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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647006/a-meta-analysis-of-gaze-differences-to-social-and-nonsocial-information-between-individuals-with-and-without-autism
#1
REVIEW
Thomas W Frazier, Mark Strauss, Eric W Klingemier, Emily E Zetzer, Antonio Y Hardan, Charis Eng, Eric A Youngstrom
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have identified abnormal gaze in individuals with autism. However, only some findings have been replicated, the magnitude of effects is unclear, and the pattern of gaze differences across stimuli remains poorly understood. To address these gaps, a comprehensive meta-analysis of autism eye-tracking studies was conducted. METHOD: PubMed and a manual search of 1,132 publications were used to identify studies comparing looking behavior to social and/or nonsocial stimuli between individuals with autism and controls...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646751/an-attentional-drift-diffusion-model-over-binary-attribute-choice
#2
Geoffrey Fisher
In order to make good decisions, individuals need to identify and properly integrate information about various attributes associated with a choice. Since choices are often complex and made rapidly, they are typically affected by contextual variables that are thought to influence how much attention is paid to different attributes. I propose a modification of the attentional drift-diffusion model, the binary-attribute attentional drift diffusion model (baDDM), which describes the choice process over simple binary-attribute choices and how it is affected by fluctuations in visual attention...
June 21, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646399/mousetrap-an-integrated-open-source-mouse-tracking-package
#3
Pascal J Kieslich, Felix Henninger
Mouse-tracking - the analysis of mouse movements in computerized experiments - is becoming increasingly popular in the cognitive sciences. Mouse movements are taken as an indicator of commitment to or conflict between choice options during the decision process. Using mouse-tracking, researchers have gained insight into the temporal development of cognitive processes across a growing number of psychological domains. In the current article, we present software that offers easy and convenient means of recording and analyzing mouse movements in computerized laboratory experiments...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638208/eye-movement-indices-in-the-study-of-depressive-disorder
#4
Yu Li, Yangyang Xu, Mengqing Xia, Tianhong Zhang, Junjie Wang, Xu Liu, Yongguang He, Jijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is one of the most common core symptoms of depressive disorder. Eye movement testing mainly reflects patients' cognitive functions, such as cognition, memory, attention, recognition, and recall. This type of testing has great potential to improve theories related to cognitive functioning in depressive episodes as well as potential in its clinical application. AIMS: This study investigated whether eye movement indices of patients with unmedicated depressive disorder were abnormal or not, as well as the relationship between these indices and mental symptoms...
December 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637525/eye-tracking-evidence-of-a-maintenance-bias-in-social-anxiety
#5
Catarina Fernandes, Susana Silva, Joana Pires, Alexandra Reis, Antónia Jimenez Ros, Luís Janeiro, Luís Faísca, Ana Teresa Martins
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and triggers of the attentional bias in social anxiety are not yet fully determined, and the modulating role of personality traits is being increasingly acknowledged. AIMS: Our main purpose was to test whether social anxiety is associated with mechanisms of hypervigilance, avoidance (static biases), vigilance-avoidance or the maintenance of attention (dynamic biases). Our secondary goal was to explore the role of personality structure in shaping the attention bias...
June 22, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630809/technical-report-of-the-use-of-a-novel-eye-tracking-system-to-measure-impairment-associated-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Michael Kelly
This technical report details the results of an uncontrolled study of EyeGuide Focus, a 10-second concussion management tool which relies on eye tracking to determine the potential impairment of visual attention, an indicator often of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Essentially, people who can visually keep steady and accurate attention on a moving object in their environment likely suffer from no impairment. However, if after a potential mTBI event, subjects cannot keep attention on a moving object in a normal way as demonstrated on their previous healthy baseline tests...
May 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628785/looking-at-a-contrast-object-before-speaking-boosts-referential-informativeness-but-is-not-essential
#7
Catherine Davies, Helene Kreysa
Variation in referential form has traditionally been accounted for by theoretical frameworks focusing on linguistic and discourse features. Despite the explosion of interest in eye tracking methods in psycholinguistics, the role of visual scanning behaviour in informative reference production is yet to be comprehensively investigated. Here we examine the relationship between speakers' fixations to relevant referents and the form of the referring expressions they produce. Overall, speakers were fully informative across simple and (to a lesser extent) more complex displays, providing appropriately modified referring expressions to enable their addressee to locate the target object...
