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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331093/sensitivity-to-audio-visual-synchrony-and-its-relation-to-language-abilities-in-children-with-and-without-asd
#1
Giulia Righi, Elena J Tenenbaum, Carolyn McCormick, Megan Blossom, Dima Amso, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency...
January 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328135/autostereoscopic-3d-display-system-with-dynamic-fusion-of-the-viewing-zone-under-eye-tracking-principles-setup-and-evaluation-invited
#2
Ki-Hyuk Yoon, Min-Koo Kang, Hwasun Lee, Sung-Kyu Kim
We study optical technologies for viewer-tracked autostereoscopic 3D display (VTA3D), which provides improved 3D image quality and extended viewing range. In particular, we utilize a technique-the so-called dynamic fusion of viewing zone (DFVZ)-for each 3D optical line to realize image quality equivalent to that achievable at optimal viewing distance, even when a viewer is moving in a depth direction. In addition, we examine quantitative properties of viewing zones provided by the VTA3D system that adopted DFVZ, revealing that the optimal viewing zone can be formed at viewer position...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327332/salience-from-multiple-feature-contrast-evidence-from-saccade-trajectories
#3
Luke Tudge, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
We used eye tracking to quantify the extent to which combinations of salient contrasts (orientation, luminance, and movement) influence a central salience map that guides eye movements. We found that luminance combined additively with orientation and movement, suggesting that the salience system processes luminance somewhat independently of the two other features. On the other hand, orientation and movement together influenced salience underadditively, suggesting that these two features are processed nonindependently...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321649/face-size-biases-emotion-judgment-through-eye-movement
#4
Shuo Wang
Faces are the most commonly used stimuli to study emotions. Researchers often manipulate the emotion contents and facial features to study emotion judgment, but rarely manipulate low-level stimulus features such as face sizes. Here, I investigated whether a mere difference in face size would cause differences in emotion judgment. Subjects discriminated emotions in fear-happy morphed faces. When subjects viewed larger faces, they had an increased judgment of fear and showed a higher specificity in emotion judgment, compared to when they viewed smaller faces...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313185/comparing-attention-to-socially-relevant-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-developmental-coordination-disorder
#5
Emma Sumner, Hayley C Leonard, Elisabeth L Hill
Difficulties with social interaction have been reported in both children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), although these disorders have very different diagnostic characteristics. To date, assessment of social skills in a DCD population has been limited to paper-based assessment or parent report. The present study employed eye tracking methodology to examine how children attend to socially-relevant stimuli, comparing 28 children with DCD, 28 children with ASD and 26 typically-developing (TD) age-matched controls (aged 7-10)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305645/free-visual-exploration-of-natural-movies-in-schizophrenia
#6
Johanna Elisa Silberg, Ioannis Agtzidis, Mikhail Startsev, Teresa Fasshauer, Karen Silling, Andreas Sprenger, Michael Dorr, Rebekka Lencer
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking dysfunction (ETD) observed with standard pursuit stimuli represents a well-established biomarker for schizophrenia. How ETD may manifest during free visual exploration of real-life movies is unclear. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded (EyeLink®1000) while 26 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy age-matched controls freely explored nine uncut movies and nine pictures of real-life situations for 20 s each. Subsequently, participants were shown still shots of these scenes to decide whether they had explored them as movies or pictures...
January 5, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304046/eye-tracking-to-explore-attendance-in-health-state-descriptions
#7
Anna Selivanova, Paul F M Krabbe
INTRODUCTION: A crucial assumption in health valuation methods is that respondents pay equal attention to all information components presented in the response task. So far, there is no solid evidence that respondents are fulfilling this condition. The aim of our study is to explore the attendance to various information cues presented in the discrete choice (DC) response tasks. METHODS: Eye tracking was used to study the eye movements and fixations on specific information areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303037/placebo-effects-in-spider-phobia-an-eye-tracking-experiment
#8
Andreas Gremsl, Daniela Schwab, Carina Höfler, Anne Schienle
Several eye-tracking studies have revealed that spider phobic patients show a typical hypervigilance-avoidance pattern when confronted with images of spiders. The present experiment investigated if this pattern can be changed via placebo treatment. We conducted an eye-tracking experiment with 37 women with spider phobia. They looked at picture pairs (a spider paired with a neutral picture) for 7 s each in a retest design: once with and once without a placebo pill presented along with the verbal suggestion that it can reduce phobic symptoms...
