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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224480/print-exposure-modulates-the-effects-of-repetition-priming-during-sentence-reading
#1
Matthew W Lowder, Peter C Gordon
Individual readers vary greatly in the quality of their lexical representations, and consequently in how quickly and efficiently they can access orthographic and lexical knowledge. This variability may be explained, at least in part, by individual differences in exposure to printed language, because practice at reading promotes the development of stronger reading skills. In the present eyetracking experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of word recognition during reading improves with increases in print exposure, by determining whether the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect is modulated by individual differences in scores on the author recognition test (ART)...
February 21, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181186/an-automated-behavioral-measure-of-mind-wandering-during-computerized-reading
#2
Myrthe Faber, Robert Bixler, Sidney K D'Mello
Mind wandering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in which attention shifts from task-related to task-unrelated thoughts. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of interest in mind wandering, but research has been stymied by a lack of objective measures, leading to a near-exclusive reliance on self-reports. We addressed this issue by developing an eye-gaze-based, machine-learned model of mind wandering during computerized reading. Data were collected in a study in which 132 participants reported self-caught mind wandering while reading excerpts from a book on a computer screen...
February 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116701/an-eye-movement-corpus-study-of-the-age-of-acquisition-effect
#3
Nicolas Dirix, Wouter Duyck
In the present study, we investigated the effects of word-level age of acquisition (AoA) on natural reading. Previous studies, using multiple language modalities, showed that earlier-learned words are recognized, read, spoken, and responded to faster than words learned later in life. Until now, in visual word recognition the experimental materials were limited to single-word or sentence studies. We analyzed the data of the Ghent Eye-tracking Corpus (GECO; Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, in press), an eyetracking corpus of participants reading an entire novel, resulting in the first eye movement megastudy of AoA effects in natural reading...
January 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078573/setting-things-straight-a-comparison-of-measures-of-saccade-trajectory-deviation
#4
Luke Tudge, Eugene McSorley, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
In eye movements, saccade trajectory deviation has often been used as a physiological operationalization of visual attention, distraction, or the visual system's prioritization of different sources of information. However, there are many ways to measure saccade trajectories and to quantify their deviation. This may lead to noncomparable results and poses the problem of choosing a method that will maximize statistical power. Using data from existing studies and from our own experiments, we used principal components analysis to carry out a systematic quantification of the relationships among eight different measures of saccade trajectory deviation and their power to detect the effects of experimental manipulations, as measured by standardized effect size...
January 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074605/eyetracking-based-assessment-suggests-preserved-wellbeing-in-locked-in-patients
#5
Katharina Linse, Wolfgang Rüger, Markus Joos, Henning Schmitz-Peiffer, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann
We assessed quality of life (QoL) and psychological wellbeing in patients with ALS-induced locked-in-state and their next of kin in a fully unbiased manner using eye-tracking computer systems (ETCS). Eleven of 30 screened patients and nine next of kin completed study procedures. Patients reported good QoL which appeared to be at the cost of the QoL of their next of kin. Next of kin rated their own or patients' QoL similarly, but they identified different areas as important as compared with patients. Our results are of importance for the discussion of end-of-life-decisions and the evaluation of the patient's presumed wishes as well as for psychosocial interventions...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030516/scotoma-visibility-and-reading-rate-with-bilateral-central-scotomas
#6
Joshua D Pratt, Scott B Stevenson, Harold E Bedell
PURPOSE: In this experiment, we tested whether perceptually delineating the scotoma location and border with a gaze contingent polygon overlay improves reading speed and reading eye movements in patients with bilateral central scotomas. METHODS: Eight patients with age-related macular degeneration and bilateral central scotomas read aloud MNRead style sentences with their preferred eye. Eye movement signals from an EyeLink II eyetracker were used to create a gaze contingent display in which a polygon overlay delineating the area of the patient's scotoma was superimposed on the text during 18 of the 42 trials...
