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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137969/cerebellar-m1-connectivity-changes-associated-to-motor-learning-are-somatotopic-specific
#1
D Spampinato, H J Block, P Celnik
: One of the functions of the cerebellum in motor learning is to predict and account for systematic changes to the body or environment. This form of adaptive learning is mediated by plastic changes occurring within the cerebellar cortex. The strength of cerebellar-to- cerebral pathways for a given muscle may reflect aspects of cerebellum-dependent motor adaptation. These connections with motor cortex (M1) can be estimated as cerebellar inhibition (CBI): a conditioning pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered to the cerebellum prior to a test pulse over motor cortex...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132412/dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellar-contribution-to-in-group-attitudes-a-tms-study
#2
Lucile Gamond, Chiara Ferrari, Stefania La Rocca, Zaira Cattaneo
We tend to express more positive judgments and behaviors toward individuals belonging to our own group compared to other (out-) groups. In this study, we assessed the role of the cerebellum and of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) - two regions critically implicated in social cognition processes - in mediating implicit valenced attitudes toward in-group and out-group individuals. To this aim, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with a standard attitude priming task, in which Caucasian participants had to categorize the valence of a series of adjectives primed by either an in-group or an out-group face...
January 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029595/pulse-duration-as-well-as-current-direction-determines-the-specificity-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-motor-cortex-during-contraction
#3
Ricci Hannah, John C Rothwell
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggested that anterior-posterior (AP) directed currents induced by TMS in motor cortex (M1) activate interneuron circuits different from those activated by posterior-anterior currents (PA). The present experiments provide evidence that pulse duration also determines the activation of specific interneuron circuits. OBJECTIVE: To use single motor unit (SMU) recordings to confirm the difference in onset latencies of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by different current directions and pulse durations: AP30, AP120, PA30 and PA120...
January 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994543/repetitive-tms-on-left-cerebellum-affects-impulsivity-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-pilot-study
#4
Giulia Zelda De Vidovich, Riccardo Muffatti, Jessica Monaco, Nicoletta Caramia, Davide Broglia, Edgardo Caverzasi, Francesco Barale, Egidio D'Angelo
The borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a severe pattern of instability in emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, identity and impulse control. These functions are related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and since PFC shows a rich anatomical connectivity with the cerebellum, the functionality of the cerebellar-PFC axis may impact on BPD. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections in impulsive reactions through a pre/post stimulation design...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895926/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-as-a-tool-to-study-cerebellar-m1-interactions-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
Sara Tremblay, Duncan Austin, Ricci Hannah, John C Rothwell
The recent development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has allowed the non-invasive assessment of cerebellar function in humans. Early studies showed that cerebellar activity, as reflected in the excitability of the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, can be assessed with paired stimulation of the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex (M1) (cerebellar inhibition of motor cortex, CBI). Following this, many attempts have been made, using techniques such as repetitive TMS and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), to modulate the activity of the cerebellum and the dentate-thalamo-cortical output, and measure their impact on M1 activity...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796359/cerebellar-theta-burst-stimulation-modulates-the-neural-activity-of-interconnected-parietal-and-motor-areas
#6
Elias Paolo Casula, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Viviana Ponzo, Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Domenica Veniero, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Voluntary movement control and execution are regulated by the influence of the cerebellar output over different interconnected cortical areas, through dentato-thalamo connections. In the present study we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to directly assess the effects of cerebellar theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over the controlateral primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in a group of healthy volunteers. We found a TBS-dependent bidirectional modulation over TMS-evoked activity; specifically, cTBS increased whereas iTBS decreased activity between 100 and 200 ms after TMS, in a similar manner over both M1 and PPC areas...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608482/model-driven-analysis-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-reveals-the-underlying-structure-of-cerebellar-plasticity-and-neuronal-activity
#7
Alberto Antonietti, Claudia Casellato, Egidio D'Angelo, Alessandra Pedrocchi
The cerebellum plays a critical role in sensorimotor control. However, how the specific circuits and plastic mechanisms of the cerebellum are engaged in closed-loop processing is still unclear. We developed an artificial sensorimotor control system embedding a detailed spiking cerebellar microcircuit with three bidirectional plasticity sites. This proved able to reproduce a cerebellar-driven associative paradigm, the eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), in which a precise time relationship between an unconditioned stimulus (US) and a conditioned stimulus (CS) is established...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417041/abnormal-corticospinal-tract-function-and-motor-cortex-excitability-in-non-ataxic-sca2-mutation-carriers-a-tms-study
#8
Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Jacqueline Medrano Montero, Yaimeé Vázquez-Mojena, Georg Auburger, Ulf Ziemann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the corticospinal tract is affected in the prodromal stage of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), prior to development of the cerebellar syndrome. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 37 non-ataxic SCA2 mutation carriers and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical assessment and transcranial magnetic stimulation to determine corticospinal tract integrity to the right abductor pollicis brevis and tibialis anterior muscles...