January 5, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301667/impaired-value-learning-for-faces-in-preschoolers-with%C3%A2-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Quan Wang, Lauren DiNicola, Perrine Heymann, Michelle Hampson, Katarzyna Chawarska
OBJECTIVE: One of the common findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited selective attention toward social objects, such as faces. Evidence from both human and nonhuman primate studies suggests that selection of objects for processing is guided by the appraisal of object values. We hypothesized that impairments in selective attention in ASD may reflect a disruption of a system supporting learning about object values in the social domain. METHOD: We examined value learning in social (faces) and nonsocial (fractals) domains in preschoolers with ASD (n = 25) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 28), using a novel value learning task implemented on a gaze-contingent eye-tracking platform consisting of value learning and a selective attention choice test...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289658/oxytocin-blurs-the-self-other-distinction-implicitly-but-not-explicitly
#10
Michaela Pfundmair, Anne Rimpel, Korrina Duffy, Clarissa Zwarg
Previous research has shown an inconsistent pattern of how oxytocin (OT) affects the distinction between self and others: whereas one line of studies has revealed that OT blurs the self-other distinction, other studies have not. In an attempt to solve these inconsistencies, we hypothesized that OT blurs the boundary between self and other implicitly but not explicitly. To test this assumption, we used two experimental approaches. After participants intranasally self-administered OT or placebo, they were eye-tracked while conducting a prediction task (Study 1) or they were video-recorded while conducting a distraction task with a human counterpart (Study 2)...
December 28, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289377/treatment-of-paraphilic-disorders-in-sexual-offenders-or-men-with-a-risk-of-sexual-offending-with-luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone-agonists-an-updated-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Daniel Turner, Peer Briken
BACKGROUND: Different pharmacologic agents are used in the treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders or men with a risk of sexual offending, with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists being the agents introduced more recently to treatment regimens. AIM: To summarize the relevant literature concerning LHRH agonist treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders and update the previously published systematic review by Briken et al (J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64:890-897)...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287205/novel-names-extend-for-how-long-preschool-children-sample-visual-information
#12
Paulo F Carvalho, Catarina Vales, Caitlin M Fausey, Linda B Smith
Known words can guide visual attention, affecting how information is sampled. How do novel words, those that do not provide any top-down information, affect preschoolers' visual sampling in a conceptual task? We proposed that novel names can also change visual sampling by influencing how long children look. We investigated this possibility by analyzing how children sample visual information when they hear a sentence with a novel name versus without a novel name. Children completed a match-to-sample task while their moment-to-moment eye movements were recorded using eye-tracking technology...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287204/toddlers-comprehension-of-adult-and-child-talkers-adult-targets-versus-vocal-tract-similarity
#13
Angela Cooper, Natalie Fecher, Elizabeth K Johnson
How do children represent words? If lexical representations are based on encoding the indexical characteristics of frequently-heard speakers, this predicts that speakers like a child's own mother should be best understood. Alternatively, if they are based on the child's own motor productions, this predicts an own-voice advantage in word recognition. Here, we address this question by presenting 2.5-year-olds with recordings of their own voice, another child's voice, their own mother's voice, and another mother's voice in a child-friendly eye-tracking procedure...
December 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280222/the-eyes-have-it-using-eye-tracking-to-inform-information-processing-strategies-in-multi-attributes-choices
#14
Mandy Ryan, Nicolas Krucien, Frouke Hermens
Although choice experiments (CEs) are widely applied in economics to study choice behaviour, understanding of how individuals process attribute information remains limited. We show how eye-tracking methods can provide insight into how decisions are made. Participants completed a CE, while their eye movements were recorded. Results show that although the information presented guided participants' decisions, there were also several processing biases at work. Evidence was found of (a) top-to-bottom, (b) left-to-right, and (c) first-to-last order biases...
