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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928748/pupillary-response-to-complex-interdependent-tasks-a-cognitive-load-theory-perspective
#1
Ritayan Mitra, Karen S McNeal, Howard D Bondell
Pupil dilation is known to indicate cognitive load. In this study, we looked at the average pupillary responses of a cohort of 29 undergraduate students during graphical problem solving. Three questions were asked, based on the same graphical input. The questions were interdependent and comprised multiple steps. We propose a novel way of analyzing pupillometry data for such tasks on the basis of eye fixations, a commonly used eyetracking parameter. We found that pupil diameter increased during the solution process...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923928/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#2
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behaviour. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behaviour is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been directly studied in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and eye movements were simultaneously monitored...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#3
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893991/saclab-a-toolbox-for-saccade-analysis-to-increase-usability-of-eye-tracking-systems-in-clinical-ophthalmology-practice
#4
Laura Cercenelli, Guido Tiberi, Ivan Corazza, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Michela Fresina, Emanuela Marcelli
PURPOSE: Many open source software packages have been recently developed to expand the usability of eye tracking systems to study oculomotor behavior, but none of these is specifically designed to encompass all the main functions required for creating eye tracking tests and for providing the automatic analysis of saccadic eye movements. The aim of this study is to introduce SacLab, an intuitive, freely-available MATLAB toolbox based on Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) that we have developed to increase the usability of the ViewPoint EyeTracker (Arrington Research, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) in clinical ophthalmology practice...
November 22, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867260/tracking-sentence-comprehension-test-retest-reliability-in-people-with-aphasia-and-unimpaired-adults
#5
Jennifer E Mack, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Stephanie Gutierrez, Cynthia K Thompson
PURPOSE: Visual-world eyetracking is increasingly used to investigate online language processing in normal and language impaired listeners. Tracking changes in eye movements over time also may be useful for indexing language recovery in those with language impairments. Therefore, it is critical to determine the test-retest reliability of results obtained using this method. METHODS: Unimpaired young adults and people with aphasia took part in two eyetracking sessions spaced about one week apart...
November 2016: Journal of Neurolinguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866351/social-referencing-gaze-behavior-during-a-videogame-task-eye-tracking-evidence-from-children-with-and-without-asd
#6
Erinn H Finke, Krista M Wilkinson, Benjamin D Hickerson
The purpose of this study was to understand the social referencing behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while visually attending to a videogame stimulus depicting both the face of the videogame player and the videogame play action. Videogames appear to offer a uniquely well-suited environment for the emergence of friendships, but it is not known if children with and without ASD attend to and play videogames similarly. Eyetracking technology was used to investigate visual attention of participants matched based on chronological age...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813146/the-matrix-verb-as-a-source-of-comprehension-difficulty-in-object-relative-sentences
#7
Adrian Staub, Brian Dillon, Charles Clifton
Two experiments used eyetracking during reading to examine the processing of the matrix verb following object and subject relative clauses. The experiments show that the processing of the matrix verb following an object relative is indeed slowed compared to the processing of the same verb following a subject relative. However, this difficulty is entirely eliminated if additional material intervenes between the object gap and the matrix verb. An explanation in terms of spillover processing is ruled out, suggesting that it is the gap-matrix verb sequence that is itself responsible for the difficulty...
November 4, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797092/the-pyetribe-simultaneous-eyetracking-for-economic-games
#8
Tomás Lejarraga, Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Daniel Smedema
The recent introduction of inexpensive eyetrackers has opened up a wealth of opportunities for researchers to study attention in interactive tasks. No software package has previously been available to help researchers exploit those opportunities. We created "the pyeTribe," a software package that offers, among others, the following features: first, a communication platform between many eyetrackers to allow for simultaneous recording of multiple participants; second, the simultaneous calibration of multiple eyetrackers without the experimenter's supervision; third, data collection restricted to periods of interest, thus reducing the volume of data and easing analysis...
October 28, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664351/the-effects-of-monocular-viewing-on-hand-eye-coordination-during-sequential-grasping-and-placing-movements
#9
David A Gonzalez, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
The contribution of binocular vision to the performance of reaching and grasping movements has been examined previously using single reach-to-grasp movements. However, most of our daily activities consist of more complex action sequences, which require precise temporal linking between the gaze behaviour and manual action phases. Many previous studies found a stereotypical hand-eye coordination pattern, such that the eyes move prior to the reach initiation. Moving the eyes to the target object provides information about its features and location, which can facilitate the predictive control of reaching and grasping...
September 26, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613019/an-evaluation-of-scanpath-comparison-and-machine-learning-classification-algorithms-used-to-study-the-dynamics-of-analogy-making
#10
Robert M French, Yannick Glady, Jean-Pierre Thibaut
In recent years, eyetracking has begun to be used to study the dynamics of analogy making. Numerous scanpath-comparison algorithms and machine-learning techniques are available that can be applied to the raw eyetracking data. We show how scanpath-comparison algorithms, combined with multidimensional scaling and a classification algorithm, can be used to resolve an outstanding question in analogy making-namely, whether or not children's and adults' strategies in solving analogy problems are different. (They are...
