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Magdalena Ewa Król
We investigated the effect of auditory noise added to speech on patterns of looking at faces in 40 toddlers. We hypothesised that noise would increase the difficulty of processing speech, making children allocate more attention to the mouth of the speaker to gain visual speech cues from mouth movements. We also hypothesised that this shift would cause a decrease in fixation time to the eyes, potentially decreasing the ability to monitor gaze. We found that adding noise increased the number of fixations to the mouth area, at the price of a decreased number of fixations to the eyes...
2018: PloS One
Katrin Elisabeth Giel, Sarah Paganini, Irena Schank, Paul Enck, Stephan Zipfel, Florian Junne
Objective: Problems in emotion processing potentially contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Theories focusing on attentional processing have suggested that dysfunctional attention deployment toward emotional information, i.e., attentional biases for negative emotions, might entail one potential developmental and/or maintenance factor of chronic pain. Methods: We assessed self-reported alexithymia, attentional orienting to and maintenance on emotional stimuli using eye tracking in 17 patients with chronic pain disorder (CP) and two age- and sex-matched control groups, 17 healthy individuals (HC) and 17 individuals who were matched to CP according to depressive symptoms (DC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Katrin H Preller, Leonhard Schilbach, Thomas Pokorny, Jan Flemming, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Distortions of self-experience are critical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and have detrimental effects on social interactions. In light of the immense need for improved and targeted interventions for social impairments, it is important to better understand the neurochemical substrates of social interaction abilities. We therefore investigated the pharmacological and neural correlates of self- and other-initiated social interaction. In a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study 24 healthy human participants (18 males and 6 females) received either 1) placebo+placebo 2) placebo+lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (100 μg p...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Daphna Mezad-Koursh, Amir Rosenblatt, Hadas Newman, Chaim Stolovitch
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the BinoVision home system as measured by improvement of visual acuity in the patient's amblyopic eye. METHODS: An open-label prospective pilot-trial of the system was conducted with amblyopic children aged 4-8 years at the pediatric ophthalmology unit, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, January 2014 to October 2015. Participants were assigned to the study or sham group for treatment with BinoVision for 8 or 12 weeks. Patients were instructed to watch animated television shows and videos at home using the BinoVision device for 60 minutes, 6 days a week...
March 16, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Freya Crosby, Frouke Hermens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Breanna I Krueger, Holly L Storkel, Utako Minai
Purpose: The purpose of the present studies was to determine how children's identification and processing of misarticulated words was influenced by substitution commonness. Method: Sixty-one typically developing preschoolers across 3 experiments heard accurate productions of words (e.g., "leaf"), words containing common substitutions (e.g., "weaf"), and words containing uncommon substitutions (e.g., "yeaf"). On each trial, preschoolers chose between a real object picture (e...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Cameron Laue, Marcus Griffey, Ping-I Lin, Kirk Wallace, Menno van der Schoot, Paul Horn, Ernest Pedapati, Drew Barzman
Social information processing theory hypothesizes that aggressive children pay more attention to cues of hostility and threat in others' behavior, consequently leading to over-interpretation of others' behavior as hostile. While there is abundant evidence of aggressive children demonstrating hostile attribution biases, less well documented is whether such biases stem from over-attendance and hypersensitivity to hostile cues in social situations. Over-attendance to hostile cues would be typified by deviations at any stage of the multi-stage process of social information processing models...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Boy Braaf, Sabine Donner, Ahhyun S Nam, Brett E Bouma, Benjamin J Vakoc
Complex differential variance (CDV) provides phase-sensitive angiographic imaging for optical coherence tomography (OCT) with immunity to phase-instabilities of the imaging system and small-scale axial bulk motion. However, like all angiographic methods, measurement noise can result in erroneous indications of blood flow that confuse the interpretation of angiographic images. In this paper, a modified CDV algorithm that corrects for this noise-bias is presented. This is achieved by normalizing the CDV signal by analytically derived upper and lower limits...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Brian P Hermanson, Grant C Burgdorf, John F Hatton, Darrin M Speegle, Karl F Woodmansey
INTRODUCTION: The visual search patterns of dentists and the areas that attract their attention when interpreting dental periapical radiographs are currently unknown. This research identifies areas and patterns of visual fixation when observing dental periapical radiographs. METHODS: In an observational study using eye tracking technology and a convenience sample of 44 observers, the interpretations of 4 dental periapical radiographs were recorded using Camtasia Software (TechSmith, Okemos, MI) with a gaze tracking "bubble" denoting where within the radiograph the observers' eyes gazed...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Izabela Krejtz, Paweł Holas, Marzena Rusanowska, John B Nezlek
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effectiveness of online positive attention bias modification training (ABMT) in inducing positive attention and positive interpretational biases in depressed individuals. METHOD: Clinically depressed individuals (n = 60) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions of 14-day online ABMT. In the positive ABMT condition, a probe replaced positive stimuli in 100% of trials. In the control condition, the probe replaced positive stimuli in 50% of trials...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Greg D Reynolds, Kelly C Roth
