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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914314/dynamic-redistribution-of-plasticity-in-a-cerebellar-spiking-neural-network-reproducing-an-associative-learning-task-perturbed-by-tms
#1
Alberto Antonietti, Jessica Monaco, Egidio D'Angelo, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Claudia Casellato
During natural learning, synaptic plasticity is thought to evolve dynamically and redistribute within and among subcircuits. This process should emerge in plastic neural networks evolving under behavioral feedback and should involve changes distributed across multiple synaptic sites. In eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), the cerebellum learns to predict the precise timing between two stimuli, hence EBCC represents an elementary yet meaningful paradigm to investigate the cerebellar network functioning. We have simulated EBCC mechanisms by reconstructing a realistic cerebellar microcircuit model and embedding multiple plasticity rules imitating those revealed experimentally...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766458/cerebellar-stimulation-evoked-prefrontal-electrical-synchrony-is-modulated-by-gaba
#2
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Fow-Sen Choa, George F Wittenberg, Krista Wisner, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
Cerebellar-prefrontal connectivity has been recognized as important for behaviors ranging from motor coordination to cognition. Many of these behaviors are known to involve excitatory or inhibitory modulations from the prefrontal cortex. We used cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) to probe cerebellar-evoked electrical activity in prefrontal cortical areas and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of prefrontal GABA and glutamate levels to determine if they are correlated with those potentials...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732943/do-changes-in-spinal-reflex-excitability-elicited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-differ-based-on-the-site-of-cerebellar-stimulation
#3
Akiyoshi Matsugi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal reflex excitability is influenced by the site of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 24.6 ± 6.6 years [11 men]) participated. Participants lay on a bed in the prone position, with both ankle joints fixed to prevent unwanted movement. Right tibial nerve stimulation was provided to elicit the H-reflex in the right soleus muscle...
May 6, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730789/the-impact-of-stimulation-intensity-and-coil-type-on-reliability-and-tolerability-of-cerebellar-brain-inhibition-cbi-via-dual-coil-tms
#4
Lara Fernandez, Brendan P Major, Wei-Peng Teo, Linda K Byrne, Peter G Enticott
Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) describes the inhibitory tone the cerebellum exerts on the primary motor cortex (M1). CBI can be indexed via a dual-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol, whereby a conditioning stimulus (CS) is delivered to the cerebellum in advance of a test stimulus (TS) to M1. The CS is typically delivered at intensities over 60% maximum stimulus output (MSO) via a double-cone coil. This is reportedly uncomfortable for participants, reducing the reliability and validity of outcomes...
May 5, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712981/tms-over-the-cerebellum-interferes-with-short-term-memory-of-visual-sequences
#5
C Ferrari, Z Cattaneo, V Oldrati, L Casiraghi, F Castelli, E D'Angelo, T Vecchi
Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum is not only involved in motor functions, but it significantly contributes to sensory and cognitive processing as well. In particular, it has been hypothesized that the cerebellum identifies recurrent serial events and recognizes their violations. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the role of the cerebellum in short-term memory of visual sequences. In two experiments, we found that TMS over the right cerebellar hemisphere impaired participants' ability to recognize the correct order of appearance of geometrical stimuli varying in shape and/or size...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659444/cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-facilitates-excitability-of-spinal-reflex-but-does-not-affect-cerebellar-inhibition-and-facilitation-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia
#6
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yutaka Kikuchi, Kenta Kaneko, Yuta Seko, Masato Odagaki
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cerebellum facilitates the spinal reflex in healthy humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such cerebellar spinal facilitation (CSpF) appears in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) presenting with atrophy in the cerebellar gray matter and dentate nucleus. One patient with SCA type 6 and another with SCA type 31 participated in this study. TMS over the right primary motor cortex was used to induce motor-evoked potentials in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, which were detected using electromyography...
July 4, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656311/consensus-paper-neurophysiological-assessments-of-ataxias-in-daily-practice
#7
REVIEW
W Ilg, M Branscheidt, A Butala, P Celnik, L de Paola, F B Horak, L Schöls, H A G Teive, A P Vogel, D S Zee, D Timmann
The purpose of this consensus paper is to review electrophysiological abnormalities and to provide a guideline of neurophysiological assessments in cerebellar ataxias. All authors agree that standard electrophysiological methods should be systematically applied in all cases of ataxia to reveal accompanying peripheral neuropathy, the involvement of the dorsal columns, pyramidal tracts and the brainstem. Electroencephalography should also be considered, although findings are frequently non-specific. Electrophysiology helps define the neuronal systems affected by the disease in an individual patient and to understand the phenotypes of the different types of ataxia on a more general level...
April 14, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417490/motor-and-extra-motor-gray-matter-integrity-may-underlie-neurophysiologic-parameters-of-motor-function-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-transcranial-stimulation-study
#8
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Georgios Velonakis, Michail Rentzos, Thomas Zambelis, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Sophia Xirou, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Nikolaos Karandreas
The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396401/abnormal-cerebellar-processing-of-the-neck-proprioceptive-information-drives-dysfunctions-in-cervical-dystonia
#9
T Popa, C Hubsch, P James, A Richard, M Russo, S Pradeep, S Krishan, E Roze, S Meunier, A Kishore
The cerebellum can influence the responsiveness of the primary motor cortex (M1) to undergo spike timing-dependent plastic changes through a complex mechanism involving multiple relays in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway. Previous TMS studies showed that cerebellar cortex excitation can block the increase in M1 excitability induced by a paired-associative stimulation (PAS), while cerebellar cortex inhibition would enhance it. Since cerebellum is known to be affected in many types of dystonia, this bidirectional modulation was assessed in 22 patients with cervical dystonia and 23 healthy controls...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289719/the-distribution-of-ki-67-and-doublecortin-immunopositive-cells-in-the-brains-of-three-strepsirrhine-primates-galago-demidoff-perodicticus-potto-and-lemur-catta
#10
Thandi M Fasemore, Nina Patzke, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R Manger, Amadi O Ihunwo
This study investigated the pattern of adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of three prosimian primate species using immunohistochemical techniques for endogenous markers of this neural process. Two species, Galago demidoff and Perodicticus potto, were obtained from wild populations in the primary rainforest of central Africa, while one species, Lemur catta, was captive-bred. Two brains from each species, perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, were sectioned (50 µm section thickness) in sagittal and coronal planes...
