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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926920/infants-looking-to-surprising-events-when-eye-tracking-reveals-more-than-looking-time
#1
H Henny Yeung, Stephanie Denison, Scott P Johnson
Research on infants' reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds' gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923277/reaction-time-for-processing-visual-stimulus-in-a-computer-assisted-rehabilitation-environment
#2
Yerly Sanchez, David Pinzon, Bin Zheng
PURPOSE: To examine the reaction time when human subjects process information presented in the visual channel under both a direct vision and a virtual rehabilitation environment when walking was performed. METHOD: Visual stimulus included eight math problems displayed on the peripheral vision to seven healthy human subjects in a virtual rehabilitation training (computer-assisted rehabilitation environment (CAREN)) and a direct vision environment. Subjects were required to verbally report the results of these math calculations in a short period of time...
December 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922659/eye-movement-analysis-and-cognitive-assessment-the-use-of-comparative-visual-search-tasks-in-a-non-immersive-vr-application
#3
Pedro J Rosa, Pedro Gamito, Jorge Oliveira, Diogo Morais, Matthew Pavlovic, Olivia Smyth, Inês Maia, Tiago Gomes
BACKGROUND: An adequate behavioral response depends on attentional and mnesic processes. When these basic cognitive functions are impaired, the use of non-immersive Virtual Reality Applications (VRAs) can be a reliable technique for assessing the level of impairment. However, most non-immersive VRAs use indirect measures to make inferences about visual attention and mnesic processes (e.g., time to task completion, error rate). OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the eye movement analysis through eye tracking (ET) can be a reliable method to probe more effectively where and how attention is deployed and how it is linked with visual working memory during comparative visual search tasks (CVSTs) in non-immersive VRAs...
December 6, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922541/effects-of-the-5-ht1a-receptor-agonists-buspirone-and-8-oh-dpat-on-pupil-size-in-common-marmosets
#4
Manato Kotani, Naoko Urushino, Itaru Natsutani, Yuji Ogi, Kazuhito Ikeda
As pupil size is affected by psychotropic drugs in all mammals, it has been used as a well-established clinical indicator for the preclinical and clinical development of novel drugs. It has been reported that activation of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor differently affects pupil response in rodents (mydriasis) and humans (miosis). Thus, it is important to establish a quantitative system for measuring pupil size using other species, such as nonhuman primates. Common marmosets have recently attracted a great deal of attention as suitable experimental animals in the psychoneurological field because of handling ease compared with other nonhuman primates and the requirement for small amounts of test drugs...
December 2, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921322/the-heterophoria-of-3-5-year-old-children-as-a-function-of-viewing-distance-and-target-type
#5
Mary E Troyer, Vidhyapriya Sreenivasan, T J Peper, T Rowan Candy
PURPOSE: Heterophoria is the misalignment of the eyes in monocular viewing and represents the accuracy of vergence driven by all classical cues except disparity. It is challenging to assess restless children using clinical cover tests, and phoria in early childhood is poorly understood. Here we used eye tracking to assess phoria as a function of viewing distance and target in adults and young children, with comparison to clinical cover tests. METHODS: Purkinje image tracking (MCS PowerRefractor) was used to record eye alignment in adults (19-28 years, N = 24) and typically developing children (3-5 years, N = 24)...
December 5, 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920732/the-ipad-as-a-research-tool-for-the-understanding-of-english-plurals-by-english-chinese-and-other-l1-speaking-3-and-4-year-olds
#6
Nan Xu Rattanasone, Benjamin Davies, Tamara Schembri, Fabia Andronos, Katherine Demuth
Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919697/apes-submentalise
#7
Cecilia Heyes
Making subtle and extensive use of eye-tracking technology, Krupenye and colleagues showed that, like human infants, great apes - chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans - can accurately anticipate the goal-directed behaviour of an agent that holds a false belief. How do they do it, by mentalising or by submentalising?
December 2, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917105/eeg-negativity-in-fixations-used-for-gaze-based-control-toward-converting-intentions-into-actions-with-an-eye-brain-computer-interface
#8
Sergei L Shishkin, Yuri O Nuzhdin, Evgeny P Svirin, Alexander G Trofimov, Anastasia A Fedorova, Bogdan L Kozyrskiy, Boris M Velichkovsky
We usually look at an object when we are going to manipulate it. Thus, eye tracking can be used to communicate intended actions. An effective human-machine interface, however, should be able to differentiate intentional and spontaneous eye movements. We report an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker that differentiates gaze fixations used for control from spontaneous fixations involved in visual exploration. Eight healthy participants played a game with their eye movements only. Their gaze-synchronized EEG data (fixation-related potentials, FRPs) were collected during game's control-on and control-off conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916689/the-moderating-influence-of-heart-rate-variability-on-stressor-elicited-change-in-pupillary-and-attentional-indices-of-emotional-processing-an-eye-tracking-study
#9
Richard J Macatee, Brian J Albanese, Norman B Schmidt, Jesse R Cougle
Low resting heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with a broad array of negative psychosocial outcomes. Recent theoretical explications of HRV suggest it is an autonomic marker of emotion regulation capacity, but limited research has examined its relationship with emotional information processing indices. The present study utilized eye-tracking methodology to test HRV's theorized role as a marker of emotion regulation capacity in a non-clinical sample. Attentional biases towards threatening, dysphoric, and positive emotional information as well as affective modulation of pupil size were assessed before and after a stress induction...
