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Jana Annina Müller, Dorothea Wendt, Birger Kollmeier, Thomas Brand
The aim of this study was to validate a procedure for performing the audio-visual paradigm introduced by Wendt et al. (2015) with reduced practical challenges. The original paradigm records eye fixations using an eye tracker and calculates the duration of sentence comprehension based on a bootstrap procedure. In order to reduce practical challenges, we first reduced the measurement time by evaluating a smaller measurement set with fewer trials. The results of 16 listeners showed effects comparable to those obtained when testing the original full measurement set on a different collective of listeners...
2016: PloS One
Yonggang Wang, Mengyang Xin, Han Bai, Yangdong Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between variations in visual behavior measures and subjective sleepiness levels across age groups over time to determine a quantitative method of measuring drivers' sleepiness levels. METHOD: A total of 128 volunteer drivers in four age groups were asked to finish 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h continuous driving tasks on expressways, during which the driver's fixation, saccade and blink measures were recorded by an eye-tracking system and the subjective sleepiness level was measured through the Stanford Sleepiness Scale...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Hong Fu, Ying Wei, Francesco Camastra, Pietro Arico, Hong Sheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Emma Sumner, Samuel B Hutton, Gustav Kuhn, Elisabeth L Hill
Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) fail to acquire adequate motor skill, yet surprisingly little is known about the oculomotor system in DCD. Successful completion of motor tasks is supported by accurate visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any oculomotor differences can distinguish between children with and without a motor impairment. Using eye tracking technology, visual fixation, smooth pursuit, and pro- and anti-saccade performance were assessed in 77 children that formed three groups: children with DCD (aged 7-10), chronologically age (CA) matched peers, and a motor-match (MM) group (aged 4-7)...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Debra Jared, Katrina O'Donnell
We examined whether highly skilled adult readers activate the meanings of high-frequency words using phonology when reading sentences for meaning. A homophone-error paradigm was used. Sentences were written to fit 1 member of a homophone pair, and then 2 other versions were created in which the homophone was replaced by its mate or a spelling-control word. The error words were all high-frequency words, and the correct homophones were either higher-frequency words or low-frequency words-that is, the homophone errors were either the subordinate or dominant member of the pair...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Yuka Morita, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Shuji Izumi, Yamato Kubota, Shinsuke Ohshima, Arata Horii
OBJECTIVE: Otitis media (OM) with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (OMAAV) is a novel concept of ear disease that is characterized by progressive mixed or sensorineural hearing loss with occasional systemic involvement. Considering the accumulating knowledge about the characteristics of and treatment for auditory dysfunction in OMAAV, the objective of this study was to investigate the vestibular function and symptoms of patients with OMAAV. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review...
September 30, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Morganne A Kraines, Lucas J A Kelberer, Tony T Wells
Research demonstrates that women experience disgust more readily and with more intensity than men. The experience of disgust is associated with increased attention to disgust-related stimuli, but no prior study has examined sex differences in attention to disgust facial expressions. We hypothesised that women, compared to men, would demonstrate increased attention to disgust facial expressions. Participants (n = 172) completed an eye tracking task to measure visual attention to emotional facial expressions...
October 15, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Wolfgang Fuhl, Thiago Santini, Carsten Reichert, Daniel Claus, Alois Herkommer, Hamed Bahmani, Katharina Rifai, Siegfried Wahl, Enkelejda Kasneci
Modern microsurgery is a long and complex task requiring the surgeon to handle multiple microscope controls while performing the surgery. Eye tracking provides an additional means of interaction for the surgeon that could be used to alleviate this situation, diminishing surgeon fatigue and surgery time, thus decreasing risks of infection and human error. In this paper, we introduce a novel algorithm for pupil detection tailored for eye images acquired through an unmodified microscope ocular. The proposed approach, the Hough transform, and six state-of-the-art pupil detection algorithms were evaluated on over 4000 hand-labeled images acquired from a digital operating microscope with a non-intrusive monitoring system for the surgeon eyes integrated...
