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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936186/assessing-the-formation-of-experience-based-gender-expectations-in-an-implicit-learning-scenario
#1
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The present study investigates the formation of new word-referent associations in an implicit learning scenario, using a gender-coded artificial language with spoken words and visual referents. Previous research has shown that when participants are explicitly instructed about the gender-coding system underlying an artificial lexicon, they monitor the frequency of exposure to male vs. female referents within this lexicon, and subsequently use this probabilistic information to predict the gender of an upcoming referent...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934359/microsaccades-during-reading
#2
Norick R Bowers, Martina Poletti
Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852362/visual-interpretation-of-plain-radiographs-in-orthopaedics-using-eye-tracking-technology
#3
Jessica Hanley, David Warren, Natalie Glass, Daniel Tranel, Matthew Karam, Joseph Buckwalter
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of radiographic interpretation in orthopaedics, there not a clear understanding of the specific visual strategies used while analyzing a plain film. Eyetracking technology allows for the objective study of eye movements while performing a dynamic task, such as reading X-rays. Our study looks to elucidate objective differences in image interpretation between novice and experienced orthopaedic trainees using this novel technology. METHODS: Novice and experienced orthopaedic trainees (N=23) were asked to interpret AP pelvis films, searching for unilateral acetabular fractures while eye-movements were assessed for pattern of gaze, fixation on regions of interest, and time of fixation at regions of interest...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812285/the-reliability-of-eyetracking-to-assess-attentional-bias-to-threatening-words-in-healthy-individuals
#4
Ian W Skinner, Markus Hübscher, G Lorimer Moseley, Hopin Lee, Benedict M Wand, Adrian C Traeger, Sylvia M Gustin, James H McAuley
Eyetracking is commonly used to investigate attentional bias. Although some studies have investigated the internal consistency of eyetracking, data are scarce on the test-retest reliability and agreement of eyetracking to investigate attentional bias. This study reports the test-retest reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of 12 commonly used outcome measures thought to reflect the different components of attentional bias: overall attention, early attention, and late attention. Healthy participants completed a preferential-looking eyetracking task that involved the presentation of threatening (sensory words, general threat words, and affective words) and nonthreatening words...
August 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791625/language-driven-anticipatory-eye-movements-in-virtual-reality
#5
Nicole Eichert, David Peeters, Peter Hagoort
Predictive language processing is often studied by measuring eye movements as participants look at objects on a computer screen while they listen to spoken sentences. This variant of the visual-world paradigm has revealed that information encountered by a listener at a spoken verb can give rise to anticipatory eye movements to a target object, which is taken to indicate that people predict upcoming words. The ecological validity of such findings remains questionable, however, because these computer experiments used two-dimensional stimuli that were mere abstractions of real-world objects...
August 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745471/visual-control-in-basketball-shooting-under-exertion-conditions
#6
Teresa Zwierko, Marek Popowczak, Jarosław Woźniak, Andrzej Rokita
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of physical exertion on gaze behavior during basketball shooting in both stationary and dynamic conditions. METHODS: Thirteen skilled basketball players performed two-point shooting during a 60 second fatigue protocol. Before and after a jump shot test, players performed two free throws. Eye movements were registered using an SMI Mobile EyeTracker. The frequency of all fixation points (number) and fixation duration during the motor phases of shooting were determined using frame-by- frame analysis...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619425/using-endogenous-saccades-to-characterize-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Marisa Ferreira, Paulo A Pereira, Marta Parreira, Inês Sousa, José Figueiredo, João J Cerqueira, Antonio F Macedo
PURPOSE: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSS<=3) and age matched controls were recruited. Eye movements were monitored using an infrared eyetracker...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539948/attitudes-formation-by-small-but-meaningful-personal-information
#8
Jaejoong Kim, Sang Won Lee, Minwook Kwak, Kyueun Lee, Bumseok Jeong
OBJECTIVE: People often evaluate others using fragmentary but meaningful personal information in recent days through social media. It is not clear that whether this process is implicit or explicit and what kind of information is more important in such process.We examined the effects of several meaningful fragmentary information onattitude. METHODS: Thirty three KAIST students were provided four fragmentary information about four virtual people that are meaningful in evaluating people and frequently seen in real life situations, and were asked to imagine that person during four follow-up sessions...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508716/neural-correlates-of-individual-differences-in-fixation-duration-during-natural-reading
#9
John M Henderson, Wonil Choi, Steven G Luke, Joseph Schmidt
Reading requires integration of language and cognitive processes with attention and eye movement control. Individuals differ in their reading ability, but little is known about the neurocognitive processes associated with these individual differences. To investigate this issue, we combined eyetracking and fMRI, simultaneously recording eye movements and BOLD activity while subjects read text passages. We found that the variability and skew of fixation duration distributions across individuals, as assessed by ex-Gaussian analyses, decreased with increasing neural activity in regions associated with the cortical eye movement control network (Left FEF, Left IPS, Left IFG, and Right IFG)...
May 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508116/comparing-visual-search-and-eye-movements-in-bilinguals-and-monolinguals
#10
Ileana Ratiu, Michael C Hout, Stephen C Walenchok, Tamiko Azuma, Stephen D Goldinger
Recent research has suggested that bilinguals show advantages over monolinguals in visual search tasks, although these findings have been derived from global behavioral measures of accuracy and response times. In the present study we sought to explore the bilingual advantage by using more sensitive eyetracking techniques across three visual search experiments. These spatially and temporally fine-grained measures allowed us to carefully investigate any nuanced attentional differences between bilinguals and monolinguals...