March 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928748/pupillary-response-to-complex-interdependent-tasks-a-cognitive-load-theory-perspective
#7
Ritayan Mitra, Karen S McNeal, Howard D Bondell
Pupil dilation is known to indicate cognitive load. In this study, we looked at the average pupillary responses of a cohort of 29 undergraduate students during graphical problem solving. Three questions were asked, based on the same graphical input. The questions were interdependent and comprised multiple steps. We propose a novel way of analyzing pupillometry data for such tasks on the basis of eye fixations, a commonly used eyetracking parameter. We found that pupil diameter increased during the solution process...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923928/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#8
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behaviour. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behaviour is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been directly studied in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and eye movements were simultaneously monitored...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#9
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893991/saclab-a-toolbox-for-saccade-analysis-to-increase-usability-of-eye-tracking-systems-in-clinical-ophthalmology-practice
#10
Laura Cercenelli, Guido Tiberi, Ivan Corazza, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Michela Fresina, Emanuela Marcelli
PURPOSE: Many open source software packages have been recently developed to expand the usability of eye tracking systems to study oculomotor behavior, but none of these is specifically designed to encompass all the main functions required for creating eye tracking tests and for providing the automatic analysis of saccadic eye movements. The aim of this study is to introduce SacLab, an intuitive, freely-available MATLAB toolbox based on Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) that we have developed to increase the usability of the ViewPoint EyeTracker (Arrington Research, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) in clinical ophthalmology practice...
November 22, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867260/tracking-sentence-comprehension-test-retest-reliability-in-people-with-aphasia-and-unimpaired-adults
#11
Jennifer E Mack, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Stephanie Gutierrez, Cynthia K Thompson
PURPOSE: Visual-world eyetracking is increasingly used to investigate online language processing in normal and language impaired listeners. Tracking changes in eye movements over time also may be useful for indexing language recovery in those with language impairments. Therefore, it is critical to determine the test-retest reliability of results obtained using this method. METHODS: Unimpaired young adults and people with aphasia took part in two eyetracking sessions spaced about one week apart...
November 2016: Journal of Neurolinguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866351/social-referencing-gaze-behavior-during-a-videogame-task-eye-tracking-evidence-from-children-with-and-without-asd
#12
Erinn H Finke, Krista M Wilkinson, Benjamin D Hickerson
The purpose of this study was to understand the social referencing behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while visually attending to a videogame stimulus depicting both the face of the videogame player and the videogame play action. Videogames appear to offer a uniquely well-suited environment for the emergence of friendships, but it is not known if children with and without ASD attend to and play videogames similarly. Eyetracking technology was used to investigate visual attention of participants matched based on chronological age...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813146/the-matrix-verb-as-a-source-of-comprehension-difficulty-in-object-relative-sentences
#13
Adrian Staub, Brian Dillon, Charles Clifton
Two experiments used eyetracking during reading to examine the processing of the matrix verb following object and subject relative clauses. The experiments show that the processing of the matrix verb following an object relative is indeed slowed compared to the processing of the same verb following a subject relative. However, this difficulty is entirely eliminated if additional material intervenes between the object gap and the matrix verb. An explanation in terms of spillover processing is ruled out, suggesting that it is the gap-matrix verb sequence that is itself responsible for the difficulty...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797092/the-pyetribe-simultaneous-eyetracking-for-economic-games
#14
Tomás Lejarraga, Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Daniel Smedema
The recent introduction of inexpensive eyetrackers has opened up a wealth of opportunities for researchers to study attention in interactive tasks. No software package has previously been available to help researchers exploit those opportunities. We created "the pyeTribe," a software package that offers, among others, the following features: first, a communication platform between many eyetrackers to allow for simultaneous recording of multiple participants; second, the simultaneous calibration of multiple eyetrackers without the experimenter's supervision; third, data collection restricted to periods of interest, thus reducing the volume of data and easing analysis...
