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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362408/attentional-and-physiological-processing-of-food-images-in-functional-dyspepsia-patients-a-pilot-study
#1
In-Seon Lee, Hubert Preissl, Katrin Giel, Kathrin Schag, Paul Enck
The food-related behavior of functional dyspepsia has been attracting more interest of late. This pilot study aims to provide evidence of the physiological, emotional, and attentional aspects of food processing in functional dyspepsia patients. The study was performed in 15 functional dyspepsia patients and 17 healthy controls after a standard breakfast. We measured autonomic nervous system activity using skin conductance response and heart rate variability, emotional response using facial electromyography, and visual attention using eyetracking during the visual stimuli of food/non-food images...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344925/translating-visual-information-into-action-predictions-statistical-learning-in-action-and-nonaction-contexts
#2
Claire D Monroy, Sarah A Gerson, Sabine Hunnius
Humans are sensitive to the statistical regularities in action sequences carried out by others. In the present eyetracking study, we investigated whether this sensitivity can support the prediction of upcoming actions when observing unfamiliar action sequences. In two between-subjects conditions, we examined whether observers would be more sensitive to statistical regularities in sequences performed by a human agent versus self-propelled 'ghost' events. Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects...
January 17, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340968/a-novel-blink-detection-method-based-on-pupillometry-noise
#3
Ronen Hershman, Avishai Henik, Noga Cohen
Pupillometry (or the measurement of pupil size) is commonly used as an index of cognitive load and arousal. Pupil size data are recorded using eyetracking devices that provide an output containing pupil size at various points in time. During blinks the eyetracking device loses track of the pupil, resulting in missing values in the output file. The missing-sample time window is preceded and followed by a sharp change in the recorded pupil size, due to the opening and closing of the eyelids. This eyelid signal can create artificial effects if it is not removed from the data...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288270/unstable-binocular-fixation-affects-reaction-times-but-not-implicit-motor-learning-in-dyslexia
#4
Anna Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Alicja Brenk-Krakowska, Pawel Nawrot, Patrycja Rusiak, Ryszard Naskrecki
Purpose: Individuals with developmental dyslexia suffer not only from reading problems as more general motor deficits can also be observed in this patient group. Both psychometric clinical tests and objective eyetracking methods suggest that unstable binocular fixation may contribute to reading problems. Because binocular instability may cause poor eye-hand coordination and impair motor control, the primary aim of this study was to explore in dyslexic subjects the influence of unstable binocular fixation on reaction times (RTs) and implicit motor learning (IML), which is one of the fundamental cerebellar functions...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218588/threats-to-the-validity-of-eye-movement-research-in-psychology
#5
Jacob L Orquin, Kenneth Holmqvist
Eyetracking research in psychology has grown exponentially over the past decades, as equipment has become cheaper and easier to use. The surge in eyetracking research has not, however, been equaled by a growth in methodological awareness, and practices that are best avoided have become commonplace. We describe nine threats to the validity of eyetracking research and provide, whenever possible, advice on how to avoid or mitigate these challenges. These threats concern both internal and external validity and relate to the design of eyetracking studies, to data preprocessing, to data analysis, and to the interpretation of eyetracking data...
December 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111439/the-effect-of-different-brightness-conditions-on-visually-and-memory-guided-saccades
#6
Anna-Maria Felßberg, Isabel Dombrowe
It is commonly assumed that saccades in the dark are slower than saccades in a lit room. Early studies that investigated this issue using electrooculography (EOG) often compared memory guided saccades in darkness to visually guided saccades in an illuminated room. However, later studies showed that memory guided saccades are generally slower than visually guided saccades. Research on this topic is further complicated by the fact that the different existing eyetracking methods do not necessarily lead to consistent measurements...
