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Ozone AND NAD ratio

Visnja Orescanin, Robert Kollar, Damir Ruk, Karlo Nad
A combined treatment approach using advanced oxidation, electrochemical methods and microwaves was developed and applied for the treatment of landfill leachate taken from Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia) sanitary landfill. Due to the complex nature of the effluent and extremely low bio-degradability (BOD(5)/COD ratio = 0.01) the purification of the leachate started with pre-treatment with ozone followed by simultaneous ozonation and electrocoagulation/electrooxidation using the set of iron and aluminum electrodes, and finally, the degradation of organic residue and ammonia with microwaves...
2012: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Fang Liu, Sahoko Ichihara, William M Valentine, Ken Itoh, Masayuki Yamamoto, Sahabudeen Sheik Mohideen, Junzoh Kitoh, Gaku Ichihara
1-Bromopropane (1-BP) was introduced as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents. However, it was found to exhibit neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and hepatotoxicity in rodents and neurotoxicity in human. However, the mechanisms underlying the toxicities of 1-BP remain elusive. The present study investigated the role of oxidative stress in 1-BP-induced hepatotoxicity using nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-null mice. Groups of 24 male Nrf2-null mice and 24 male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were each divided into three groups of eight and exposed to 1-BP at 0, 100, or 300 ppm for 8 h/day for 28 days by inhalation...
June 2010: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
P Dizengremel, D Le Thiec, M-P Hasenfratz-Sauder, M-N Vaultier, M Bagard, Y Jolivet
The tropospheric level of the phytotoxic air pollutant ozone has increased considerably during the last century, and is expected to continue to rise. Long-term exposure of higher plants to low ozone concentrations affects biochemical processes prior to any visible symptoms of injury. The current critical level of ozone used to determine the threshold for damaging plants (biomass loss) is still based on the seasonal sum of the external concentration above 40 nl.l(-1) (AOT40). Taking into account stomatal conductance and the internal capacity of leaf defences, a more relevant concept should be based upon the 'effective ozone flux', the balance between the stomatal flux and the intensity of cellular detoxification...
November 2009: Plant Biology
Pierre Dizengremel, Didier Le Thiec, Matthieu Bagard, Yves Jolivet
The combination of stomatal-dependent ozone flux and total ascorbate level is currently presented as a correct indicator for determining the degree of sensitivity of plants to ozone. However, the large changes in carbon metabolism could play a central role in the strategy of the foliar cells in response to chronic ozone exposure, participating in the supply of reducing power and carbon skeletons for repair and detoxification, and modifying the stomatal mode of functioning. To reinforce the accuracy of the definition of the threshold for ozone risk assessment, it is proposed to also consider the redox pool (NAD(P)H), the ratio between carboxylases and the water use efficiency as indicators of the differential ozone tolerance of plants...
November 2008: Environmental Pollution
L Zychlinski, P Raska-Emery, J U Balis, M R Montgomery
Bioenergetics of isolated lung and heart mitochondria from adult and aged rats were examined in the presence of glutamate (NAD-linked substrate) or succinate + rotenone (FAD-linked substrate) following ozone exposure (3.0 ppm, 8 hr). In controls, several differences were observed between adults and aged in both organ preparations. Following exposure, all bioenergetic parameters were decreased significantly in lung preparations from both adult and aged rats. In heart mitochondria, the respiration rates in state 3 and in uncoupled state, and the ADP/O ratio were decreased significantly in both exposed age groups...
1989: Journal of Biochemical Toxicology
M R Montgomery, P Raska-Emery, J U Balis
Male, pathogen-free Fischer 344 rats aged 6 and 24 mo were exposed to 1.5 or 3.0 ppm for 8 h and recovery rates of diphosphonucleotides (NAD+ and NADH) and triphosphonucleotides (NADP+ and NADPH) were measured and compared to controls. Recovery after 0.5 ppm was not examined because no significant changes occurred in either age group after this lower exposure. At zero time (immediately after exposures) both concentrations are depressed in adults and aged animals except for NADH in aged animals at 3.0 ppm; NADP+ in adults at 1...
September 1991: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health
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