August 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473640/anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volume-predicted-by-altered-intra-item-configural-processing
#11
Lok-Kin Yeung, Rosanna K Olsen, Hannah E P Bild-Enkin, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Douglas A McQuiggan, Anna Keshabyan, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
Recent functional imaging studies have proposed that the human entorhinal cortex (ERC) is subdivided into functionally distinct anterolateral (alERC) and posteromedial (pmERC) subregions. The alERC overlaps with regions that are affected earliest by Alzheimer's disease pathology, yet its cognitive function remains poorly understood. Previous human fMRI studies have focused on its role in object memory, but rodent studies on the putatively homologous lateral entorhinal cortex suggest that it also plays an important role in representing spatial properties of objects...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386440/the-positive-side-of-a-negative-reference-the-delay-between-linguistic-processing-and-common-ground
#12
Edmundo Kronmüller, Ira Noveck, Natalia Rivera, Francisco Jaume-Guazzini, Dale Barr
Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The common ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners like any other linguistic unit, i.e...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383171/psychophysiological-responses-to-emotions-of-others-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-correlates-of-social-functioning
#13
Gemma Zantinge, Sophie van Rijn, Lex Stockmann, Hanna Swaab
Studying cognitive and affective mechanisms of social behavior could lead to identifying early indicators of derailing social behavior in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The present study combined sensitive and objective techniques, such as eyetracking and psychophysiology, to provide insight into early neurodevelopmental mechanisms that are more difficult to uncover when relying on behavioral measures. Social attention towards faces and changes in affective arousal were investigated together in 28 young children with ASD (42-75 months) and 45 nonclinical controls (41-81 months)...
April 6, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379187/a-novel-hybrid-mental-spelling-application-based-on-eye-tracking-and-ssvep-based-bci
#14
Piotr Stawicki, Felix Gembler, Aya Rezeika, Ivan Volosyak
Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs)-based Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs), as well as eyetracking devices, provide a pathway for re-establishing communication for people with severe disabilities. We fused these control techniques into a novel eyetracking/SSVEP hybrid system, which utilizes eye tracking for initial rough selection and the SSVEP technology for fine target activation. Based on our previous studies, only four stimuli were used for the SSVEP aspect, granting sufficient control for most BCI users...
April 5, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349383/right-away-a-late-right-lateralized-category-effect-complements-an-early-left-lateralized-category-effect-in-visual-search
#15
Merryn D Constable, Stefanie I Becker
According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language...
March 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348524/recovery-of-sentence-production-processes-following-language-treatment-in-aphasia-evidence-from-eyetracking
#16
Jennifer E Mack, Michaela Nerantzini, Cynthia K Thompson
Introduction: Sentence production impairments in aphasia often improve with treatment. However, little is known about how cognitive processes supporting sentence production, such as sentence planning, are impacted by treatment. Methods: The present study used eyetracking to examine changes in sentence production resulting from a 12-week language treatment program focused on passive sentences (Treatment of Underlying Forms (TUF); Thompson and Shapiro, 2005). In two pre-treatment and two post-treatment sessions, nine participants with mild-to-moderate agrammatic aphasia performed a structural priming task, which involved repeating primed sentences (actives or passives) and then, using the same verb, producing sentences describing pictured events...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224480/print-exposure-modulates-the-effects-of-repetition-priming-during-sentence-reading
#17
Matthew W Lowder, Peter C Gordon
Individual readers vary greatly in the quality of their lexical representations, and consequently in how quickly and efficiently they can access orthographic and lexical knowledge. This variability may be explained, at least in part, by individual differences in exposure to printed language, because practice at reading promotes the development of stronger reading skills. In the present eyetracking experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of word recognition during reading improves with increases in print exposure, by determining whether the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect is modulated by individual differences in scores on the author recognition test (ART)...
February 21, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181186/an-automated-behavioral-measure-of-mind-wandering-during-computerized-reading
#18
Myrthe Faber, Robert Bixler, Sidney K D'Mello
Mind wandering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in which attention shifts from task-related to task-unrelated thoughts. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of interest in mind wandering, but research has been stymied by a lack of objective measures, leading to a near-exclusive reliance on self-reports. We addressed this issue by developing an eye-gaze-based, machine-learned model of mind wandering during computerized reading. Data were collected in a study in which 132 participants reported self-caught mind wandering while reading excerpts from a book on a computer screen...
February 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116701/an-eye-movement-corpus-study-of-the-age-of-acquisition-effect
#19
Nicolas Dirix, Wouter Duyck
In the present study, we investigated the effects of word-level age of acquisition (AoA) on natural reading. Previous studies, using multiple language modalities, showed that earlier-learned words are recognized, read, spoken, and responded to faster than words learned later in life. Until now, in visual word recognition the experimental materials were limited to single-word or sentence studies. We analyzed the data of the Ghent Eye-tracking Corpus (GECO; Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, in press), an eyetracking corpus of participants reading an entire novel, resulting in the first eye movement megastudy of AoA effects in natural reading...
January 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078573/setting-things-straight-a-comparison-of-measures-of-saccade-trajectory-deviation
#20
Luke Tudge, Eugene McSorley, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
In eye movements, saccade trajectory deviation has often been used as a physiological operationalization of visual attention, distraction, or the visual system's prioritization of different sources of information. However, there are many ways to measure saccade trajectories and to quantify their deviation. This may lead to noncomparable results and poses the problem of choosing a method that will maximize statistical power. Using data from existing studies and from our own experiments, we used principal components analysis to carry out a systematic quantification of the relationships among eight different measures of saccade trajectory deviation and their power to detect the effects of experimental manipulations, as measured by standardized effect size...
January 11, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
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