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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230395/contextual-cueing-improves-attentional-guidance-even-when-guidance-is-supposedly-optimal
#1
Anthony M Harris, Roger W Remington
Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in which attentional guidance should already be optimal-namely, when attention is captured to the target location by an abrupt onset, or under pop-out conditions...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227478/portable-video-oculography-device-for-implementation-in-sideline-concussion-assessments-a-prototype
#2
Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever, Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever, Dawie J Van den Heever, Joshua D Fischer
Concussion is currently a serious health problem and can lead to severe brain dysfunction. There is a definite need for sensitive and reliable tests to detect and evaluate the subtle changes in brain function caused by concussion. This study details the development of a low cost portable eye tracking device that can aid in the detection of concussions. The device evaluates ocular motor function and can be used on the sidelines of sporting events to give a quick indication of the severity of head trauma. It can further be used to evaluate and monitor mild Traumatic Brain Injuries and aid in the return to play decision making process...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227265/determining-team-cognition-from-delay-analysis-using-cross-recurrence-plot
#3
Nasim Hajari, Irene Cheng, Bin Zheng, Anup Basu, Nasim Hajari, Irene Cheng, Bin Zheng, Anup Basu, Bin Zheng, Anup Basu, Nasim Hajari, Irene Cheng
Team cognition is an important factor in evaluating and determining team performance. Forming a team with good shared cognition is even more crucial for laparoscopic surgery applications. In this study, we analyzed the eye tracking data of two surgeons during a laparoscopic simulation operation, then performed Cross Recurrence Analysis (CRA) on the recorded data to study the delay behaviour for good performer and poor performer teams. Dual eye tracking data for twenty two dyad teams were recorded during a laparoscopic task and then the teams were divided into good performer and poor performer teams based on the task times...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226753/determining-the-difference-in-eyegaze-measurements-in-individuals-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#4
Huiying Liu, Damon Wong, Ai Ping Yow, Yanwu Xu, Fengshou Yin, Augustinus Laude, Tock Han Lim, Huiying Liu, Damon Wong, Ai Ping Yow, Yanwu Xu, Fengshou Yin, Augustinus Laude, Tock Han Lim, Augustinus Laude, Huiying Liu, Tock Han Lim, Fengshou Yin, Yanwu Xu, Damon Wong, Ai Ping Yow
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly. Visual loss associated with AMD often results in a central scotoma which is an alteration in the central vision, leading to distortion or loss of vision. Current methods of detecting AMD are typically manual, require holding fixation and an external response trigger. In this paper, we propose the use of eyegaze tracking to detect for the presence of AMD, using a simple set of test patterns. Experimental results show that the derived eyegaze measurements can help to identify individuals with AMD from healthy individuals...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208763/iterative-development-of-an-online-dietary-recall-tool-intake24
#5
Emma Simpson, Jennifer Bradley, Ivan Poliakov, Dan Jackson, Patrick Olivier, Ashley J Adamson, Emma Foster
Collecting large-scale population data on dietary intake is challenging, particularly when resources and funding are constrained. Technology offers the potential to develop novel ways of collecting large amounts of dietary information while making it easier, more convenient, intuitive, and engaging for users. INTAKE24 is an online multiple pass 24 h dietary recall tool developed for use in national food and nutrition surveys. The development of INTAKE24 was a four-stage iterative process of user interaction and evaluation with the intended end users, 11-24 years old...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206795/maternal-anxiety-predicts-attentional-bias-towards-threat-in-infancy
#6
Santiago Morales, Kayla M Brown, Bradley C Taber-Thomas, Vanessa LoBue, Kristin A Buss, Koraly E Pérez-Edgar
Although cognitive theories of psychopathology suggest that attention bias toward threat plays a role in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety, there is relatively little evidence regarding individual differences in the earliest development of attention bias toward threat. The current study examines attention bias toward threat during its potential first emergence by evaluating the relations between attention bias and known risk factors of anxiety (i.e., temperamental negative affect and maternal anxiety)...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205500/primary-motor-cortex-excitability-is-modulated-during-the-mental-simulation-of-hand-movement
#7
Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Jarrad A G Lum, Jacqueline Williams, Jason He, Peter G Enticott
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether the primary motor cortex (PMC) is involved in the mental simulation of movement [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. The present study aimed to clarify PMC involvement using a highly novel adaptation of the hand laterality task (HLT). METHODS: Participants were administered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the hand area of the left PMC (hPMC) at either 50 ms, 400 ms, or 650 ms post stimulus presentation. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous via electromyography...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205226/an-investigation-into-the-effects-of-real-vs-stimulated-cases-and-level-of-experience-on-the-distribution-of-visual-attention-during-induction-of-general-anaesthesia
#8
T Grundgeiger, C Klöffel, S Mohme, T Wurmb, O Happel
In anaesthesia, patient simulators have been used for training and research. However, insights from simulator-based research may only translate to real settings if the simulation elicits the same behaviour as the real setting. To this end, we investigated the effects of the case (simulated case vs. real case) and experience level (junior vs. senior) on the distribution of visual attention during the induction of general anaesthesia. We recorded eye-tracking data from 12 junior and 12 senior anaesthetists inducing general anaesthesia in a simulation room and in an actual operating room (48 recordings)...