October 7, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Satoko Hisanaga, Kaoru Sekiyama, Tomohiko Igasaki, Nobuki Murayama
Several behavioural studies have shown that the interplay between voice and face information in audiovisual speech perception is not universal. Native English speakers (ESs) are influenced by visual mouth movement to a greater degree than native Japanese speakers (JSs) when listening to speech. However, the biological basis of these group differences is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the time-varying processes of group differences in terms of event-related brain potentials (ERP) and eye gaze for audiovisual and audio-only speech perception...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mari Videman, Susanna Stjerna, Reina Roivainen, Taina Nybo, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Eija Gaily, Jukka M Leppänen
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and autism spectrum disorders detected mainly at the age of two to six years. We examined whether the developmental aberrations associated with prenatal AED exposure could be detected already in infancy and whether effects on visual attention can be observed at this early age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared a prospective cohort of infants with in utero exposure to AED (n=56) with infants without drug exposures (n=62)...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Seon-Kyeong Jang, Sujin Kim, Chai-Youn Kim, Hyeon-Seung Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
Severe emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression have been closely related to aberrant attentional processing of emotional stimuli. However, this has been little studied in schizophrenia, which is also characterized by marked emotional impairments such as heightened negative affect and anhedonia. In the current study, we investigated temporal dynamics of motivated attention to emotional stimuli in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we tracked eye movements of 22 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (ISZs) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional (i...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Ziho Kang, Saptarshi Mandal, Jerry Crutchfield, Angel Millan, Sarah N McClung
Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1) participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2) visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1) developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs) in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2) introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT) that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3) finding a near optimal AGT value...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Xuedong Yan, Xinran Zhang, Yuting Zhang, Xiaomeng Li, Zhuo Yang
The intersection field of view (IFOV) indicates an extent that the visual information can be observed by drivers. It has been found that further enhancing IFOV can significantly improve emergent collision avoidance performance at intersections, such as faster brake reaction time, smaller deceleration rate, and lower traffic crash involvement risk. However, it is not known how IFOV affects drivers' eye movements, visual attention and the relationship between visual searching and traffic safety. In this study, a driving simulation experiment was conducted to uncover the changes in drivers' visual performance during the collision avoidance process as a function of different field of views at an intersection by using an eye tracking system...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Umbricht, Marta Del Valle Rubido, Eric Hollander, James T McCracken, Frederick Shic, Lawrence Scahill, Jana Noeldeke, Lauren Boak, Omar Khwaja, Lisa Squassante, Christophe Grundschober, Heidemarie Kletzl, Paulo Fontoura
The core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) include impaired social communication, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. No effective pharmacotherapy for these core deficits exists. Within the domain of social communication, the vasopressin system is implicated in social cognition and social signaling deficits of ASD, and represents a potential therapeutic target. We assessed the effects of a single 20 mg intravenous dose of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (V1a) antagonist, RG7713, on exploratory biomarkers (eye-tracking), behavioral and clinical measures of social cognition and communication (affective speech recognition [ASR], reading the mind in the eyes [RMET], olfactory identification, scripted interaction), and safety and tolerability in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of 19 high-functioning adult male subjects with DSM-IV Autistic Disorder (age 18-45 years; full scale IQ>70; ABC-Irritability subscale ⩽13)...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Rosa Dolz-Marco, Kenneth Kato, K Bailey Freund, Lawrence A Yannuzzi
PURPOSE: To report a case of unilateral stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) in a young male showing structural changes induced by a Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: Case report of a 26-year-old oboist with SNIFR, including multimodal imaging. Eye-tracked spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to compare the retinal architecture at rest and during a Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed macular and peripapillary retinoschisis with no signs of pathologic myopia, optic pit, or vitreoretinal traction...
August 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Nobu Shirai, Tomoko Imura
The focus of a radial optic flow is a valid visual cue used to perceive and control the heading direction of animals. Gaze patterns in response to the focus of radial optic flow were measured in human infants (N = 100, 4-18 months) and in adults (N = 20) using an eye-tracking technique. Overall, although the adults showed an advantage in detecting the focus of an expansion flow (representing forward locomotion) against that of a contraction flow (representing backward locomotion), infants younger than 1 year showed an advantage in detecting the focus of a contraction flow...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthew B Wall, David Birch, May Y Yong
Neuroimaging experiments can generate impressive volumes of data and many images of the results. This is particularly true of multi-modal imaging studies that use more than one imaging technique, or when imaging is combined with other assessments. A challenge for these studies is appropriate visualisation of results in order to drive insights and guide accurate interpretations. Next-generation visualisation technology therefore has much to offer the neuroimaging community. One example is the Imperial College London Data Observatory; a high-resolution (132 megapixel) arrangement of 64 monitors, arranged in a 313 degree arc, with a 6 metre diameter, powered by 32 rendering nodes...
2016: F1000Research
Paul Roux, Pauline Smith, Christine Passerieux, Franck Ramus
Schizophrenia has been characterized by an impaired mentalizing. It has been suggested that distinguishing implicit from explicit processes is crucial in social cognition, and only the latter might be affected in schizophrenia. Two other questions remain open: (1) Is schizophrenia characterized by an hypo- or hyper attribution of intentions? (2) Is it characterized by a deficit in the attribution of intention or of contingency? To test these three questions, spontaneous mentalizing was tested in 29 individuals with schizophrenia and 29 control subjects using the Frith-Happé animations, while eye movements were recorded...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dina Devyatko, L Gregory Appelbaum, Stephen R Mitroff
Several striking visual phenomena involve a physically present stimulus that alternates between being perceived and being "invisible." For example, motion-induced blindness, the Troxler effect, and perceptual filling-in all consist of subjective alternations where an item repeatedly changes from being seen to unseen. In the present study, we explored whether these three specific visual phenomena share any commonalities in their alternation rates and patterns to better understand the mechanisms of each. Data from 69 individuals revealed moderate to strong correlations across the three phenomena for the number of perceptual disappearances and the accumulated duration of the disappearances...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Neil M Thomas, Theodoros M Bampouras, Tim Donovan, Susan Dewhurst
Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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