October 27, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092645/usability-of-eyetracking-computer-systems-and-impact-on-psychological-wellbeing-in-patients-with-advanced-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Katharina Linse, Wolfgang Rüger, Markus Joos, Henning Schmitz-Peiffer, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann
Restrictions in communicative abilities are well known in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but only few approaches in terms of evaluation of supportive technologies have been made. We aimed to assess the use and perceived usability of eye-tracking computer devices (ETCS) of severely impacted patients with ALS in an independent, direct manner and relate it to psychological well-being. ETCS enable active communication and social participation in the quadriplegic and anarthric disease state. Therefore, ETCS-based versions of widely used psychosocial questionnaires (ADI-12, SeiQoL-DW, WHO-5) as well as structured questions on communicative functioning and ETCS usage were developed to assess ALS patients, their next of kin and professional caregivers...
November 1, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076105/gaze3dfix-detecting-3d-fixations-with-an-ellipsoidal-bounding-volume
#8
Sascha Weber, Rebekka S Schubert, Stefan Vogt, Boris M Velichkovsky, Sebastian Pannasch
Nowadays, the use of eyetracking to determine 2-D gaze positions is common practice, and several approaches to the detection of 2-D fixations exist, but ready-to-use algorithms to determine eye movements in three dimensions are still missing. Here we present a dispersion-based algorithm with an ellipsoidal bounding volume that estimates 3D fixations. Therefore, 3D gaze points are obtained using a vector-based approach and are further processed with our algorithm. To evaluate the accuracy of our method, we performed experimental studies with real and virtual stimuli...
October 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031740/eyetracking-metrics-reveal-impaired-spatial-anticipation-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#9
Silvia Primativo, Camilla Clark, Keir X X Yong, Nicholas C Firth, Jennifer Nicholas, Daniel Alexander, Jason D Warren, Jonathan D Rohrer, Sebastian J Crutch
Eyetracking technology has had limited application in the dementia field to date, with most studies attempting to discriminate syndrome subgroups on the basis of basic oculomotor functions rather than higher-order cognitive abilities. Eyetracking-based tasks may also offer opportunities to reduce or ameliorate problems associated with standard paper-and-pencil cognitive tests such as the complexity and linguistic demands of verbal test instructions, and the problems of tiredness and attention associated with lengthy tasks that generate few data points at a slow rate...
October 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936186/assessing-the-formation-of-experience-based-gender-expectations-in-an-implicit-learning-scenario
#10
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The present study investigates the formation of new word-referent associations in an implicit learning scenario, using a gender-coded artificial language with spoken words and visual referents. Previous research has shown that when participants are explicitly instructed about the gender-coding system underlying an artificial lexicon, they monitor the frequency of exposure to male vs. female referents within this lexicon, and subsequently use this probabilistic information to predict the gender of an upcoming referent...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934359/microsaccades-during-reading
#11
Norick R Bowers, Martina Poletti
Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852362/visual-interpretation-of-plain-radiographs-in-orthopaedics-using-eye-tracking-technology
#12
Jessica Hanley, David Warren, Natalie Glass, Daniel Tranel, Matthew Karam, Joseph Buckwalter
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of radiographic interpretation in orthopaedics, there not a clear understanding of the specific visual strategies used while analyzing a plain film. Eyetracking technology allows for the objective study of eye movements while performing a dynamic task, such as reading X-rays. Our study looks to elucidate objective differences in image interpretation between novice and experienced orthopaedic trainees using this novel technology. METHODS: Novice and experienced orthopaedic trainees (N=23) were asked to interpret AP pelvis films, searching for unilateral acetabular fractures while eye-movements were assessed for pattern of gaze, fixation on regions of interest, and time of fixation at regions of interest...
2017: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812285/the-reliability-of-eyetracking-to-assess-attentional-bias-to-threatening-words-in-healthy-individuals
#13
Ian W Skinner, Markus Hübscher, G Lorimer Moseley, Hopin Lee, Benedict M Wand, Adrian C Traeger, Sylvia M Gustin, James H McAuley
Eyetracking is commonly used to investigate attentional bias. Although some studies have investigated the internal consistency of eyetracking, data are scarce on the test-retest reliability and agreement of eyetracking to investigate attentional bias. This study reports the test-retest reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of 12 commonly used outcome measures thought to reflect the different components of attentional bias: overall attention, early attention, and late attention. Healthy participants completed a preferential-looking eyetracking task that involved the presentation of threatening (sensory words, general threat words, and affective words) and nonthreatening words...