February 16, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205131/what-to-expect-from-your-remote-eye-tracker-when-participants-are-unrestrained
#9
Diederick C Niehorster, Tim H W Cornelissen, Kenneth Holmqvist, Ignace T C Hooge, Roy S Hessels
The marketing materials of remote eye-trackers suggest that data quality is invariant to the position and orientation of the participant as long as the eyes of the participant are within the eye-tracker's headbox, the area where tracking is possible. As such, remote eye-trackers are marketed as allowing the reliable recording of gaze from participant groups that cannot be restrained, such as infants, schoolchildren and patients with muscular or brain disorders. Practical experience and previous research, however, tells us that eye-tracking data quality, e...
February 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198356/a-comparison-study-of-visually-stimulated-brain-computer-and-eye-tracking-interfaces
#10
Kaori Suefusa, Toshihisa Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: Brain--computer interfacing (BCI) based on visual stimuli detects the target on a screen on which a user is focusing. The detection of the gazing target can be achieved by tracking gaze positions with a video camera, which is called eye tracking or eye tracking interfaces (ETIs). Both types of interfaces have been developed in different communities. Thus, little work on the comprehensive comparison between these two types of interfaces has been reported. This paper quantitatively compares the performance of these two interfaces on the same experimental platform...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187469/-intraoperative-optical-coherence-tomography-an-overview-of-current-clinical-data-for-the-application-in-the-anterior-and-posterior-segments
#11
A J Augustin
Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) represents another milestone in ocular imaging technologies. Now, for the first time, high resolution OCT images are available not only pre- or postoperatively, but also intraoperatively. In recent years, there have been significant advances in iOCT technology - from hand-held probes and mounted systems towards iOCT systems which are fully integrated into the surgical microscope and which provide seamless integration into the workflow. These systems offer high-resolution, intraoperative OCT scans in real-time and provide additional information on microstructures of the retina or the cornea...
February 10, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186899/a-data-model-and-task-space-for-data-of-interest-doi-eye-tracking-analyses
#12
Radu Jianu, Sayeed Safayet Alam
Eye-tracking data is traditionally analyzed by looking at where on a visual stimulus subjects fixate, or, to facilitate more advanced analyses, by using area-of-interests (AOI) defined onto visual stimuli. Recently, there is increasing interest in methods that capture what users are looking at rather than where they are looking. By instrumenting visualization code that transforms a data model into visual content, gaze coordinates reported by an eye-tracker can be mapped directly to granular data shown on the screen, producing temporal sequences of data objects that subjects viewed in an experiment...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185087/attention-to-body-parts-varies-with-visual-preference-and-verb-effector-associations
#13
Ty W Boyer, Josita Maouene, Nitya Sethuraman
Theories of embodied conceptual meaning suggest fundamental relations between others' actions, language, and our own actions and visual attention processes. Prior studies have found that when people view an image of a neutral body in a scene they first look toward, in order, the head, torso, hands, and legs. Other studies show associations between action verbs and the body-effectors used in performing the action (e.g., "jump" with feet/legs; "talk" with face/head). In the present experiment, the visual attention of participants was recorded with a remote eye-tracking system while they viewed an image of an actor pantomiming an action and heard a concrete action verb...