We present an integrative review of research and theory on major factors involved in the early development of attentional biases to faces. Research utilizing behavioral, eye-tracking, and neuroscience measures with infant participants as well as comparative research with animal subjects are reviewed. We begin with coverage of research demonstrating the presence of an attentional bias for faces shortly after birth, such as newborn infants' visual preference for face-like over non-face stimuli. The role of experience and the process of perceptual narrowing in face processing are examined as infants begin to demonstrate enhanced behavioral and neural responsiveness to mother over stranger, female over male, own- over other-race, and native over non-native faces...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams, Booth Aldred, Marta E Heilbrun, Satoshi Minoshima
What are the costs and consequences of interruptions during diagnostic radiology? The cognitive psychology literature suggests that interruptions lead to an array of negative consequences that could hurt patient outcomes and lead to lower patient throughput. Meanwhile, observational studies have both noted a strikingly high rate of interruptions and rising number of interruptions faced by radiologists. There is some observational evidence that more interruptions could lead to worse patient outcomes: Balint et al...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Sabrina Baldofski, Patrick Lüthold, Ingmar Sperling, Anja Hilbert
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by excessive evening and/or nocturnal eating episodes. Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in other eating disorders. For NES, however, evidence of attentional food processing is lacking. Attention towards food and non-food stimuli was compared using eye-tracking in 19 participants with NES and 19 matched controls without eating disorders during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in initial fixation position or gaze duration...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
F E Sahin, A R Tanguay
An imaging system design procedure for miniature wide-angle computational cameras with subsequent software correction of distortion is described. Such miniature wide-angle computational cameras have a broad range of applications, including eye-tracked extraocular cameras for retinal prostheses, and also wearable visual aids for the blind and those with low vision. As significant (typically barrel) distortion is commonplace in wide-field-of-view imaging systems, digital post-processing is often employed to generate rectilinear output images...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Emilia Thorup, Pär Nyström, Gustaf Gredebäck, Sven Bölte, Terje Falck-Ytter
In typical development, infants often alternate their gaze between their interaction partners and interesting stimuli, increasing the probability of joint attention toward surrounding objects and creating opportunities for communication and learning. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to engage less in behaviors that can initiate joint attention compared to typically developing children, but the role of such atypicalities in the development of ASD during infancy is not fully understood...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Sarah D McCrackin, Roxane J Itier
Most face processing research has investigated how we perceive faces presented by themselves, but we view faces everyday within a rich social context. Recent ERP research has demonstrated that context cues, including self-relevance and valence, impact electrocortical and emotional responses to neutral faces. However, the time-course of these effects is still unclear, and it is unknown whether these effects interact with the face gaze direction, a cue that inherently contains self-referential information and triggers emotional responses...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Shane L Rogers, Craig P Speelman, Oliver Guidetti, Melissa Longmuir
We report the personal eye gaze patterns of people engaged in face-to-face getting acquainted conversation. Considerable differences between individuals are underscored by a stability of eye gaze patterns within individuals. Results suggest the existence of an eye-mouth gaze continuum. This continuum includes some people showing a strong preference for eye gaze, some with a strong preference for mouth gaze, and others distributing their gaze between the eyes and mouth to varying extents. Additionally, we found evidence of within-participant consistency not just for location preference but also for the duration of fixations upon the eye and mouth regions...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Janet Hernández-Méndez, Diego Gómez-Carmona
The advent of Web 2.0 is changing tourists' behaviors, prompting them to take on a more active role in preparing their travel plans. It is also leading tourism companies to have to adapt their marketing strategies to different online social media. The present study analyzes advertising effectiveness in social media in terms of customers' visual attention and self-reported memory (recall). Data were collected through a within-subjects and between-groups design based on eye-tracking technology, followed by a self-administered questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Xuqian Chen, Wei Yang, Lijun Ma, Jiaxin Li
Recent findings have shown that information about changes in an object's environmental location in the context of discourse is stored in working memory during sentence comprehension. However, in these studies, changes in the object's location were always consistent with world knowledge (e.g., in "The writer picked up the pen from the floor and moved it to the desk," the floor and the desk are both common locations for a pen). How do people accomplish comprehension when the object-location information in working memory is inconsistent with world knowledge (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lauren H Howard, Cassandra Festa, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf
The ability to learn socially is of critical importance across a wide variety of species, as it allows knowledge to be passed quickly among individuals without the need of time-consuming trial-and-error learning. Among primates, social learning research has been particularly focused on foraging tasks, including transmission dynamics and the demonstration characteristics that appear to support social learning. Less work has focused on the attentional salience of the information being viewed, especially in New World monkeys...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
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