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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895926/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-as-a-tool-to-study-cerebellar-m1-interactions-in-humans
#1
REVIEW
Sara Tremblay, Duncan Austin, Ricci Hannah, John C Rothwell
The recent development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has allowed the non-invasive assessment of cerebellar function in humans. Early studies showed that cerebellar activity, as reflected in the excitability of the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, can be assessed with paired stimulation of the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex (M1) (cerebellar inhibition of motor cortex, CBI). Following this, many attempts have been made, using techniques such as repetitive TMS and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), to modulate the activity of the cerebellum and the dentate-thalamo-cortical output, and measure their impact on M1 activity...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796359/cerebellar-theta-burst-stimulation-modulates-the-neural-activity-of-interconnected-parietal-and-motor-areas
#2
Elias Paolo Casula, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Viviana Ponzo, Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Domenica Veniero, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Voluntary movement control and execution are regulated by the influence of the cerebellar output over different interconnected cortical areas, through dentato-thalamo connections. In the present study we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to directly assess the effects of cerebellar theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over the controlateral primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in a group of healthy volunteers. We found a TBS-dependent bidirectional modulation over TMS-evoked activity; specifically, cTBS increased whereas iTBS decreased activity between 100 and 200 ms after TMS, in a similar manner over both M1 and PPC areas...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608482/model-driven-analysis-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-reveals-the-underlying-structure-of-cerebellar-plasticity-and-neuronal-activity
#3
Alberto Antonietti, Claudia Casellato, Egidio D'Angelo, Alessandra Pedrocchi
The cerebellum plays a critical role in sensorimotor control. However, how the specific circuits and plastic mechanisms of the cerebellum are engaged in closed-loop processing is still unclear. We developed an artificial sensorimotor control system embedding a detailed spiking cerebellar microcircuit with three bidirectional plasticity sites. This proved able to reproduce a cerebellar-driven associative paradigm, the eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), in which a precise time relationship between an unconditioned stimulus (US) and a conditioned stimulus (CS) is established...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417041/abnormal-corticospinal-tract-function-and-motor-cortex-excitability-in-non-ataxic-sca2-mutation-carriers-a-tms-study
#4
Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Jacqueline Medrano Montero, Yaimeé Vázquez-Mojena, Georg Auburger, Ulf Ziemann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the corticospinal tract is affected in the prodromal stage of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), prior to development of the cerebellar syndrome. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 37 non-ataxic SCA2 mutation carriers and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical assessment and transcranial magnetic stimulation to determine corticospinal tract integrity to the right abductor pollicis brevis and tibialis anterior muscles...
August 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126840/modulation-of-linguistic-prediction-by-tdcs-of-the-right-lateral-cerebellum
#5
R C Miall, J Antony, A Goldsmith-Sumner, S R Harding, C McGovern, J L Winter
It has been postulated recently that the cerebellum contributes the same prediction and learning functions to linguistic processing as it does towards motor control. For example, repetitive TMS over posterior-lateral cerebellum caused a significant loss in predictive language processing, as assessed by the latency of saccades to target items of spoken sentences, using the Visual World task. We aimed to assess the polarity-specific effects of cerebellar TDCS, hypothesising that cathodal TDCS should impair linguistic prediction, and anodal TDCS facilitate it...
June 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937285/a-tms-investigation-on-the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-pitch-and-timbre-discrimination
#6
Carlotta Lega, Tomaso Vecchi, Egidio D'Angelo, Zaira Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Growing neuroimaging and clinical evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a critical role in perception. In the auditory domain, the cerebellum seems to be important in different aspects of music and sound processing. Here we investigated the possible causal role of the cerebellum in two auditory tasks, a pitch discrimination and a timbre discrimination task. Specifically, participants performed a pitch and a timbre discrimination task prior and after receiving offline low frequency transcranical magnetic stimulation (TMS) over their (right) cerebellum...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849999/anodal-cerebellar-direct-current-stimulation-reduces-facilitation-of-propriospinal-neurons-in-healthy-humans
#7
Muhammed Chothia, Sebastian Doeltgen, Lynley V Bradnam
BACKGROUND: Coordinated muscle synergies in the human upper limb are controlled, in part, by a neural distribution network located in the cervical spinal cord, known as the cervical propriospinal system. Studies in the cat and non-human primate indicate the cerebellum is indirectly connected to this system via output pathways to the brainstem. Therefore, the cerebellum may indirectly modulate excitability of putative propriospinal neurons (PNs) in humans during upper limb coordination tasks...