June 16, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626436/judgments-at-gaze-value-gaze-cuing-in-banner-advertisements-its-effect-on-attention-allocation-and-product-judgments
#8
Johanna Palcu, Jennifer Sudkamp, Arnd Florack
Banner advertising is a popular means of promoting products and brands online. Although banner advertisements are often designed to be particularly attention grabbing, they frequently go unnoticed. Applying an eye-tracking procedure, the present research aimed to (a) determine whether presenting human faces (static or animated) in banner advertisements is an adequate tool for capturing consumers' attention and thus overcoming the frequently observed phenomenon of banner blindness, (b) to examine whether the gaze of a featured face possesses the ability to direct consumers' attention toward specific elements (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624991/a-new-global-and-comprehensive-model-for-icu-ventilator-performances-evaluation
#9
Nicolas S Marjanovic, Agathe De Simone, Guillaume Jegou, Erwan L'Her
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide a new global and comprehensive evaluation of recent ICU ventilators taking into account both technical performances and ergonomics. METHODS: Six recent ICU ventilators were evaluated. Technical performances were assessed under two FIO2 levels (100%, 50%), three respiratory mechanics combinations (Normal: compliance [C] = 70 mL cmH2O(-1)/resistance [R] = 5 cmH2O L(-1) s(-1); Restrictive: C = 30/R = 10; Obstructive: C = 120/R = 20), four exponential levels of leaks (from 0 to 12...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622757/stationary-objects-flashed-periodically-appear-to-move-during-smooth-pursuit-eye-movement
#10
Frédéric Gosselin, Simon Faghel-Soubeyrand
We discovered that a white disc flashed twice at the same location appears to move during smooth pursuit eye tracking in the direction opposite to that of the eye movement. We called this novel phenomenon movement-induced apparent motion (MIAM). Using the method of constant stimuli, we measured the required displacement of the second appearance of the disc in the pursuit direction to null the effect during the closed-loop stage of smooth pursuit eye tracking. We observed a strong linear relationship between the points of subjective stationarity and the inter-stimuli intervals for four smooth pursuit eye movement speeds...
July 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622313/optical-coherence-tomography-analysis-of-evolution-of-bruch-s-membrane-features-in-angioid-streaks
#11
A Marchese, M Parravano, A Rabiolo, A Carnevali, E Corbelli, M V Cicinelli, M Battaglia Parodi, L Querques, F Bandello, G Querques
PurposeTo describe optical coherence tomography (OCT) features in the Bruch's membrane (BM) of eyes with angioid streaks (AS) and evaluate their evolution over the follow-up.Patients and methodsPatients with AS presenting between March 2016 and September 2016 at two tertiary referral centers were consecutively recruited in this study. Eligibility criteria included prior spectral domain (SD)-OCT images, taken at least 3 months before at the same referral center, with automated eye tracking and image alignment modules...
June 16, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622095/black-and-white-lies-race-based-biases-in-deception-judgments
#12
E Paige Lloyd, Kurt Hugenberg, Allen R McConnell, Jonathan W Kunstman, Jason C Deska
In six studies ( N = 605), participants made deception judgments about videos of Black and White targets who told truths and lies about interpersonal relationships. In Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2, White participants judged that Black targets were telling the truth more often than they judged that White targets were telling the truth. This truth bias was predicted by Whites' motivation to respond without prejudice. For Black participants, however, motives to respond without prejudice did not moderate responses (Study 2)...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619523/affective-associations-with-negativity-why-popular-peers-attract-youths-visual-attention
#13
Tessa A M Lansu, Wendy Troop-Gordon
Visual attention to high-status peers is well documented, but whether this attentional bias is due to high-status individuals' leadership and prosocial characteristics or due to their more agonistic behaviors has yet to be examined. To identify the affective associations that may underlie visual attention for high-status versus low-status peers, 122 early adolescents (67 girls; Mage=11.0years, SD=0.7) completed a primed attention paradigm. Visual attention was measured using eye tracking as participants looked simultaneously at photographs of two classmates: one nominated by peers as popular and one nominated by peers as unpopular...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612679/influence-of-social-presence-on-eye-movements-in-visual-search-tasks
#14
Na Liu, Ruifeng Yu
This study employed an eye-tracking technique to investigate the influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks. A total of 20 male subjects performed visual search tasks in a 2 (target presence: present vs. absent) × 2 (task complexity: complex vs. simple) × 2 (social presence: alone vs. a human audience) within-subject experiment. Results indicated that the presence of an audience could evoke a social facilitation effect on response time in visual search tasks. Compared with working alone, the participants made fewer and shorter fixations, larger saccades and shorter scan path in simple search tasks and more and longer fixations, smaller saccades and longer scan path in complex search tasks when working with an audience...