August 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126840/modulation-of-linguistic-prediction-by-tdcs-of-the-right-lateral-cerebellum
#9
R C Miall, J Antony, A Goldsmith-Sumner, S R Harding, C McGovern, J L Winter
It has been postulated recently that the cerebellum contributes the same prediction and learning functions to linguistic processing as it does towards motor control. For example, repetitive TMS over posterior-lateral cerebellum caused a significant loss in predictive language processing, as assessed by the latency of saccades to target items of spoken sentences, using the Visual World task. We aimed to assess the polarity-specific effects of cerebellar TDCS, hypothesising that cathodal TDCS should impair linguistic prediction, and anodal TDCS facilitate it...
June 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937285/a-tms-investigation-on-the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-pitch-and-timbre-discrimination
#10
Carlotta Lega, Tomaso Vecchi, Egidio D'Angelo, Zaira Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Growing neuroimaging and clinical evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a critical role in perception. In the auditory domain, the cerebellum seems to be important in different aspects of music and sound processing. Here we investigated the possible causal role of the cerebellum in two auditory tasks, a pitch discrimination and a timbre discrimination task. Specifically, participants performed a pitch and a timbre discrimination task prior and after receiving offline low frequency transcranical magnetic stimulation (TMS) over their (right) cerebellum...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849999/anodal-cerebellar-direct-current-stimulation-reduces-facilitation-of-propriospinal-neurons-in-healthy-humans
#11
Muhammed Chothia, Sebastian Doeltgen, Lynley V Bradnam
BACKGROUND: Coordinated muscle synergies in the human upper limb are controlled, in part, by a neural distribution network located in the cervical spinal cord, known as the cervical propriospinal system. Studies in the cat and non-human primate indicate the cerebellum is indirectly connected to this system via output pathways to the brainstem. Therefore, the cerebellum may indirectly modulate excitability of putative propriospinal neurons (PNs) in humans during upper limb coordination tasks...
May 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26529225/theta-burst-stimulation-of-the-cerebellum-modifies-the-tms-evoked-n100-potential-a-marker-of-gaba-inhibition
#12
Allanah Harrington, Graeme David Hammond-Tooke
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) of the cerebellum, a potential therapy for neurological disease, can modulate corticospinal excitability via the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway, but it is uncertain whether its effects are mediated via inhibitory or facilitatory networks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on the N100 waveform of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP), a marker of intracortical GABAB-mediated inhibition. 16 healthy participants (aged 18-30 years; 13 right handed and 3 left handed) received 30Hz intermittent TBS (iTBS), continuous TBS (cTBS) or sham stimulation over the right cerebellum, in three separate sessions...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26481247/cerebellar-control-on-prefrontal-motor-connectivity-during-movement-inhibition
#13
Silvia Picazio, Viviana Ponzo, Giacomo Koch
Converging evidence suggests a crucial role of right inferior frontal gyrus (r-IFG) and right pre-supplementary motor area (r-preSMA) in movement inhibition control. The present work was aimed to investigate how the effective connectivity between these prefrontal areas and the primary motor cortex could change depending on the activity of the cerebellar cortex. Paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered in healthy subjects over the r-IFG/left primary motor area (l-M1) and over r-preSMA/l-M1 before (100 ms after the fixation cross onset) and 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 ms after the presentation of a Go/NoGo visual cue establishing the specific time course and the causal interactions of these regions in relation to l-M1 as measured by motor evoked potentials (MEPs)...
