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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441678/the-addiction-recovery-clinic-a-novel-primary-care-based-approach-to-teaching-addiction-medicine
#1
Stephen R Holt, Nora Segar, Dana A Cavallo, Jeanette M Tetrault
PROBLEM: Substance use is highly prevalent in the United States, but little time in the curriculum is devoted to training internal medicine residents in addiction medicine. APPROACH: In 2014, the authors developed and launched the Addiction Recovery Clinic (ARC) to address this educational gap while also providing outpatient clinical services to patients with substance use disorders. The ARC is embedded within the residency primary care practice and is staffed by three to four internal medicine residents, two board-certified addiction medicine specialists, one chief resident, and one psychologist...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441620/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-is-effective-in-misophonia-an-open-trial
#2
Arjan E Schröder, Nienke C Vulink, Arnoud J van Loon, Damiaan A Denys
BACKGROUND: Misophonia is a psychiatric disorder in which ordinary human sounds like smacking or chewing provoke intense anger and disgust. Despite the high burden of this condition, to date there is no evidence-based treatment available. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and investigated whether clinical or demographic characteristics predicted treatment response. METHODS: Ninety patients with misophonia received eight bi-weekly group CBT sessions...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441585/assessing-the-latent-structure-of-dsm-5-ptsd-among-chinese-adolescents-after-the-ya-an-earthquake
#3
Xiao Zhou, Xinchun Wu, Rui Zhen
To examine the underlying substructure of DSM-5 PTSD in an adolescent sample, this study used a confirmatory factor analysis alternative model approach to assess 813 adolescents two and a half years after the Ya'an earthquake. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The results found that the seven-factor hybrid PTSD model entailing intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal had significantly better fit indices than other alternative models...
April 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441394/maternal-obese-type-gut-microbiota-differentially-impact-cognition-anxiety-and-compulsive-behavior-in-male-and-female-offspring-in-mice
#4
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, R Leigh Townsend, Claudia Kruger, Richard Carmouche, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441121/an-exploratory-evaluation-of-the-feasibility-acceptability-and-efficacy-of-the-mental-fitness-disordered-eating-program-in-schools
#5
Christina N Anderson, Kyle J Holody, Mark A Flynn, Robyn Hussa-Farrell
The present study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a tiered professional development disordered eating prevention program. A pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design assessed elementary and junior high school faculty and staff's disordered eating knowledge and attitudes. Findings indicate participants experienced increased awareness of students' susceptibility to and the severity of disordered eating, increased self-efficacy about referring students to appropriate resources, and overall perceived acceptability of the training...
May 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441119/comparable-efficacy-of-behavioral-and-pharmacological-treatments-among-african-american-and-white-cocaine-users
#6
LaTrice Montgomery, Kathleen M Carroll
Multiple randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have evaluated a range of treatments for cocaine dependence, but few of these have focused specifically on the racial diversity observed among cocaine-dependent patients. The present analyses evaluated racial variation in cocaine use and addiction-related psychosocial outcomes at baseline and follow-up among 388 African American and White adults participating in 1 of 5 RCTs evaluating a range of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for cocaine use disorders. General linear modeling (GLM) indicated significant racial variation in cocaine and psychosocial indicators at baseline...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441041/the-child-network-for-parents-to-track-their-child-s-mood-and-behavior
#7
Robert M Post, Michael Rowe, Dana Kaplan, Robert Findling
INTRODUCTION: A wide range of psychiatric disorders are common in young children, especially in those at high risk because of a parent with a unipolar or bipolar mood disorder in the United States. Yet in part because most children are seen in primary care, these illnesses are often not recognized or treated in a timely fashion. To begin to address this problem, we started the Child Network. METHODS: The Child Network is for parents of children age 2-12 with mood or behavioral symptoms or at high risk for them...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440861/findings-from-the-families-on-track-intervention-pilot-trial-for-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-and-their-families
#8
Christie L M Petrenko, Mary E Pandolfino, Luther K Robinson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for costly, debilitating mental health problems and secondary conditions, such as school disruption, trouble with the law, and substance use. The study objective was to pilot a multi-component intervention designed to prevent secondary conditions in children with FASD and improve family adaptation. METHODS: Thirty children with FASD or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) (ages 4 to 8) and their primary caregivers were enrolled...