February 9, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184210/attachment-avoidance-is-significantly-related-to-attentional-preference-for-infant-faces-evidence-from-eye-movement-data
#14
Yuncheng Jia, Gang Cheng, Dajun Zhang, Na Ta, Mu Xia, Fangyuan Ding
Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants (N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years (M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180069/young-adolescents-with-autism-show-abnormal-joint-attention-network-a-gaze-contingent-fmri-study
#15
E Oberwelland, L Schilbach, I Barisic, S C Krall, K Vogeley, G R Fink, B Herpertz-Dahlmann, K Konrad, M Schulte-Rüther
Behavioral research has revealed deficits in the development of joint attention (JA) as one of the earliest signs of autism. While the neural basis of JA has been studied predominantly in adults, we recently demonstrated a protracted development of the brain networks supporting JA in typically developing children and adolescents. The present eye-tracking/fMRI study now extends these findings to adolescents with autism. Our results show that in adolescents with autism JA is subserved by abnormal activation patterns in brain areas related to social cognition abnormalities which are at the core of ASD including the STS and TPJ, despite behavioral maturation with no behavioral differences...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168112/what-has-been-missed-for-predicting-human-attention-in-viewing-driving-clips
#16
Jiawei Xu, Shigang Yue, Federica Menchinelli, Kun Guo
Recent research progress on the topic of human visual attention allocation in scene perception and its simulation is based mainly on studies with static images. However, natural vision requires us to extract visual information that constantly changes due to egocentric movements or dynamics of the world. It is unclear to what extent spatio-temporal regularity, an inherent regularity in dynamic vision, affects human gaze distribution and saliency computation in visual attention models. In this free-viewing eye-tracking study we manipulated the spatio-temporal regularity of traffic videos by presenting them in normal video sequence, reversed video sequence, normal frame sequence, and randomised frame sequence...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167923/cultural-and-species-differences-in-gazing-patterns-for-marked-and-decorated-objects-a-comparative-eye-tracking-study
#17
Cordelia Mühlenbeck, Thomas Jacobsen, Carla Pritsch, Katja Liebal
Objects from the Middle Paleolithic period colored with ochre and marked with incisions represent the beginning of non-utilitarian object manipulation in different species of the Homo genus. To investigate the visual effects caused by these markings, we compared humans who have different cultural backgrounds (Namibian hunter-gatherers and German city dwellers) to one species of non-human great apes (orangutans) with respect to their perceptions of markings on objects. We used eye-tracking to analyze their fixation patterns and the durations of their fixations on marked and unmarked stones and sticks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167328/attentional-biases-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd-eye-tracking-using-the-emotional-stroop-task
#18
Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
OBJECTIVE: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. This study aimed to examine attentional biases in BDD via the emotional Stroop task with two modifications: i) incorporating an eye-tracking paradigm, and ii) employing an obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) control group. METHOD: Twenty-one BDD, 19 OCD and 21 HC participants, who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched, were included...
January 23, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165270/manual-versus-saccadic-assessment-of-cognitive-inhibition-and-switching-in-young-and-older-adults
#19
Christopher H R Brett, Liana Machado
Inhibition and switching deficits occur with healthy aging and many clinical conditions, compromising performance of daily tasks and thus quality of life. To assess deficits, saccade tasks have often been used, but they require access to expensive eye-tracking equipment and trained personnel. Moreover, with respect to switching, the aging literature suggests that easy-to-administer manual tasks may be more sensitive to deficits than saccade tasks. Here we directly compared the 2 response modalities for assessing inhibition and switching abilities and characterized changes associated with healthy aging...
February 6, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163692/modifications-of-visual-field-asymmetries-for-face-categorization-in-early-deaf-adults-a-study-with-chimeric-faces
#20
Marjorie Dole, David Méary, Olivier Pascalis
Right hemisphere lateralization for face processing is well documented in typical populations. At the behavioral level, this right hemisphere bias is often related to a left visual field (LVF) bias. A conventional mean to study this phenomenon consists of using chimeric faces that are composed of the left and right parts of two faces. In this paradigm, participants generally use the left part of the chimeric face, mostly processed through the right optic tract, to determine its identity, gender or age. To assess the impact of early auditory deprivation on face processing abilities, we tested the LVF bias in a group of early deaf participants and hearing controls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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