May 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26529225/theta-burst-stimulation-of-the-cerebellum-modifies-the-tms-evoked-n100-potential-a-marker-of-gaba-inhibition
#8
Allanah Harrington, Graeme David Hammond-Tooke
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) of the cerebellum, a potential therapy for neurological disease, can modulate corticospinal excitability via the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway, but it is uncertain whether its effects are mediated via inhibitory or facilitatory networks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on the N100 waveform of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP), a marker of intracortical GABAB-mediated inhibition. 16 healthy participants (aged 18-30 years; 13 right handed and 3 left handed) received 30Hz intermittent TBS (iTBS), continuous TBS (cTBS) or sham stimulation over the right cerebellum, in three separate sessions...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26481247/cerebellar-control-on-prefrontal-motor-connectivity-during-movement-inhibition
#9
Silvia Picazio, Viviana Ponzo, Giacomo Koch
Converging evidence suggests a crucial role of right inferior frontal gyrus (r-IFG) and right pre-supplementary motor area (r-preSMA) in movement inhibition control. The present work was aimed to investigate how the effective connectivity between these prefrontal areas and the primary motor cortex could change depending on the activity of the cerebellar cortex. Paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered in healthy subjects over the r-IFG/left primary motor area (l-M1) and over r-preSMA/l-M1 before (100 ms after the fixation cross onset) and 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 ms after the presentation of a Go/NoGo visual cue establishing the specific time course and the causal interactions of these regions in relation to l-M1 as measured by motor evoked potentials (MEPs)...
October 19, 2015: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26331040/effects-of-somatosensory-stimulation-on-corticomotor-excitability-in-patients-with-unilateral-cerebellar-infarcts-and-healthy-subjects-preliminary-results
#10
Suzete Nascimento Farias da Guarda, Adriana Bastos Conforto
BACKGROUND: In healthy humans, somatosensory stimulation in the form of 2 h-repetitive peripheral afferent nerve stimulation (SS) increases excitability of the contralateral motor cortex. In this preliminary study, we explored effects of SS on excitability to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with unilateral cerebellar infarcts and age-matched controls. METHODS: Ten patients with infarcts in one cerebellar hemisphere and six age-matched controls participated in the study...
2014: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26316351/high-frequency-focal-repetitive-cerebellar-stimulation-induces-prolonged-increases-in-human-pharyngeal-motor-cortex-excitability
#11
Dipesh H Vasant, Emilia Michou, Satish Mistry, John C Rothwell, Shaheen Hamdy
KEY POINTS: Neurostimulation is a rapidly emerging approach to swallowing rehabilitation, but cerebellar stimulation has not been explored as a treatment. Such proposed therapies for post-stroke dysphagia have required confirmation of physiological effects and optimisation of parameters in healthy humans prior to translational progression into patient groups. There is strong evidence for a role of the cerebellum in swallowing physiology, but this relationship has been under-explored. Recently, single pulses of cerebellar magnetic stimulation have been shown to directly evoke responses from pharyngeal musculature and produce short-term enhancement of cortico-pharyngeal motor evoked potentials, suggesting the feasibility of a cerebellar approach to neurostimulation in the swallowing system...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283524/anodal-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-cerebellum-reduces-cerebellar-brain-inhibition-but-does-not-influence-afferent-input-from-the-hand-or-face-in-healthy-adults
#12
Sebastian H Doeltgen, Jessica Young, Lynley V Bradnam
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults...
August 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26140957/the-effect-of-cerebellar-degeneration-on-human-sensori-motor-plasticity
#13
Raffaele Dubbioso, Giovanni Pellegrino, Antonella Antenora, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Lucio Santoro, Fiore Manganelli
BACKGROUND: Plasticity of the primary motor cortex (M1) has a critical role in motor control and learning. The cerebellum facilitates these functions using sensory feedback. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how cerebellar degeneration influences the plasticity of the M1 by using PAS (paired associative stimulation) technique. PAS involves repeated pairs of electrical stimuli to the median nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex. If the interval between peripheral and TMS stimulation is around 21-25 ms, corticospinal excitability is increased via a long term potentiation (LTP)-like effect within M1...