August 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791625/language-driven-anticipatory-eye-movements-in-virtual-reality
#14
Nicole Eichert, David Peeters, Peter Hagoort
Predictive language processing is often studied by measuring eye movements as participants look at objects on a computer screen while they listen to spoken sentences. This variant of the visual-world paradigm has revealed that information encountered by a listener at a spoken verb can give rise to anticipatory eye movements to a target object, which is taken to indicate that people predict upcoming words. The ecological validity of such findings remains questionable, however, because these computer experiments used two-dimensional stimuli that were mere abstractions of real-world objects...
August 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745471/visual-control-in-basketball-shooting-under-exertion-conditions
#15
Teresa Zwierko, Marek Popowczak, Jarosław Woźniak, Andrzej Rokita
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effect of physical exertion on gaze behavior during basketball shooting in both stationary and dynamic conditions. METHODS: Thirteen skilled basketball players performed two-point shooting during a 60 second fatigue protocol. Before and after a jump shot test, players performed two free throws. Eye movements were registered using an SMI Mobile EyeTracker. The frequency of all fixation points (number) and fixation duration during the motor phases of shooting were determined using frame-by- frame analysis...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619425/using-endogenous-saccades-to-characterize-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Marisa Ferreira, Paulo A Pereira, Marta Parreira, Inês Sousa, José Figueiredo, João J Cerqueira, Antonio F Macedo
PURPOSE: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSS<=3) and age matched controls were recruited. Eye movements were monitored using an infrared eyetracker...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539948/attitudes-formation-by-small-but-meaningful-personal-information
#17
Jaejoong Kim, Sang Won Lee, Minwook Kwak, Kyueun Lee, Bumseok Jeong
OBJECTIVE: People often evaluate others using fragmentary but meaningful personal information in recent days through social media. It is not clear that whether this process is implicit or explicit and what kind of information is more important in such process.We examined the effects of several meaningful fragmentary information onattitude. METHODS: Thirty three KAIST students were provided four fragmentary information about four virtual people that are meaningful in evaluating people and frequently seen in real life situations, and were asked to imagine that person during four follow-up sessions...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508716/neural-correlates-of-individual-differences-in-fixation-duration-during-natural-reading
#18
John M Henderson, Wonil Choi, Steven G Luke, Joseph Schmidt
Reading requires integration of language and cognitive processes with attention and eye movement control. Individuals differ in their reading ability, but little is known about the neurocognitive processes associated with these individual differences. To investigate this issue, we combined eyetracking and fMRI, simultaneously recording eye movements and BOLD activity while subjects read text passages. We found that the variability and skew of fixation duration distributions across individuals, as assessed by ex-Gaussian analyses, decreased with increasing neural activity in regions associated with the cortical eye movement control network (Left FEF, Left IPS, Left IFG, and Right IFG)...
May 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508116/comparing-visual-search-and-eye-movements-in-bilinguals-and-monolinguals
#19
Ileana Ratiu, Michael C Hout, Stephen C Walenchok, Tamiko Azuma, Stephen D Goldinger
Recent research has suggested that bilinguals show advantages over monolinguals in visual search tasks, although these findings have been derived from global behavioral measures of accuracy and response times. In the present study we sought to explore the bilingual advantage by using more sensitive eyetracking techniques across three visual search experiments. These spatially and temporally fine-grained measures allowed us to carefully investigate any nuanced attentional differences between bilinguals and monolinguals...
August 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473640/anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volume-predicted-by-altered-intra-item-configural-processing
#20
Lok-Kin Yeung, Rosanna K Olsen, Hannah E P Bild-Enkin, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Douglas A McQuiggan, Anna Keshabyan, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
Recent functional imaging studies have proposed that the human entorhinal cortex (ERC) is subdivided into functionally distinct anterolateral (alERC) and posteromedial (pmERC) subregions. The alERC overlaps with regions that are affected earliest by Alzheimer's disease pathology, yet its cognitive function remains poorly understood. Previous human fMRI studies have focused on its role in object memory, but rodent studies on the putatively homologous lateral entorhinal cortex suggest that it also plays an important role in representing spatial properties of objects...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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