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Maria Teresa Montagna, Antonella De Donno, Giuseppina Caggiano, Francesca Serio, Osvalda De Giglio, Francesco Bagordo, R D'Amicis, Shawn R Lockhart, Massimo Cogliati
The present study investigated the environmental distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complex molecular types, mating types and sequence types in Apulia, a region of Southern Italy. A total of 2078 specimens from arboreal and animal sources were analyzed. The percentage of positive samples was similar among both arboreal and animal specimens: 4.2% vs. 5.1% for C. neoformans species complex and 0.6% vs. 1.4% for C. gattii species complex. Molecular typing identified 78 isolates as VNI (76 αA and two aA), one as AD-hybrid αADa, and 16 as VGI aB...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Research
Soosan Jacob, Amar Agarwal, Athiya Agarwal, Saijimol Ai
PURPOSE: To report a new technique called relaxing Descemetotomy for treatment of bullous Descemet detachment (BDD) secondary to accidental hydroseparation of Descemet membrane (DM) during stromal hydration in cataract surgery. METHODS: A clear corneal keratome entry was created close to the limbus extending inward to create a relaxing cut (ab externo relaxing Descemetotomy) on taut DM, thus creating an egress route for supra-Descemetic fluid (SDF). This was followed by pneumodescemetopexy to drain SDF internally...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
Hiroshi Amekura, Hiroshi Shinotsuka, Hideki Yoshikawa
It has been experimentally and numerically confirmed that zinc (Zn) nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in silica exhibit two optical extinction peaks around ~250 nm (1st peak) and ~1050 nm (2nd peak), both of which were ascribed to surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in the broad sense, i.e., the dual SPRs. Recently, Kuiri and Majhi (KM) observed the 3rd peak around ~900 nm by calculations, and proposed the triple SPRs for Zn NPs without any experimental confirmation. This paper claims that the 3rd peak has never been observed in any experiments nor in any calculations except given by KM...
October 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
María Pilar de Lara-Castells, Andreas W Hauser, Alexander O Mitrushchenkov, Ricardo Fernández-Perea
An ab initio study of quantum confinement of deuterium clusters in carbon nanotubes is presented. First, density functional theory (DFT)-based symmetry-adapted perturbation theory is used to derive parameters for a pairwise potential model describing the adsorbate-nanotube interaction. Next, we analyze the quantum nuclear motion of N D2 molecules (N < 4) confined in carbon nanotubes using a highly accurate adsorbate-wave-function-based approach, and compare it with the motion of molecular hydrogen. We further apply an embedding approach and study zero-point energy effects on larger hexagonal and heptagonal structures of 7-8 D2 molecules...
October 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
P Kump, P Wurm, H P Gröchenig, H Wenzl, W Petritsch, B Halwachs, M Wagner, V Stadlbauer, A Eherer, K M Hoffmann, A Deutschmann, G Reicht, L Reiter, P Slawitsch, G Gorkiewicz, C Högenauer
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation is an experimental approach for the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although there is growing evidence that faecal microbiota transplantation is effective in this disease, factors affecting its response are unknown. AIMS: To establish a faecal microbiota transplantation treatment protocol in ulcerative colitis patients, and to investigate which patient or donor factors are responsible for the treatment success...