November 2015: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26042019/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-the-cerebellum-improves-handwriting-and-cyclic-drawing-kinematics-in-focal-hand-dystonia
#14
Lynley V Bradnam, Lynton J Graetz, Michelle N McDonnell, Michael C Ridding
There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum has a role in the pathophysiology of primary focal hand dystonia and might provide an intervention target for non-invasive brain stimulation to improve function of the affected hand. The primary objective of this study was to determine if cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves handwriting and cyclic drawing kinematics in people with hand dystonia, by reducing cerebellar-brain inhibition (CBI) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25792076/resetting-tremor-by-single-and-paired-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-essential-tremor
#15
Ming-Kuei Lu, Shang-Ming Chiou, Ulf Ziemann, Hui-Chun Huang, Yu-Wan Yang, Chon-Haw Tsai
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) is not fully understood. This study tested the role of primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and cerebellar cortex on PD and ET tremor by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Ten PD patients with resting tremor, six of them also with postural tremor, and ten ET patients with postural tremor were studied. Randomized single- and paired-pulse TMS with an interstimulus interval of 100 ms were delivered over M1, SMA and cerebellum...
December 2015: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25581971/the-influence-of-deltalycyn-and-transcranial-cerebellar-stimulation-upon-recovery-of-retina-after-photo-stress-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#16
Nataliya Valentinivna Kresyun
AIM: The characteristics of visual evoked potentials (VEP) have been studied in diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Magnetic impulses (2.0 T1 at the height of impulse) have been delivered to the cerebellar surface transcranially using the "Neuro-MS/D", (Russia Federation). Delta- sleep inducing peptide ("Deltalycyn", "Biopharma", Russia Federation) was intranasally delivered in 30 min before photostress. Afterwards VEP have been registered every 20 s from the moment of photo stress during one minute...
October 2014: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25569794/effect-of-cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-soleus-ia-presynaptic-and-reciprocal-inhibition
#17
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Nobuhiko Mori, Shintaro Uehara, Noriyuki Kamata, Kosuke Oku, Yohei Okada, Yutaka Kikuchi, Kouichi Mukai, Kiyoshi Nagano
Previously, we reported that cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS) facilitates spinal motoneuronal excitability in resting humans. In this study, we aimed to characterize the descending pathway that is responsible for the C-TMS-associated cerebellar spinal facilitation. We evaluated the effect of C-TMS on ipsilateral soleus Ia presynaptic inhibition (PSI) and reciprocal inhibition (RI) because the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts project from the cerebellum to mediate spinal motoneurons via interneurons associated with PSI...
February 11, 2015: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25348461/molecular-diagnosis-of-infantile-neuro-axonal-dystrophy-by-next-generation-sequencing
#18
Manisha Goyal, Sunita Bijarnia-Mahay, Stephen Kingsmore, Emily Farrow, Carol Saunders, Renu Saxena, Ishwar C Verma
Infantile Neuro axonal Dystrophy (INAD), is a rare inherited neurological disorder which affects nerve axons causing progressive loss of mental skills, muscular control and vision. The authors present a case of 5.8-y-old girl with INAD who was diagnosed after Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). She was born to a non-consanguineous couple and presented with hypotonia, developmental delay followed by neuroregression and nystagmus after 2 years of age. On examination, bilateral horizontal nystagmus and normal head circumference were noted...
May 2015: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25346177/what-does-low-intensity-rtms-do-to-the-cerebellum
#19
REVIEW
N Morellini, S Grehl, A Tang, J Rodger, J Mariani, A M Lohof, R M Sherrard
Non-invasive stimulation of the human cerebellum, such as by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is increasingly used to investigate cerebellar function and identify potential treatment for cerebellar dysfunction. However, the effects of TMS on cerebellar neurons remain poorly defined. We applied low-intensity repetitive TMS (LI-rTMS) to the mouse cerebellum in vivo and in vitro and examined the cellular and molecular sequelae. In normal C57/Bl6 mice, 4 weeks of LI-rTMS using a complex biomimetic high-frequency stimulation (BHFS) alters Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic and spine morphology; the effects persist 4 weeks after the end of stimulation...
February 2015: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25325350/task-dependency-of-the-long-latency-facilitatory-effect-on-the-soleus-h-reflex-by-cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#20
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Nobuhiko Mori, Shintaro Uehara, Noriyuki Kamata, Kosuke Oku, Kouichi Mukai, Kiyoshi Nagano
We investigated whether cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS) facilitates the excitability of the ipsilateral soleus motoneuron pool in resting humans, and whether the facilitation is modulated by a task that promotes cerebellar activity. A test tibial nerve stimulus evoking the H-reflex from the right soleus muscle was delivered before or after conditioning C-TMS in prone individuals. The amplitude of the H-reflex was significantly increased at conditioning-test interstimulus intervals of 110, 120, and 130 ms...
December 3, 2014: Neuroreport
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