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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933959/what-makes-a-dog-adoptable-an-eye-tracking-investigation
#1
Sara Isgate, Justin J Couchman
Humans readily attribute personality and behavioral traits to dogs, and these attributions influence decisions about adoption. This study focused on how these attributions could be influenced by breed and pose by using pictures of four breeds (Doberman Pinscher, Golden Retriever, pit bull, and Rottweiler) in 4 poses (dog sitting alone, sitting with a human, standing alone, and walking on a leash with a human). Participants rated each picture on friendliness, aggressiveness, and adoptability. Eye-tracking technology identified which specific features were represented in each picture to determine whether they had any effect on the judgments...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931838/cerebellar-anatomical-alterations-and-attention-to-eyes-in-autism
#2
Charles Laidi, Jennifer Boisgontier, M Mallar Chakravarty, Sevan Hotier, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Jean-Franc Ois Mangin, Gabriel A Devenyi, Richard Delorme, Federico Bolognani, Christian Czech, Céline Bouquet, Elie Toledano, Manuel Bouvard, Doriane Gras, Julie Petit, Marina Mishchenko, Alexandru Gaman, Isabelle Scheid, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla, Josselin Houenou
The cerebellum is implicated in social cognition and is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of our study was to explore cerebellar morphology in adults with ASD and its relationship to eye contact, as measured by fixation time allocated on the eye region using an eye-tracking device. Two-hundred ninety-four subjects with ASD and controls were included in our study and underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. Global segmentation and cortical parcellation of the cerebellum were performed...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930987/how-to-build-a-dichoptic-presentation-system-that-includes-an-eye-tracker
#3
Cheng S Qian, Jan W Brascamp
The presentation of different stimuli to the two eyes, dichoptic presentation, is essential for studies involving 3D vision and interocular suppression. There is a growing literature on the unique experimental value of pupillary and oculomotor measures, especially for research on interocular suppression. Although obtaining eye-tracking measures would thus benefit studies that use dichoptic presentation, the hardware essential for dichoptic presentation (e.g. mirrors) often interferes with high-quality eye tracking, especially when using a video-based eye tracker...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925815/examining-the-spatiotemporal-disruption-to-gaze-when-using-a-myoelectric-prosthetic-hand
#4
J V V Parr, S J Vine, N R Harrison, G Wood
The aim of this study was to provide a detailed account of the spatial and temporal disruptions to eye-hand coordination when using a prosthetic hand during a sequential fine motor skill. Twenty-one able-bodied participants performed 15 trials of the picking up coins task derived from the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure with their anatomic hand and with a prosthesis simulator while wearing eye-tracking equipment. Gaze behavior results revealed that when using the prosthesis, performance detriments were accompanied by significantly greater hand-focused gaze and a significantly longer time to disengage gaze from manipulations to plan upcoming movements...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925812/watch-where-you-re-going-interferer-velocity-and-visual-behavior-predicts-avoidance-strategy-during-pedestrian-encounters
#5
James L Croft, Derek Panchuk
Pedestrians can avoid collisions with other pedestrians by modifying some combination of their velocity and their path. The authors investigated how path constraints (constrained or unconstrained), interferer velocity (slow or fast), and vision (looking or not looking; time spent looking at the interferer) influenced collision avoidance to an oblivious interferer walking on a perpendicular path. Ten participants walked 6 m to either a point or line target on either a constrained or unconstrained path while wearing an eye-tracking device and avoiding an oblivious interferer that walked at 2 speeds...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919941/a-test-of-the-submentalizing-hypothesis-apes-performance-in-a-false-belief-task-inanimate-control
#6
Christopher Krupenye, Fumihiro Kano, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
Much debate concerns whether any nonhuman animals share with humans the ability to infer others' mental states, such as desires and beliefs. In a recent eye-tracking false-belief task, we showed that great apes correctly anticipated that a human actor would search for a goal object where he had last seen it, even though the apes themselves knew that it was no longer there. In response, Heyes proposed that apes' looking behavior was guided not by social cognitive mechanisms but rather domain-general cueing effects, and suggested the use of inanimate controls to test this alternative submentalizing hypothesis...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912800/gaze-estimation-method-using-analysis-of-electrooculogram-signals-and-kinect-sensor
#7
Keiko Sakurai, Mingmin Yan, Koichi Tanno, Hiroki Tamura
