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David A Gonzalez, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
The contribution of binocular vision to the performance of reaching and grasping movements has been examined previously using single reach-to-grasp movements. However, most of our daily activities consist of more complex action sequences, which require precise temporal linking between the gaze behaviour and manual action phases. Many previous studies found a stereotypical hand-eye coordination pattern, such that the eyes move prior to the reach initiation. Moving the eyes to the target object provides information about its features and location, which can facilitate the predictive control of reaching and grasping...
September 26, 2016: Vision Research
Robert M French, Yannick Glady, Jean-Pierre Thibaut
In recent years, eyetracking has begun to be used to study the dynamics of analogy making. Numerous scanpath-comparison algorithms and machine-learning techniques are available that can be applied to the raw eyetracking data. We show how scanpath-comparison algorithms, combined with multidimensional scaling and a classification algorithm, can be used to resolve an outstanding question in analogy making-namely, whether or not children's and adults' strategies in solving analogy problems are different. (They are...
September 9, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The current study combines artificial language learning with visual world eyetracking to investigate acquisition of representations associating spoken words and visual referents using morphologically complex pseudowords. Pseudowords were constructed to consistently encode referential gender by means of suffixation for a set of imaginary figures that could be either male or female. During training, the frequency of exposure to pseudowords and their imaginary figure referents were manipulated such that a given word and its referent would be more likely to occur in either the masculine form or the feminine form, or both forms would be equally likely...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Andreas Klausen, Rainer Röhrig, Myriam Lipprandt
Achieving a good understanding of the socio-technical system in critical or emergency situations is important for patient safety. Research in human-computer interaction in the field of anesthesia or surgery has the potential to improve usability of the user interfaces and enhance patient safety. Therefore eye-tracking is a technology for analyzing gaze patterns. It can also measure what is being perceived by the physician during medical procedures. The aim of this review is the applicability of eye-tracker in the domain of simulated or real environments of anesthesia, surgery or intensive care...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Kunal Gupta, Gun A Lee, Mark Billinghurst
We present results from research exploring the effect of sharing virtual gaze and pointing cues in a wearable interface for remote collaboration. A local worker wears a Head-mounted Camera, Eye-tracking camera and a Head-Mounted Display and shares video and virtual gaze information with a remote helper. The remote helper can provide feedback using a virtual pointer on the live video view. The prototype system was evaluated with a formal user study. Comparing four conditions, (1) NONE (no cue), (2) POINTER, (3) EYE-TRACKER and (4) BOTH (both pointer and eye-tracker cues), we observed that the task completion performance was best in the BOTH condition with a significant difference of POINTER and EYETRACKER individually...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
A Hummer, M Ritter, M Tik, A Ledolter, M Woletz, G E Holder, S O Dumoulin, U Schmidt-Erfurth, C Windischberger
Functional MRI enables the acquisition of a retinotopic map that relates regions of the visual field to neural populations in the visual cortex. During such a "population receptive field" (PRF) experiment, stable gaze fixation is of utmost importance in order to correctly link the presented stimulus patterns to stimulated retinal regions and the resulting Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) response of the appropriate region within the visual cortex. A method is described that compensates for unstable gaze fixation by recording gaze position via an eyetracker and subsequently modifies the input stimulus underlying the PRF analysis according to the eyetracking measures...
July 4, 2016: NeuroImage
Gerardo Fernández, Salvador Guinjoan, Marcelo Sapognikoff, David Orozco, Osvaldo Agamennoni
In the present work we analyzed fixation duration in 40 healthy individuals and 18 patients with chronic, stable SZ during reading of regular sentences and proverbs. While they read, their eye movements were recorded. We used lineal mixed models to analyze fixation durations. The predictability of words N-1, N, and N+1 exerted a strong influence on controls and SZ patients. The influence of the predictabilities of preceding, current, and upcoming words on SZ was clearly reduced for proverbs in comparison to regular sentences...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Gerardo Fernández, Marcelo Sapognikoff, Salvador Guinjoan, David Orozco, Osvaldo Agamennoni
PURPOSE: The current study analyze the effect of word properties (i.e., word length, word frequency and word predictability) on the eye movement behavior of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) compared to age-matched controls. METHOD: 18 SZ patients and 40 age matched controls participated in the study. Eye movements were recorded during reading regular sentences by using the eyetracking technique. Eye movement analyses were performed using linear mixed models. FINDINGS: Analysis of eye movements revealed that patients with SZ decreased the amount of single fixations, increased their total number of second pass fixations compared with healthy individuals (Controls)...
July 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Manuel Perea, Lourdes Giner, Ana Marcet, Pablo Gomez
A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1...
2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Uschi Cop, Nicolas Dirix, Denis Drieghe, Wouter Duyck
This article introduces GECO, the Ghent Eye-Tracking Corpus, a monolingual and bilingual corpus of the eyetracking data of participants reading a complete novel. English monolinguals and Dutch-English bilinguals read an entire novel, which was presented in paragraphs on the screen. The bilinguals read half of the novel in their first language, and the other half in their second language. In this article, we describe the distributions and descriptive statistics of the most important reading time measures for the two groups of participants...