September 9, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602009/experience-based-probabilities-modulate-expectations-in-a-gender-coded-artificial-language
#11
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The current study combines artificial language learning with visual world eyetracking to investigate acquisition of representations associating spoken words and visual referents using morphologically complex pseudowords. Pseudowords were constructed to consistently encode referential gender by means of suffixation for a set of imaginary figures that could be either male or female. During training, the frequency of exposure to pseudowords and their imaginary figure referents were manipulated such that a given word and its referent would be more likely to occur in either the masculine form or the feminine form, or both forms would be equally likely...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577455/feasibility-of-eyetracking-in-critical-care-environments-a-systematic-review
#12
Andreas Klausen, Rainer Röhrig, Myriam Lipprandt
Achieving a good understanding of the socio-technical system in critical or emergency situations is important for patient safety. Research in human-computer interaction in the field of anesthesia or surgery has the potential to improve usability of the user interfaces and enhance patient safety. Therefore eye-tracking is a technology for analyzing gaze patterns. It can also measure what is being perceived by the physician during medical procedures. The aim of this review is the applicability of eye-tracker in the domain of simulated or real environments of anesthesia, surgery or intensive care...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479970/do-you-see-what-i-see-the-effect-of-gaze-tracking-on-task-space-remote-collaboration
#13
Kunal Gupta, Gun A Lee, Mark Billinghurst
We present results from research exploring the effect of sharing virtual gaze and pointing cues in a wearable interface for remote collaboration. A local worker wears a Head-mounted Camera, Eye-tracking camera and a Head-Mounted Display and shares video and virtual gaze information with a remote helper. The remote helper can provide feedback using a virtual pointer on the live video view. The prototype system was evaluated with a formal user study. Comparing four conditions, (1) NONE (no cue), (2) POINTER, (3) EYE-TRACKER and (4) BOTH (both pointer and eye-tracker cues), we observed that the task completion performance was best in the BOTH condition with a significant difference of POINTER and EYETRACKER individually...
November 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389789/eyetracker-based-gaze-correction-for-robust-mapping-of-population-receptive-fields
#14
A Hummer, M Ritter, M Tik, A Ledolter, M Woletz, G E Holder, S O Dumoulin, U Schmidt-Erfurth, C Windischberger
Functional MRI enables the acquisition of a retinotopic map that relates regions of the visual field to neural populations in the visual cortex. During such a "population receptive field" (PRF) experiment, stable gaze fixation is of utmost importance in order to correctly link the presented stimulus patterns to stimulated retinal regions and the resulting Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) response of the appropriate region within the visual cortex. A method is described that compensates for unstable gaze fixation by recording gaze position via an eyetracker and subsequently modifies the input stimulus underlying the PRF analysis according to the eyetracking measures...
July 4, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236087/contextual-predictability-enhances-reading-performance-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Gerardo Fernández, Salvador Guinjoan, Marcelo Sapognikoff, David Orozco, Osvaldo Agamennoni
In the present work we analyzed fixation duration in 40 healthy individuals and 18 patients with chronic, stable SZ during reading of regular sentences and proverbs. While they read, their eye movements were recorded. We used lineal mixed models to analyze fixation durations. The predictability of words N-1, N, and N+1 exerted a strong influence on controls and SZ patients. The influence of the predictabilities of preceding, current, and upcoming words on SZ was clearly reduced for proverbs in comparison to regular sentences...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234202/word-processing-during-reading-sentences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-evidences-from-the-eyetracking-technique
#16
Gerardo Fernández, Marcelo Sapognikoff, Salvador Guinjoan, David Orozco, Osvaldo Agamennoni
PURPOSE: The current study analyze the effect of word properties (i.e., word length, word frequency and word predictability) on the eye movement behavior of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) compared to age-matched controls. METHOD: 18 SZ patients and 40 age matched controls participated in the study. Eye movements were recorded during reading regular sentences by using the eyetracking technique. Eye movement analyses were performed using linear mixed models. FINDINGS: Analysis of eye movements revealed that patients with SZ decreased the amount of single fixations, increased their total number of second pass fixations compared with healthy individuals (Controls)...
July 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210581/does-extra-interletter-spacing-help-text-reading-in-skilled-adult-readers
#17
Manuel Perea, Lourdes Giner, Ana Marcet, Pablo Gomez
A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1...
2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193157/presenting-geco-an-eyetracking-corpus-of-monolingual-and-bilingual-sentence-reading
#18
Uschi Cop, Nicolas Dirix, Denis Drieghe, Wouter Duyck
This article introduces GECO, the Ghent Eye-Tracking Corpus, a monolingual and bilingual corpus of the eyetracking data of participants reading a complete novel. English monolinguals and Dutch-English bilinguals read an entire novel, which was presented in paragraphs on the screen. The bilinguals read half of the novel in their first language, and the other half in their second language. In this article, we describe the distributions and descriptive statistics of the most important reading time measures for the two groups of participants...
May 18, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148101/decomposing-self-control-individual-differences-in-goal-pursuit-despite-interfering-aversion-temptation-and-distraction
#19
Rosa Steimke, Christine Stelzel, Robert Gaschler, Marcus Rothkirch, Vera U Ludwig, Lena M Paschke, Ima Trempler, Norbert Kathmann, Thomas Goschke, Henrik Walter
Self-control can be defined as the ability to exert control over ones impulses. Currently, most research in the area relies on self-report. Focusing on attentional control processes involved in self-control, we modified a spatial selective attentional cueing task to test three domains of self-control experimentally in one task using aversive, tempting, and neutral picture-distractors. The aims of the study were (1) to investigate individual differences in the susceptibility to aversive, tempting, and neutral distraction within one paradigm and (2) to test the association of these three self-control domains to conventional measures of self-control including self-report...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080862/fixation-stability-and-implication-for-multifocal-electroretinography-in-patients-with-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-after-anti-vegf-treatment
#20
K B Pedersen, A K Sjølie, A H Vestergaard, S Andréasson, F Møller
PURPOSE: To quantify fixation stability in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) at baseline, 3 and 6 months after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment and furthermore asses the implications of an unsteady fixation for multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) measurements. METHODS: Fifty eyes of 50 nAMD patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment with either bevacizumab or ranibizumab and eight eyes of eight control subjects were included...
April 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
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