October 28, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664351/the-effects-of-monocular-viewing-on-hand-eye-coordination-during-sequential-grasping-and-placing-movements
#15
David A Gonzalez, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
The contribution of binocular vision to the performance of reaching and grasping movements has been examined previously using single reach-to-grasp movements. However, most of our daily activities consist of more complex action sequences, which require precise temporal linking between the gaze behaviour and manual action phases. Many previous studies found a stereotypical hand-eye coordination pattern, such that the eyes move prior to the reach initiation. Moving the eyes to the target object provides information about its features and location, which can facilitate the predictive control of reaching and grasping...
September 26, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613019/an-evaluation-of-scanpath-comparison-and-machine-learning-classification-algorithms-used-to-study-the-dynamics-of-analogy-making
#16
Robert M French, Yannick Glady, Jean-Pierre Thibaut
In recent years, eyetracking has begun to be used to study the dynamics of analogy making. Numerous scanpath-comparison algorithms and machine-learning techniques are available that can be applied to the raw eyetracking data. We show how scanpath-comparison algorithms, combined with multidimensional scaling and a classification algorithm, can be used to resolve an outstanding question in analogy making-namely, whether or not children's and adults' strategies in solving analogy problems are different. (They are...
September 9, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602009/experience-based-probabilities-modulate-expectations-in-a-gender-coded-artificial-language
#17
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The current study combines artificial language learning with visual world eyetracking to investigate acquisition of representations associating spoken words and visual referents using morphologically complex pseudowords. Pseudowords were constructed to consistently encode referential gender by means of suffixation for a set of imaginary figures that could be either male or female. During training, the frequency of exposure to pseudowords and their imaginary figure referents were manipulated such that a given word and its referent would be more likely to occur in either the masculine form or the feminine form, or both forms would be equally likely...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577455/feasibility-of-eyetracking-in-critical-care-environments-a-systematic-review
#18
Andreas Klausen, Rainer Röhrig, Myriam Lipprandt
Achieving a good understanding of the socio-technical system in critical or emergency situations is important for patient safety. Research in human-computer interaction in the field of anesthesia or surgery has the potential to improve usability of the user interfaces and enhance patient safety. Therefore eye-tracking is a technology for analyzing gaze patterns. It can also measure what is being perceived by the physician during medical procedures. The aim of this review is the applicability of eye-tracker in the domain of simulated or real environments of anesthesia, surgery or intensive care...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479970/do-you-see-what-i-see-the-effect-of-gaze-tracking-on-task-space-remote-collaboration
#19
Kunal Gupta, Gun A Lee, Mark Billinghurst
We present results from research exploring the effect of sharing virtual gaze and pointing cues in a wearable interface for remote collaboration. A local worker wears a Head-mounted Camera, Eye-tracking camera and a Head-Mounted Display and shares video and virtual gaze information with a remote helper. The remote helper can provide feedback using a virtual pointer on the live video view. The prototype system was evaluated with a formal user study. Comparing four conditions, (1) NONE (no cue), (2) POINTER, (3) EYE-TRACKER and (4) BOTH (both pointer and eye-tracker cues), we observed that the task completion performance was best in the BOTH condition with a significant difference of POINTER and EYETRACKER individually...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389789/eyetracker-based-gaze-correction-for-robust-mapping-of-population-receptive-fields
#20
A Hummer, M Ritter, M Tik, A A Ledolter, M Woletz, G E Holder, S O Dumoulin, U Schmidt-Erfurth, C Windischberger
Functional MRI enables the acquisition of a retinotopic map that relates regions of the visual field to neural populations in the visual cortex. During such a "population receptive field" (PRF) experiment, stable gaze fixation is of utmost importance in order to correctly link the presented stimulus patterns to stimulated retinal regions and the resulting Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) response of the appropriate region within the visual cortex. A method is described that compensates for unstable gaze fixation by recording gaze position via an eyetracker and subsequently modifies the input stimulus underlying the PRF analysis according to the eyetracking measures...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
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