Lauren Matthews, Roger A Roffman
OBJECTIVE: Brief interventions for adolescent marijuana users offered in schools reach users who would not otherwise present for treatment. The current study builds on previous trials of a school-based, 2-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention by adding periodic, brief motivational check-ins to reinforce gains and bolster motivation. METHOD: Adolescent participants were randomly assigned to a motivational check-in (MCI; n = 128) or assessment-only check-in (ACI; n = 124) comparison condition...
November 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Byeongchan Lee, Geun Woo Lee
Liquid-liquid transitions under high pressure are found in many elemental materials, but the transitions are known to be associated with either sp-valent materials or f-valent rare-earth elements, in which the maximum or a negative slope in the melting line is readily suggestive of the transition. Here we find a liquid-liquid transition with a positive melting slope in transition metal Ti from structural, electronic, and thermodynamic studies using ab-initio molecular dynamics calculations, showing diffusion anomaly, but no density anomaly...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Catherine R Glenn, Elizabeth C Lanzillo, Erika C Esposito, Angela C Santee, Matthew K Nock, Randy P Auerbach
Suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) among youth are major public health concerns. Although a growing body of research has focused on the complex association between nonsuicidal and suicidal self-injury, the temporal relationship between these two classes of behaviors is unclear. The current study addresses this empirical gap by examining the course of SITBs in adolescents receiving outpatient (N = 106; 82.1 % female) and inpatient (N = 174; 75.9 % female) treatment. SITBs (co-occurrence, age-of-onset, and time lag between SITBs) and major psychiatric disorders were assessed at a single time point with well-validated structured interviews...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Christine N El Ouardani
Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Julia F Sowislo, Claudia Lange, Sebastian Euler, Henning Hachtel, Marc Walter, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Christian G Huber
Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent...
October 19, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Aristide Merola, Alberto Romagnolo, Laura Rizzi, Mario Giorgio Rizzone, Maurizio Zibetti, Michele Lanotte, George Mandybur, Andrew P Duker, Alberto J Espay, Leonardo Lopiano
To determine the clinical and demographic correlates of persistent, remitting, and new-onset impulse control behaviors (ICBs) before and after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared the pre- and post-surgical prevalence of ICBs, classified as impulse control disorders (ICD), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), and punding in 150 consecutive PD STN-DBS-treated patients and determined the association with motor, cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric endpoints...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Liat Helpman, Marie-France Marin, Santiago Papini, Xi Zhu, Gregory M Sullivan, Franklin Schneier, Mariana Neria, Erel Shvil, Maria Josefa Malaga Aragon, John C Markowitz, Martin A Lindquist, Tor Wager, Mohammad Milad, Yuval Neria
BACKGROUND: Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate fear processing impairments in the maintenance of the disorder. Specific deficits in extinction recall, the retention of learned extinction, have been demonstrated. While deficient extinction recall, and the associated activation pattern of prefrontal and hippocampal regions, distinguishes individuals with PTSD from controls, research has not yet examined changes following treatment. We examined the behavioral and neural correlates of extinction recall before and after cognitive behavioral treatment of PTSD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Rachel Scalzo, Tonya N Davis
Providing noncontingent access to a stimulus until an individual displays behavioral indicators of satiation has been used to determine when an abolishing operation is in effect, but there has been variation in its application in the literature. Four males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with tangibly maintained challenging behavior participated in this study. Individualized behavioral indicators were identified and verified to determine when each participant was finished playing with his/her preferred item...
October 18, 2016: Behavior Modification
Paul L Plener, Marc Allroggen, Nestor D Kapusta, Elmar Brähler, Jörg M Fegert, Rebecca C Groschwitz
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a proposed new "condition for further study" in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. METHODS: A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 %) completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Sebastian Kwiatkowski, Barbara Dołęgowska, Ewa Kwiatkowska, Rafał Rzepka, Andrzej Torbè, Magdalena Bednarek-Jędrzejek
Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction are two separate disease entities that, according to numerous reports, share the same pathogenesis. In both, angiogenesis disorders and generalized inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we hypothesized that both diseases demonstrate the same profile in early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction patients, with the only difference being the degree of exacerbation of lesions. One hundred sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and divided into four groups: early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction groups, and one control group...
2016: PloS One
Hugo Martínez-Rojano, María Luisa Pizano-Zárate, Bernarda Sánchez-Jiménez, Reyna Sámano, Armando López-Portillo
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity in Mexican children has increased during the last decade, as has the risk of early onset metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association ofAcantosis nigricans (AN)with dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and risk factors related to eating behavior in overweight and obese children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This transverse analytical study, conducted in two Mexico City primary schools, included 300 boys and girls...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Roxann Diez Gross, Ronit Gisser, Gregory Cherpes, Katie Hartman, Rishi Maheshwary
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is caused by a genetic imprinting abnormality resulting from the lack of expression of the paternal genes at 15q11-q13. Intellectual disability, low muscle tone, and life-threatening hyperphagia are hallmarks of the phenotype. The need for the Heimlich maneuver, death from choking, and pulmonary infection occur in a disproportionally high number of persons with PWS. The widely held belief is that eating behaviors are responsible for choking and aspiration; yet, no investigation had sought to determine if swallowing impairments were present in persons with PWS...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Flavia Petrini, Ida Di Giacinto, Rita Cataldo, Clelia Esposito, Vittorio Pavoni, Paolo Donato, Antonella Trolio, Guido Merli, Massimiliano Sorbello, Paolo Pelosi
Proper management of obese patients requires a team vision and appropriate behaviors by all health care providers in hospital. Specialist competencies are fundamental, as are specific clinical pathways and good clinical practices designed to deal with patients whose body mass index is ≥30 kg/m2. Standards of care for bariatric and non-bariatric surgery and for the critical care management of this population exist but are not well defined nor clearly followed in every hospital. Thus every anesthesiologist is likely to deal with this challenging population...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Amir A Afkhami
The world is currently in the midst of the largest refugee crisis since World War II, with the highest interval of mass displacement in recorded history according to the United Nations. The United States has pledged to maintain its position as one of the world's top resettlement countries in response to this crisis. These new immigrants will arrive with exceptional chronic and acute medical needs, including higher rates of behavioral health disorders. The author describes the health care challenges experienced by refugees seeking asylum in the United States and outlines the ways in which our health care system is currently deficient in helping refugee patients to overcome these challenges...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Ke-Wei Tian, Fan Zhang, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS), and results in CNS inflammation and damage to myelin. In this study, we examined the possible synergistic effects of C16, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2) in alleviating inflammation in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We employed multiple histological, morphological and iconographic assays to examine the effect of those drugs on disease onset, clinical scores and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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