December 1, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914318/older-adults-attentional-deployment-differential-gaze-patterns-for-different-negative-mood-states
#10
Ineke Demeyer, Alvaro Sanchez, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Older adults are characterized by an attentional preference for positive over negative information. Since this positivity effect is considered to be an emotion regulation strategy, it should be more pronounced when emotion regulation is needed. In contrast to previous studies that focused on the effects of sad mood on attention, we used a stressor to activate emotion regulation and evaluate the effects of different types of mood state changes. Moreover, we evaluated mood effects on attentional processes using a paradigm that allows disentangling between different attentional engagement and disengagement processes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909418/risk-and-ambiguity-in-information-seeking-eye-gaze-patterns-reveal-contextual-behavior-in-dealing-with-uncertainty
#11
Peter Wittek, Ying-Hsang Liu, Sándor Darányi, Tom Gedeon, Ik Soo Lim
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905070/visual-speech-influences-speech-perception-immediately-but-not-automatically
#12
Holger Mitterer, Eva Reinisch
Two experiments examined the time course of the use of auditory and visual speech cues to spoken word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. Results of the first experiment showed that the use of visual speech cues from lipreading is reduced if concurrently presented pictures require a division of attentional resources. This reduction was evident even when listeners' eye gaze was on the speaker rather than the (static) pictures. Experiment 2 used a deictic hand gesture to foster attention to the speaker...
November 30, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904469/corrigendum-method-for-improving-eeg-based-emotion-recognition-by-combining-it-with-synchronized-biometric-and-eye-tracking-technologies-in-a-non-invasive-and-low-cost-way
#13
Juan-Miguel López-Gil, Jordi Virgili-Gomá, Rosa Gil, Teresa Guilera, Iolanda Batalla, Jorge Soler-González, Roberto García
[This corrects the article on p. 85 in vol. 10, PMID: 27594831.].
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895563/the-attentional-dependence-of-emotion-cognition-is-variable-with-the-competing-task
#14
Cheng Chen, Kaibin Jin, Yehua Li, Hongmei Yan
The relationship between emotion and attention has fascinated researchers for decades. Many previous studies have used eye-tracking, ERP, MEG, and fMRI to explore this issue but have reached different conclusions: some researchers hold that emotion cognition is an automatic process and independent of attention, while some others believed that emotion cognition is modulated by attentional resources and is a type of controlled processing. The present research aimed to investigate this controversy, and we hypothesized that the attentional dependence of emotion cognition is variable with the competing task...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893991/saclab-a-toolbox-for-saccade-analysis-to-increase-usability-of-eye-tracking-systems-in-clinical-ophthalmology-practice
#15
Laura Cercenelli, Guido Tiberi, Ivan Corazza, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Michela Fresina, Emanuela Marcelli
PURPOSE: Many open source software packages have been recently developed to expand the usability of eye tracking systems to study oculomotor behavior, but none of these is specifically designed to encompass all the main functions required for creating eye tracking tests and for providing the automatic analysis of saccadic eye movements. The aim of this study is to introduce SacLab, an intuitive, freely-available MATLAB toolbox based on Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) that we have developed to increase the usability of the ViewPoint EyeTracker (Arrington Research, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) in clinical ophthalmology practice...
November 22, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893894/face-exploration-dynamics-differentiate-men-and-women
#16
Antoine Coutrot, Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
The human face is central to our everyday social interactions. Recent studies have shown that while gazing at faces, each one of us has a particular eye-scanning pattern, highly stable across time. Although variables such as culture or personality have been shown to modulate gaze behavior, we still don't know what shapes these idiosyncrasies. Moreover, most previous observations rely on static analyses of small-sized eye-position data sets averaged across time. Here, we probe the temporal dynamics of gaze to explore what information can be extracted about the observers and what is being observed...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893769/assessing-visual-fields-in-patients-with-retinitis-pigmentosa-using-a-novel-microperimeter-with-eye-tracking-the-mp-3
#17
Nozomi Igarashi, Masato Matsuura, Yohei Hashimoto, Kazunori Hirasawa, Hiroshi Murata, Tatsuya Inoue, Obata Ryo, Makoto Aihara, Ryo Asaoka
PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reproducibility of visual fields (VFs) measured with the MP-3 microperimeter, in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHOD: VFs were twice measured with the MP-3 and also the Humphrey Field Analyzer, using the 10-2 test grid pattern in both perimeters, in 30 eyes (15 right and 15 left eyes) of 18 RP patients (11 males and 7 females). Test-retest reproducibility was assessed using the mean absolute deviation (MAD) measure at all 68 points in the test grid...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892641/the-effect-of-illustration-on-improving-text-comprehension-in-dyslexic-adults
#18
Mona Holmqvist Olander, Eva Wennås Brante, Marcus Nyström
This study analyses the effect of pictures in reading materials on the viewing patterns of dyslexic adults. By analysing viewing patterns using eye-tracking, we captured differences in eye movements between young adults with dyslexia and controls based on the influence of reading skill as a continuous variable of the total sample. Both types of participants were assigned randomly to view either text-only or a text + picture stimuli. The results show that the controls made an early global overview of the material and (when a picture was present) rapid transitions between text and picture...
November 28, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891819/autism-and-emotional-face-viewing
#19
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Daniel Hovey, Nicole Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other...
November 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888690/exploring-socioeconomic-differences-in-syntactic-development-through-the-lens-of-real-time-processing
#20
Yi Ting Huang, Kathryn Leech, Meredith L Rowe
Differences in caregiver input across socioeconomic status (SES) predict syntactic development, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Input effects may reflect the exposure needed to acquire syntactic representations during learning (e.g., does the child have the relevant structures for passive sentences?) or access this knowledge during communication (e.g., can she use the past participle to infer the meaning of passives?). Using an eye-tracking and act-out paradigm, the current study distinguishes these mechanisms by comparing the interpretation of actives and passives in 3- to 7-year-olds (n=129) from varying SES backgrounds...
November 23, 2016: Cognition
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