February 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246845/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-explicit-and-incidental-processing-of-facial-emotional-expressions-a-study-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#11
Chiara Ferrari, Viola Oldrati, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a critical role in non-motor functions, contributing to cognitive and affective processing. In particular, the cerebellum might represent an important node of the "limbic" network, underlying not only emotion regulation but also emotion perception and recognition. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed further light on the role of the cerebellum in emotional perception by specifically testing cerebellar contribution to explicit and incidental emotional processing...
April 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208533/assessing-cerebellar-brain-inhibition-cbi-via-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Lara Fernandez, Brendan P Major, Wei-Peng Teo, Linda K Byrne, Peter G Enticott
The inhibitory tone that the cerebellum exerts on the primary motor cortex (M1) is known as cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI). Studies show CBI to be relevant to several motor functions, including adaptive motor learning and muscle control. CBI can be assessed noninvasively via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using a double-coil protocol. Variability in parameter choice and controversy surrounding the protocol's ability to isolate the cerebellothalamocortical pathway casts doubt over its validity in neuroscience research...
March 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191439/effects-of-cerebellar-neuromodulation-in-movement-disorders-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Carina França, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Ricardo Galhardoni, Valquiria Silva, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Rubens Gisbert Cury
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum is involved in the pathophysiology of many movement disorders and its importance in the field of neuromodulation is growing. OBJECTIVES: To review the current evidence for cerebellar modulation in movement disorders and its safety profile. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified after a systematic literature review of the effects of cerebellar modulation in cerebellar ataxia, Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), dystonia and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
March 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154805/the-effects-of-imaginary-voluntary-muscle-contraction-and-relaxation-on-cerebellar-brain-inhibition
#14
Hiroaki Tanaka, Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yohei Okada
The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) during imaginary muscle contraction (Contract-I) and relaxation (Relax-I) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twenty-nine healthy adults completed two experiments. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle were induced by TMS over the left M1 and measured with or without TMS over the right cerebellum during Contract-I (first experiment) and Relax-I (second experiment) of the right FDI, and these were compared to the findings in a no-imagery (No-I) condition...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141551/noninvasive-cerebellar-stimulation-as-a-complement-tool-to-pharmacotherapy
#15
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by balance and coordination disturbance, dysarthria, dyssynergia and adyadococinesia, caused by a dysfunction in the cerebellum. In recent years there has been growing interest in discovering therapeutical strategy for specific forms of cerebellar ataxia. Together with pharmacological studies, there has been growing interest in non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques to improve ataxia and limb coordination. Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques to modulate cerebro and cerebellar cortex excitability using magnetic or electric fields...
November 14, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074317/alteration-of-cortical-excitability-and-its-modulation-by-miglustat-in-niemann-pick-disease-type-c
#16
Shady Safwat Hassan, Carlos Trenado, Saskia Elben, Alfons Schnitzler, Stefan Jun Groiss
Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disease. Cortical excitability using different transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols together with clinical and neuropsychological testing was longitudinally assessed in a patient with NP-C. Cerebellar inhibition, a measure for the integrity of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network, was impaired. Short-latency afferent inhibition, a measure for cholinergic transmission, and cognitive functions were also impaired and improved under Miglustat treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073474/effects-of-continuous-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cortical-excitability-in-patients-with-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy
#17
Guray Koc, Zeki Gokcil, Semai Bek, Tayfun Kasikci, Erdal Eroglu, Zeki Odabasi
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique for investigating cortical physiologic functions in the brain. In this study, the effects of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) on motor evoked potential (MEP) parameters in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with IGE were included. Motor threshold (MT) and cortical silent period (CSP) were determined before cTBS application...
December 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938143/contribution-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-assessment-of-brain-connectivity-and-networks
#18
REVIEW
Mark Hallett, Riccardo Di Iorio, Paolo Maria Rossini, Jung E Park, Robert Chen, Pablo Celnik, Antonio P Strafella, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Ugawa
The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex...
November 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928632/neurophysiology-of-the-celiac-brain-disentangling-gut-brain-connections
#19
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giuseppe Lanza
Celiac disease (CD) can be considered a complex multi-organ disorder with highly variable extra-intestinal, including neurological, involvement. Cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, headache, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric diseases are complications frequently reported. These manifestations may be present at the onset of the typical disease or become clinically evident during its course. However, CD subjects with subclinical neurological involvement have also been described, as well as patients with clear central and/or peripheral nervous system and intestinal histopathological disease features in the absence of typical CD manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900413/impaired-cerebellum-to-primary-motor-cortex-associative-plasticity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#20
Ming-Kuei Lu, Jui-Cheng Chen, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ulf Ziemann, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Functional perturbation of the cerebellum (CB)-motor cortex (M1) interactions may underlie pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Recently, M1 motor excitability can be bidirectionally modulated in young subjects by corticocortical paired associative stimulation (PAS) on CB and contralateral M1 with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), probably through the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical (CDTC) circuit...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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