October 20, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Marie Strøm Zangenberg, Nir Horesh, Uri Kopylov, Alaa El-Hussuna
PURPOSE: Surgical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a challenging task. The aim of preoperative optimization (PO) is to decrease the risk of complications and reduce the length of postoperative stay. The aim of this study was to review and grade the available evidence, attain clear recommendations, and point out potential future research. METHODS: Studies were identified from electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) and scanning reference lists in relevant papers...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Jinglian Du, Zhipeng Guo, Ang Zhang, Manhong Yang, Mei Li, Shoumei Xiong
Both synchrotron X-ray tomography and EBSD characterization revealed that the preferred growth directions of magnesium alloy dendrite change as the type and amount of solute elements. Such growth behavior was further investigated by evaluating the orientation-dependent surface energy and the subsequent crystallographic anisotropy via ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory and hcp lattice structure. It was found that for most binary magnesium alloys, the preferred growth direction of the α-Mg dendrite in the basal plane is always [Formula: see text], and independent on either the type or concentration of the additional elements...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
C Liu, A Mafety, J A Queyroux, C W Wilson, H Zhang, K Béneut, G Le Marchand, B Baptiste, P Dumas, G Garbarino, F Finocchi, J S Loveday, F Pietrucci, A M Saitta, F Datchi, S Ninet
Water and ammonia are considered major components of the interiors of the giant icy planets and their satellites, which has motivated their exploration under high P-T conditions. Exotic forms of these pure ices have been revealed at extreme (~megabar) pressures, notably symmetric, ionic, and superionic phases. Here we report on an extensive experimental and computational study of the high-pressure properties of the ammonia monohydrate compound forming from an equimolar mixture of water and ammonia. Our experiments demonstrate that relatively mild pressure conditions (7...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Elizabeth Leese, Malcolm Clench, Jackie Morton, Philip H E Gardiner, Vikki A Carolan
This study investigates the identity of two unexpected arsenic species found separately in a number of urine samples sent to the Health and Safety Executive's Health and Safety Laboratory for arsenic speciation (arsenobetaine, AB; arsenite, As(3+); arsenate, As(5+); monomethylarsonic acid, MMA(5+); and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA(5+)). Micro liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (µLC-ICP-MS) and electrospray time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS) were used to identify the two arsenic peaks by comparison to several characterized arsenicals: arsenocholine, AC; trimethyl arsine oxide, TMAO; dimethylarsenoacetate, DMAA; dimethylarsenoethanol, DMAE; thio-dimethylarsinate, thio-DMA; thio-dimethylarsenoacetate, thio-DMAA and thio-dimethylarsenoethanol, thio-DMAE...
May 20, 2017: Toxics
A Knebel, B Geppert, K Volgmann, D I Kolokolov, A G Stepanov, J Twiefel, P Heitjans, D Volkmer, J Caro
Gas transport through metal-organic framework membranes (MOFs) was switched in situ by applying an external electric field (E-field). The switching of gas permeation upon E-field polarization could be explained by the structural transformation of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 into polymorphs with more rigid lattices. Permeation measurements under a direct-current E-field poling of 500 volts per millimeter showed reversibly controlled switching of the ZIF-8 into polar polymorphs, which was confirmed by x-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations...
October 20, 2017: Science
Yang Li, Xiao-Li Cao, Hai Ge, Yi-Hong Jiang, Hong Zhou, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NIs) impact care and costs in hospitals across the globe. There are minimal data on targeted surveillance of NI in intensive care units (ICUs), and data specific to the risk factors for NI are especially limited. METHODS: One hundred seventy-seven secondary and tertiary hospitals performed NI targeted surveillance in their ICUs. The data were collected and summarized by Minke software, then fed back once per quarter. RESULTS: The incidence of NI appeared to decrease, and the incidence of NI per 1000 patient-days and adjusted incidence were 25...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Nataliya Roth, Sigrid Mayrhofer, Martin Gierus, Christine Weingut, Christiane Schwarz, Barbara Doupovec, Roger Berrios, Konrad J Domig
Increasing antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. Fluoroquinolones are used to treat and prevent poultry diseases worldwide. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates are high in their countries of use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an acids-based feed additive, as well as fluoroquinolone antibiotics, on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. A total of 480 broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: a control group receiving a basal diet; a group receiving a feed additive (FA) based on formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid; and an antibiotic enrofloxacin (AB) group given the same diet, but supplemented with enrofloxacin in water...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Elijah G Schnitzler, Nathan A Seifert, Ignes Kusuma, Wolfgang Jaeger