June 14, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607664/diagnosing-the-periphery-using-the-rey-osterrieth-complex-figure-drawing-test-to-characterize-peripheral-visual-function
#15
Daniel R Coates, Johan Wagemans, Bilge Sayim
Peripheral vision is strongly limited by crowding, the deleterious influence of neighboring stimuli on target perception. Many quantitative aspects of this phenomenon have been characterized, but the specific nature of the perceptual degradation remains elusive. We utilized a drawing technique to probe the phenomenology of peripheral vision, using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, a standard neuropsychological clinical instrument. The figure was presented at 12° or 6° in the right visual field, with eye tracking to ensure that the figure was only presented when observers maintained stable fixation...
May 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607376/reduced-preference-for-social-rewards-in-a-novel-tablet-based-task-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Liliana Ruta, Francesca Isabella Famà, Giuseppe Massimo Bernava, Elisa Leonardi, Gennaro Tartarisco, Alessandra Falzone, Giovanni Pioggia, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
Atypical responsivity to social rewards has been observed in young children with or at risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). These observations contributed to the hypothesis of reduced social motivation in ASD. In the current study we develop a novel task to test social reward preference using a tablet computer (iPad), where two differently coloured buttons were associated with a social and a nonsocial rewarding image respectively. 63 young children, aged 14-68 months, with and without a diagnosis of ASD took part in the study...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606763/application-of-eye-tracking-in-medicine-a-survey-research-issues-and-challenges
#17
Katarzyna Harezlak, Pawel Kasprowski
The performance and quality of medical procedures and treatments are inextricably linked to technological development. The application of more advanced techniques provides the opportunity to gain wider knowledge and deeper understanding of the human body and mind functioning. The eye tracking methods used to register eye movement to find the direction and targets of a person's gaze are well in line with the nature of the topic. By providing methods for capturing and processing images of the eye it has become possible not only to reveal abnormalities in eye functioning but also to conduct cognitive studies focused on learning about peoples' emotions and intentions...
May 30, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606194/four-year-old-cantonese-speaking-children-s-online-processing-of-relative-clauses-a-permutation-analysis
#18
Angel Chan, Wenchun Yang, Franklin Chang, Evan Kidd
We report on an eye-tracking study that investigated four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of subject and object relative clauses (RCs). Children's eye-movements were recorded as they listened to RC structures identifying a unique referent (e.g. "Can you pick up the horse that pushed the pig?"). Two RC types, classifier (CL) and ge3 RCs, were tested in a between-participants design. The two RC types differ in their syntactic analyses and frequency of occurrence, providing an important point of comparison for theories of RC acquisition and processing...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599002/social-orienting-and-joint-attention-in-preschoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Martina Franchini, Bronwyn Glaser, Hilary Wood de Wilde, Edouard Gentaz, Stephan Eliez, Marie Schaer
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) orient less to socially salient stimuli, such as dynamic social images, than typically developing children. In turn, this lack of social orienting is thought to impair affected individuals' socio communicative development. Here, we aim to explore the relationship between time spent on dynamic social images and ASD behaviors, such as joint attention and communication, in preschoolers on the autism spectrum. In this study, social orienting is measured using eye-tracking during a task consisting of side-by-side presentations of dynamic social images and dynamic geometric images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594939/ambiguity-in-the-processing-of-mandarin-chinese-relative-clauses-one-factor-cannot-explain-it-all
#20
Michael P Mansbridge, Katsuo Tamaoka, Kexin Xiong, Rinus G Verdonschot
This study addresses the question of whether native Mandarin Chinese speakers process and comprehend subject-extracted relative clauses (SRC) more readily than object-extracted relative clauses (ORC) in Mandarin Chinese. Presently, this has been a hotly debated issue, with various studies producing contrasting results. Using two eye-tracking experiments with ambiguous and unambiguous RCs, this study shows that both ORCs and SRCs have different processing requirements depending on the locus and time course during reading...
2017: PloS One
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