December 27, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275899/analysis-of-the-treatment-plan-evaluation-process-in-radiotherapy-through-eye-tracking
#15
A Kyroudi, K Petersson, M Ozsahin, J Bourhis, F Bochud, R Moeckli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment plan evaluation is a clinical decision-making problem that involves visual search and analysis in a contextually rich environment, including delineated structures and isodose lines superposed on CT data. It is a two-step process that includes visual analysis and clinical reasoning. In this work, we used eye tracking methods to gain more knowledge about the treatment plan evaluation process in radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dose distributions on a single transverse slice of ten prostate cancer treatment plans were presented to eight decision makers...
December 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275845/the-wandering-self-tracking-distracting-self-generated-thought-in-a-cognitively-demanding-context
#16
Stefan Huijser, Marieke K van Vugt, Niels A Taatgen
We investigated how self-referential processing (SRP) affected self-generated thought in a complex working memory task (CWM) to test the predictions of a computational cognitive model. This model described self-generated thought as resulting from competition between task- and distracting processes, and predicted that self-generated thought interferes with rehearsal, reducing memory performance. SRP was hypothesized to influence this goal competition process by encouraging distracting self-generated thinking...
December 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251440/building-an-act-r-reader-for-eye-tracking-corpus-data
#17
Jakub Dotlačil
Cognitive architectures have often been applied to data from individual experiments. In this paper, I develop an ACT-R reader that can model a much larger set of data, eye-tracking corpus data. It is shown that the resulting model has a good fit to the data for the considered low-level processes. Unlike previous related works (most prominently, Engelmann, Vasishth, Engbert & Kliegl, ), the model achieves the fit by estimating free parameters of ACT-R using Bayesian estimation and Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, rather than by relying on the mix of manual selection + default values...
December 18, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250569/influence-of-radiology-expertise-on-the-perception-of-nonmedical-images
#18
Brendan Kelly, Louise A Rainford, Mark F McEntee, Eoin C Kavanagh
Identifying if participants with differing diagnostic accuracy and visual search behavior during radiologic tasks also differ in nonradiologic tasks is investigated. Four clinician groups with different radiologic experience were used: a reference expert group of five consultant radiologists, four radiology registrars, five senior house officers, and six interns. Each of the four clinician groups is known to have significantly different performance in the identification of pneumothoraces in chest x-ray. Each of the 20 participants was shown 6 nonradiologic images (3 maps and 3 sets of geometric shapes) and was asked to perform search tasks...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249933/chronic-organic-solvent-exposure-changes-visual-tracking-in-men-and-women
#19
Ana R de Oliveira, Armindo de Arruda Campos Neto, Paloma C Bezerra de Medeiros, Michael J O de Andrade, Natanael A Dos Santos
Organic solvents can change CNS sensory and motor function. Eye-movement analyses can be important tools when investigating the neurotoxic changes that result from chronic organic solvent exposure. The current research measured the eye-movement patterns of men and women with and without histories of chronic organic solvent exposure. A total of 44 volunteers between 18 and 41 years old participated in this study; 22 were men (11 exposed and 11 controls), and 22 were women (11 exposed and 11 controls). Eye movement was evaluated using a 250-Hz High-Speed Video Eye Tracker Toolbox (Cambridge Research Systems) via an image of a maze...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249911/lexical-reading-in-dysfluent-readers-of-german
#20
Melanie Gangl, Kristina Moll, Manon W Jones, Chiara Banfi, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Karin Landerl
Dyslexia in consistent orthographies like German is characterized by dysfluent reading, which is often assumed to result from failure to build up an orthographic lexicon and overreliance on decoding. However, earlier evidence indicates effects of lexical processing at least in some German dyslexic readers. We investigated variations in reading style in an eye-tracking paradigm with German dysfluent 3rd and 4th graders. Twenty-six TypFix-readers (fixation counts within the range of 47 age-matched typical readers) were compared with 42 HighFix-readers (increased fixation counts)...
2018: Scientific Studies of Reading
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