April 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440699/effect-of-treatments-for-depression-on-quality-of-life-a-meta-analysis
#9
Stefan G Hofmann, Joshua Curtiss, Joseph K Carpenter, Shelley Kind
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the two first-line treatments for depression, but little is known about their effects on quality of life (QOL). A meta-analysis was conducted to examine changes in QOL in adults with major depressive disorder who received CBT (24 studies examining 1969 patients) or SSRI treatment (13 studies examining 4286 patients) for their depression. Moderate improvements in QOL from pre to post-treatment were observed in both CBT (Hedges' g = ...
April 25, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440477/synchronized-dual-pulse-gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-gastric-emptying-and-activates-enteric-glial-cells-via-upregulation-of-gfap-and-s100b-with-different-courses-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-in-rats
#10
Nian Wang, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Previous research and clinical practice have indicated that damage to the vagal nerve may seriously affect gastrointestinal physiological movement behavior. The aim of the current study was to observe the change of gastric motility, as well as enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the stomach with different courses of vagal nerve transection in rats prior to and following synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation. The gastric emptying rates were measured to assess the gastric motility. The glial markers, containing calcium binding protein (S100B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double‑labeling immunofluorescence analysis...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439762/sex-differences-in-obesity-and-mental-health
#11
REVIEW
Jena Shaw Tronieri, Courtney McCuen Wurst, Rebecca L Pearl, Kelly C Allison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships between obesity and a wide range of mental health issues and to identify where sex differences exist and may vary across disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on sex differences in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders is more abundant in some areas, such as depression and eating disorders, than others, such as anxiety, trauma, and substance use. However, for most of the disorders, their relationships with obesity and sex are complex and are usually moderated by additional variables...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439605/effectiveness-of-a-preparatory-aid-in-facilitating-oral-assessment-in-a-group-of-saudi-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-central-saudi-arabia
#12
Ebtissam Z Murshid
To evaluate the effectiveness of a specially-designed dental book (preparatory aid) on the behavior of a group of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Saudi children during their first dental visit to the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional double-blinded pre-and post clinical study consisting of 2 parts; a survey targeting the parents, and a clinical oral examination of their ASD children was conducted between January and June of 2016.  Results: A total of 40 children (75% males and 25% females) with an average age of 6...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439228/from-engrams-to-pathologies-of-the-brain
#13
REVIEW
Christine A Denny, Evan Lebois, Steve Ramirez
Memories are the experiential threads that tie our past to the present. The biological realization of a memory is termed an engram-the enduring biochemical and physiological processes that enable learning and retrieval. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of engram research that suggests we are closing in on boundary conditions for what qualifies as the physical manifestation of memory. In this review, we provide a brief history of engram research, followed by an overview of the many rodent models available to probe memory with intersectional strategies that have yielded unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution over defined sets of cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439100/ventral-striatal-regulation-of-crem-mediates-impulsive-action-and-drug-addiction-vulnerability
#14
M L Miller, Y Ren, H Szutorisz, N A Warren, C Tessereau, G Egervari, A Mlodnicka, M Kapoor, B Chaarani, C V Morris, G Schumann, H Garavan, A M Goate, M J Bannon, J M Halperin, Y L Hurd
Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat model, we demonstrate that impulsive animals are neurochemically and behaviorally more sensitive to heroin and exhibit reduced Crem expression in the nucleus accumbens core...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438992/microglial-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-tnf%C3%AE-hyperactivation-induces-obsessive-compulsive-behavior-in-mouse-models-of-progranulin-deficient-frontotemporal-dementia
#15
Grietje Krabbe, S Sakura Minami, Jon I Etchegaray, Praveen Taneja, Biljana Djukic, Dimitrios Davalos, David Le, Iris Lo, Lihong Zhan, Meredith C Reichert, Faten Sayed, Mario Merlini, Michael E Ward, David C Perry, Suzee E Lee, Ana Sias, Christopher N Parkhurst, Wen-Biao Gan, Katerina Akassoglou, Bruce L Miller, Robert V Farese, Li Gan