A gaze estimation system is one of the communication methods for severely disabled people who cannot perform gestures and speech. We previously developed an eye tracking method using a compact and light electrooculogram (EOG) signal, but its accuracy is not very high. In the present study, we conducted experiments to investigate the EOG component strongly correlated with the change of eye movements. The experiments in this study are of two types: experiments to see objects only by eye movements and experiments to see objects by face and eye movements...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912699/effects-of-scene-properties-and-emotional-valence-on-brain-activations-a-fixation-related-fmri-study
#8
Michał Kuniecki, Kinga B Wołoszyn, Aleksandra Domagalik, Joanna Pilarczyk
Temporal and spatial characteristics of fixations are affected by image properties, including high-level scene characteristics, such as object-background composition, and low-level physical characteristics, such as image clarity. The influence of these factors is modulated by the emotional content of an image. Here, we aimed to establish whether brain correlates of fixations reflect these modulatory effects. To this end, we simultaneously scanned participants and measured their eye movements, while presenting negative and neutral images in various image clarity conditions, with controlled object-background composition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901575/fuming-with-rage-do-members-of-low-status-groups-signal-anger-more%C3%A2-than-members-of-high-status-groups
#9
Chuma Kevin Owuamalam, Mark Rubin
Owuamalam, Weerabangsa, Karunagharan and Rubin found that Malaysians associate people in low status groups with anger more than their higher status counterparts: the hunchback heuristic. But is this belief accurate? Here, we propose the alternative possibility that members of low-status groups might deliberately suppress anger to counter this stigma, while members of high-status groups might disinhibit their anger to assert their superiority. To test these propositions, we manipulated undergraduate students' relative group status by leading them to believe that provocative comments about their undergraduate social identity came from a professor (low-status condition) or a junior foundation year student (high-status condition)...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900577/comparison-of-threshold-saccadic-vector-optokinetic-perimetry-svop-and-standard-automated-perimetry-sap-in-glaucoma-part-ii-patterns-of-visual-field-loss-and-acceptability
#10
Alice D McTrusty, Lorraine A Cameron, Antonios Perperidis, Harry M Brash, Andrew J Tatham, Pankaj K Agarwal, Ian C Murray, Brian W Fleck, Robert A Minns
PURPOSE: We compared patterns of visual field loss detected by standard automated perimetry (SAP) to saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and examined patient perceptions of each test. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done of 58 healthy subjects and 103 with glaucoma who were tested using SAP and two versions of SVOP (v1 and v2). Visual fields from both devices were categorized by masked graders as: 0, normal; 1, paracentral defect; 2, nasal step; 3, arcuate defect; 4, altitudinal; 5, biarcuate; and 6, end-stage field loss...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900576/comparison-of-saccadic-vector-optokinetic-perimetry-and-standard-automated-perimetry-in-glaucoma-part-i-threshold-values-and-repeatability
#11
Ian C Murray, Antonios Perperidis, Lorraine A Cameron, Alice D McTrusty, Harry M Brash, Andrew J Tatham, Pankaj K Agarwal, Brian W Fleck, Robert A Minns
PURPOSE: We evaluated threshold saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and compared results to standard automated perimetry (SAP). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done including 162 subjects (103 with glaucoma and 59 healthy subjects) recruited at a university hospital. All subjects underwent SAP and threshold SVOP. SVOP uses an eye tracker to monitor eye movement responses to stimuli and determines if stimuli have been perceived based on the vector of the gaze response...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894216/correlative-evaluation-of-mental-and-physical-workload-of-laparoscopic-surgeons-based-on-surface-electromyography-and-eye-tracking-signals
#12
Jian-Yang Zhang, Sheng-Lin Liu, Qing-Min Feng, Jia-Qi Gao, Qiang Zhang
Surgeons' mental and physical workloads are major focuses of operating room (OR) ergonomics, and studies on this topic have generally focused on either mental workload or physical workload, ignoring the interaction between them. Previous studies have shown that physically demanding work may affect mental performance and may be accompanied by impaired mental processing and decreased performance. In this study, 14 participants were recruited to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures in a virtual simulator...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892812/one-visual-search-many-memory-searches-an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-hybrid-search
#13
Trafton Drew, Sage E P Boettcher, Jeremy M Wolfe