The structure and internal dynamics of p-toluic acid and its 1:1 complex with water were investigated in the gas phase using chirped-pulse and cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. One conformer and one isomer were identified for the monomer and monohydrate, respectively. In the monohydrate, water acts as both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, participating in a six-membered intermolecular ring with the carboxyl group. Both a- and b-type transitions were observed for the monomer; only a-type transitions were observed for the monohydrate...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Xuhui Lin, Huaiyu Zhang, Xiaoyu Jiang, Wei Wu, Yirong Mo
The concept of resonance-assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB) has been widely accepted, and its impact on structures and energetics can be best studied computationally using the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method which is a variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and able to derive strictly electron-localized structures self-consistently. In this work, we use the BLW method to examine a few molecules which result from the merging of two malonaldehyde molecules. As each of these molecules contains two hydrogen bonds, these intramolecular hydrogen bonds may be cooperative or anticooperative, depended on their relative orientations and compared with the hydrogen bond in malonaldehyde...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Kazem Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Fatemeh Moslemi
All-optical-diode tunability with externally applied voltage in a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure of arrangement (BA)(5)/AgLiNbO3Ag/(AB)(5)(AABB)(5) was investigated. It is an asymmetric hybrid Fabry-Perot resonator which is composed of distributed Bragg reflector segments (AB(5)) containing the linear (B layers) and nonlinear (A layers) optical materials. The LiNbO3, (LNO) sandwiched with two pairs Ag layers, is employed as a defect. The electro-optical (EO) effect and optical nonlinear response (Kerr effect) of LNO is considered...
May 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Seong Won Cha, Stefano Bonissone, Seungjin Na, Pavel A Pevzner, Vineet Bafna
Immunotherapy is becoming increasingly important in the fight against cancers, utilizing and manipulating the body's immune response to treat tumors. Understanding the immune repertoire - the collection of immunological proteins - of treated and untreated cells is possible at the genomic, but technically difficult at the protein level. Standard protein databases do not include the highly divergent sequences of somatic rearranged immunoglobulin genes, and may lead to missed identifications in a mass spectrometry search...
October 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
C E McCoach, G M Blumenthal, L Zhang, A Myers, S Tang, R Sridhara, P Keegan, R Pazdur, R C Doebele, D Kazandjian
Background: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) permits rapid evaluation of new therapeutic strategies in cancer. However, RECIST does not capture the heterogeneity of response in highly active therapies. Depth of tumor response may provide a more granular view of response. We explored the association between, depth of response (DepOR), with overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) for patients with NSCLC being treated with an ALK inhibitor (ALKi) or an anti-PD-1 antibody (Ab)...
August 2, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Minjeong Shin, Heng-Liang Wu, Badri Narayanan, Kimberly A See, Rajeev S Assary, Lingyang Zhu, Richard T Haasch, Shuo Zhang, Zhengcheng Zhang, Larry A Curtiss, Andrew A Gewirth
We evaluate hydrofluoroether (HFE) cosolvents with varying degrees of fluorination in the acetonitrile-based solvate elec-trolyte to determine the effect of HFE structure on the electrochemical performance of the Li-S battery. Solvates or spar-ingly solvating electrolytes are an interesting electrolyte choice for Li-S battery due to their low polysulfide solubility. The solvate electrolyte with stoichiometric ratio of LiTFSI salt in acetonitrile, (MeCN)2-LiTFSI, exhibits limited polysulfide sol-ubility due to the high concentration of LiTFSI...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sahar Salehi, Rebecca A Sosa, Yi-Ping Jin, Shoichi Kageyama, Michael C Fishbein, Enrique Rozengurt, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski, Elaine F Reed
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) resulting in transplant allograft vasculopathy (TAV) is the major obstacle for long-term survival of solid organ transplants. AMR is caused by donor-specific antibodies to HLA which contribute to TAV by initiating outside-in signaling transduction pathways that elicit monocyte recruitment to activated endothelium. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors can attenuate TAV; therefore, we sought to understand the mechanistic underpinnings of mTOR signaling in HLA class I Ab-mediated endothelial cell activation and monocyte recruitment...
October 17, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
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