May 18, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Rosa Steimke, Christine Stelzel, Robert Gaschler, Marcus Rothkirch, Vera U Ludwig, Lena M Paschke, Ima Trempler, Norbert Kathmann, Thomas Goschke, Henrik Walter
Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting, and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2) to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
K B Pedersen, A K Sjølie, A H Vestergaard, S Andréasson, F Møller
PURPOSE: To quantify fixation stability in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) at baseline, 3 and 6 months after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment and furthermore asses the implications of an unsteady fixation for multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) measurements. METHODS: Fifty eyes of 50 nAMD patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment with either bevacizumab or ranibizumab and eight eyes of eight control subjects were included...
April 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Ralph Adolphs, Lauri Nummenmaa, Alexander Todorov, James V Haxby
The complexity of social perception poses a challenge to traditional approaches to understand its psychological and neurobiological underpinnings. Data-driven methods are particularly well suited to tackling the often high-dimensional nature of stimulus spaces and of neural representations that characterize social perception. Such methods are more exploratory, capitalize on rich and large datasets, and attempt to discover patterns often without strict hypothesis testing. We present four case studies here: behavioural studies on face judgements, two neuroimaging studies of movies, and eyetracking studies in autism...
May 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Hee-Kyoung Ko, D Max Snodderly, Martina Poletti
Intersaccadic periods of fixation are characterized by incessant retinal motion due to small eye movements. While these movements are often disregarded as noise, the temporal modulations they introduce to retinal receptors are significant. However, analysis of these input modulations is challenging because the intersaccadic eye motion is close to the resolution limits of most eyetrackers, including widespread pupil-based video systems. Here, we analyzed in depth the limits of two high-precision eyetrackers, the Dual-Purkinje Image and the scleral search coil, and compared the intersaccadic eye movements of humans to those of a non-human primate...
May 2016: Vision Research
Jill Talley Shelton, Eddie A Christopher
Remembering to complete one's future intentions is termed prospective memory. We employed a new eyetracking paradigm to concretely observe the impact of environmental cues on strategic monitoring within a visual prospective memory task. Participants worked on a continuous living-count task comprising images, while simultaneously being asked to respond to a prospective memory target when it appeared. Importantly, the prospective memory target appeared in a different area of the participant's visual field than did the continuous task, which is consistent with prospective memory in many real-world situations, and further allows for a clear index of strategic monitoring processes...
August 2016: Memory & Cognition
Christian Vater, Ralf Kredel, Ernst-Joachim Hossner
In the present study, we investigated whether peripheral vision can be used to monitor multiple moving objects and to detect single-target changes. For this purpose, in Experiment 1, a modified multiple object tracking (MOT) setup with a large projection screen and a constant-position centroid phase had to be checked first. Classical findings regarding the use of a virtual centroid to track multiple objects and the dependency of tracking accuracy on target speed could be successfully replicated. Thereafter, the main experimental variations regarding the manipulation of to-be-detected target changes could be introduced in Experiment 2...
May 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
John M Henderson, Wonil Choi, Matthew W Lowder, Fernanda Ferreira
How is syntactic analysis implemented by the human brain during language comprehension? The current study combined methods from computational linguistics, eyetracking, and fMRI to address this question. Subjects read passages of text presented as paragraphs while their eye movements were recorded in an MRI scanner. We parsed the text using a probabilistic context-free grammar to isolate syntactic difficulty. Syntactic difficulty was quantified as syntactic surprisal, which is related to the expectedness of a given word's syntactic category given its preceding context...
May 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Silvia Primativo, Jamie Reilly, Sebastian J Crutch
The Abstract Conceptual Feature (ACF) framework predicts that word meaning is represented within a high-dimensional semantic space bounded by weighted contributions of perceptual, affective, and encyclopedic information. The ACF, like latent semantic analysis, is amenable to distance metrics between any two words. We applied predictions of the ACF framework to abstract words using eyetracking via an adaptation of the classical "visual word paradigm" (VWP). Healthy adults (n = 20) selected the lexical item most related to a probe word in a 4-item written word array comprising the target and three distractors...
February 22, 2016: Cognitive Science
Jennifer Vonk
Kano and Hirata (Current Biology, 25, 2513-2517, 2015) recently showed that apes process object and location information and anticipate the repeated presentation of such events in short film clips. Their methodology, using eyetracking, can provide a foundation for further explications of long-term prospective and episodic memory in nonverbal species.
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
Stephanie Y Chen, Brian H Ross, Gregory L Murphy
Category information is used to predict properties of new category members. When categorization is uncertain, people often rely on only one, most likely category to make predictions. Yet studies of perception and action often conclude that people combine multiple sources of information near-optimally. We present a perception-action analog of category-based induction using eye movements as a measure of prediction. The categories were objects of different shapes that moved in various directions. Experiment 1 found that people integrated information across categories in predicting object motion...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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