Suppose you go to the supermarket with a shopping list of 10 items held in memory. Your shopping expedition can be seen as a combination of visual search and memory search. This is known as "hybrid search." There is a growing interest in understanding how hybrid search tasks are accomplished. We used eye tracking to examine how manipulating the number of possible targets (the memory set size [MSS]) changes how observers (Os) search. We found that dwell time on each distractor increased with MSS, suggesting a memory search was being executed each time a new distractor was fixated...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891668/visual-attention-and-emotional-reactions-to-negative-stimuli-the-role-of-age-and-cognitive-reappraisal
#14
Maria Wirth, Derek M Isaacowitz, Ute Kunzmann
Prominent life span theories of emotion propose that older adults attend less to negative emotional information and report less negative emotional reactions to the same information than younger adults do. Although parallel age differences in affective information processing and age differences in emotional reactivity have been proposed, they have rarely been investigated within the same study. In this eye-tracking study, we tested age differences in visual attention and emotional reactivity, using standardized emotionally negative stimuli...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886720/development-of-an-electrooculogram-based-eye-computer-interface-for-communication-of-individuals-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Won-Du Chang, Ho-Seung Cha, Do Yeon Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
BACKGROUND: Electrooculogram (EOG) can be used to continuously track eye movements and can thus be considered as an alternative to conventional camera-based eye trackers. Although many EOG-based eye tracking systems have been studied with the ultimate goal of providing a new way of communication for individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), most of them were tested with healthy people only. In this paper, we investigated the feasibility of EOG-based eye-writing as a new mode of communication for individuals with ALS...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882691/is-that-disgust-i-see-political-ideology-and-biased-visual-attention
#16
Benjamin Oosterhoff, Natalie J Shook, Cameron Ford
Considerable evidence suggests that political liberals and conservatives vary in the way they process and respond to valenced (i.e., negative versus positive) information, with conservatives generally displaying greater negativity biases than liberals. Less is known about whether liberals and conservatives differentially prioritize certain forms of negative information over others. Across two studies using eye-tracking methodology, we examined differences in visual attention to negative scenes and facial expressions based on self-reported political ideology...
September 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881001/facial-emotion-recognition-and-eye-movement-behaviour-in-conduct-disorder
#17
N A Martin-Key, E W Graf, W J Adams, G Fairchild
BACKGROUND: Conduct Disorder (CD) is associated with impairments in facial emotion recognition. However, it is unclear whether such deficits are explained by a failure to attend to emotionally informative face regions, such as the eyes, or by problems in the appraisal of emotional cues. METHOD: Male and female adolescents with CD and varying levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 13-18) categorised the emotion of dynamic and morphed static faces...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879442/comparing-eye-trackers-by-correlating-their-eye-metric-data
#18
Johannes Titz, Agnes Scholz, Peter Sedlmeier
Up to now, the potential of eye tracking in science as well as in everyday life has not been fully realized because of the high acquisition cost of trackers. Recently, manufacturers have introduced low-cost devices, preparing the way for wider use of this underutilized technology. As soon as scientists show independently of the manufacturers that low-cost devices are accurate enough for application and research, the real advent of eye trackers will have arrived. To facilitate this development, we propose a simple approach for comparing two eye trackers by adopting a method that psychologists have been practicing in diagnostics for decades: correlating constructs to show reliability and validity...
September 6, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877482/high-yield-methods-for-accurate-two-alternative-visual-psychophysics-in-head-fixed-mice
#19
Christopher P Burgess, Armin Lak, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Peter Zatka-Haas, Charu Bai Reddy, Elina A K Jacobs, Jennifer F Linden, Joseph J Paton, Adam Ranson, Sylvia Schröder, Sofia Soares, Miles J Wells, Lauren E Wool, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Research in neuroscience increasingly relies on the mouse, a mammalian species that affords unparalleled genetic tractability and brain atlases. Here, we introduce high-yield methods for probing mouse visual decisions. Mice are head-fixed, facilitating repeatable visual stimulation, eye tracking, and brain access. They turn a steering wheel to make two alternative choices, forced or unforced. Learning is rapid thanks to intuitive coupling of stimuli to wheel position. The mouse decisions deliver high-quality psychometric curves for detection and discrimination and conform to the predictions of a simple probabilistic observer model...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872455/magnetic-eye-tracking-in-mice
#20
Hannah L Payne, Jennifer L Raymond
Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of <0...
September 5, 2017: ELife
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