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common dementia before 65 years of age. Haploinsufficiency in the progranulin (GRN) gene accounts for 10% of all cases of familial FTD. GRN mutation carriers have an increased risk of autoimmune disorders, accompanied by elevated levels of tissue necrosis factor (TNF) α. We examined behavioral alterations related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the role of TNFα and related signaling pathways in FTD patients with GRN mutations and in mice lacking progranulin (PGRN)...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438970/the-severity-of-vestibular-dysfunction-in-deafness-as-a-determinant-of-comorbid-hyperactivity-or-anxiety
#16
Michelle W Antoine, Sarath Vijayakumar, Nicholas McKeehan, Sherri M Jones, Jean M Hébert
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety-related disorders occur at rates 2-3 times higher in deaf compared with hearing children. Potential explanations for these elevated rates and the heterogeneity of behavioral disorders associated with deafness have usually focused on socio-environmental rather than biological effects. Children with the 22q11.2 deletion or duplication syndromes often display hearing loss and behavioral disorders including ADHD and anxiety-related disorders. Here, we show that mouse mutants with either a gain- or loss-of-function of the T-Box transcription factor gene, Tbx1, which lies within the 22q11...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438638/adenosine-a2a-receptor-modulates-neuroimmune-function-through-th17-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-gamma-t-ror%C3%AE-t-signaling-in-a-btbr-t-itpr3-tf-j-mouse-model-of-autism
#17
Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Sabry M Attia, Saleh A Bakheet, Raish Mohammad, Sheikh F Ahmad
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal social interactions, repetitive behaviors that impair social communication, and circumscribed interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice are generally used as a model for ASD, as they show repetitive behaviors and social deficits that resemble signs of ADS in humans. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are considered as potential targets in the treatment of immune, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on behavior (self-grooming), hot plate test results, and expression levels of IL-17A(+), RORγt(+), Foxp3(+), and IL-10(+) in CD4(+) T spleen cells in BTBR and C57BL/6 (B6) mice...
April 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438513/rapid-response-impulsivity-predicts-depression-and-ptsd-symptomatology-at-1-year-follow-up-in-blast-exposed-service-members
#18
James M Bjork, Thomas K Burroughs, Laura M Franke, Treven C Pickett, Sade E Johns, F Gerard Moeller, William C Walker
OBJECTIVE: To determine if elevated rapid-response impulsivity following blast exposure (as a putative marker of ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) damage) is predictive of future elevated affective symptomatology in blast-exposed service members. DESIGN: Longitudinal design with neurocognitive testing at initial assessment and one-year follow-up assessment of psychiatric symptomatology by telephone interview. SETTING: Veterans Administration medical centers and post-deployment assessment centers at military bases...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438413/functional-redundancy-between-canonical-endocannabinoid-signaling-systems-in-the-modulation-of-anxiety
#19
Gaurav Bedse, Nolan D Hartley, Emily Neale, Andrew D Gaulden, Toni A Patrick, Philip J Kingsley, Md Jashim Uddin, Niels Plath, Lawrence J Marnett, Sachin Patel
BACKGROUND: Increasing the available repertoire of effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders represents a critical unmet need. Pharmacological augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been suggested to represent a novel approach to the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, the functional interactions between two canonical eCB pathways mediated via anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamine [AEA]) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of anxiety are not well understood...
March 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438238/behavioral-activation-versus-cognitive-restructuring-to-reduce-automatic-negative-thoughts-in-anxiety-generating-situations
#20
Elvira Nieto Fernández, Jorge Barraca Mairal
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have compared the efficacy of cognitive intervention compared to behavioral techniques for the treatment of different disorders. In line with that work, the empirical study presented here examined the efficacy of Behavioral Activation (BA) and Cognitive Therapy (CT) on Negative Automatic Thoughts (PANs) elicited in situations generating anxiety. METHOD: Based on a sample of 42 students aged 18 to 21 who took the ISRA B, BADS and EROS, 18 subjects with the highest scores were selected and assigned at random to one of two experimental groups or to a control group...
May 2017: Psicothema
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