October 19, 2015: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26331040/effects-of-somatosensory-stimulation-on-corticomotor-excitability-in-patients-with-unilateral-cerebellar-infarcts-and-healthy-subjects-preliminary-results
#14
Suzete Nascimento Farias da Guarda, Adriana Bastos Conforto
BACKGROUND: In healthy humans, somatosensory stimulation in the form of 2 h-repetitive peripheral afferent nerve stimulation (SS) increases excitability of the contralateral motor cortex. In this preliminary study, we explored effects of SS on excitability to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with unilateral cerebellar infarcts and age-matched controls. METHODS: Ten patients with infarcts in one cerebellar hemisphere and six age-matched controls participated in the study...
2014: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26316351/high-frequency-focal-repetitive-cerebellar-stimulation-induces-prolonged-increases-in-human-pharyngeal-motor-cortex-excitability
#15
Dipesh H Vasant, Emilia Michou, Satish Mistry, John C Rothwell, Shaheen Hamdy
KEY POINTS: Neurostimulation is a rapidly emerging approach to swallowing rehabilitation, but cerebellar stimulation has not been explored as a treatment. Such proposed therapies for post-stroke dysphagia have required confirmation of physiological effects and optimisation of parameters in healthy humans prior to translational progression into patient groups. There is strong evidence for a role of the cerebellum in swallowing physiology, but this relationship has been under-explored. Recently, single pulses of cerebellar magnetic stimulation have been shown to directly evoke responses from pharyngeal musculature and produce short-term enhancement of cortico-pharyngeal motor evoked potentials, suggesting the feasibility of a cerebellar approach to neurostimulation in the swallowing system...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26283524/anodal-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-cerebellum-reduces-cerebellar-brain-inhibition-but-does-not-influence-afferent-input-from-the-hand-or-face-in-healthy-adults
#16
Sebastian H Doeltgen, Jessica Young, Lynley V Bradnam
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults...
August 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26140957/the-effect-of-cerebellar-degeneration-on-human-sensori-motor-plasticity
#17
Raffaele Dubbioso, Giovanni Pellegrino, Antonella Antenora, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Lucio Santoro, Fiore Manganelli
BACKGROUND: Plasticity of the primary motor cortex (M1) has a critical role in motor control and learning. The cerebellum facilitates these functions using sensory feedback. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how cerebellar degeneration influences the plasticity of the M1 by using PAS (paired associative stimulation) technique. PAS involves repeated pairs of electrical stimuli to the median nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex. If the interval between peripheral and TMS stimulation is around 21-25 ms, corticospinal excitability is increased via a long term potentiation (LTP)-like effect within M1...
November 2015: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26042019/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-the-cerebellum-improves-handwriting-and-cyclic-drawing-kinematics-in-focal-hand-dystonia
#18
Lynley V Bradnam, Lynton J Graetz, Michelle N McDonnell, Michael C Ridding
There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum has a role in the pathophysiology of primary focal hand dystonia and might provide an intervention target for non-invasive brain stimulation to improve function of the affected hand. The primary objective of this study was to determine if cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves handwriting and cyclic drawing kinematics in people with hand dystonia, by reducing cerebellar-brain inhibition (CBI) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25792076/resetting-tremor-by-single-and-paired-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-essential-tremor
#19
Ming-Kuei Lu, Shang-Ming Chiou, Ulf Ziemann, Hui-Chun Huang, Yu-Wan Yang, Chon-Haw Tsai
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) is not fully understood. This study tested the role of primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and cerebellar cortex on PD and ET tremor by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Ten PD patients with resting tremor, six of them also with postural tremor, and ten ET patients with postural tremor were studied. Randomized single- and paired-pulse TMS with an interstimulus interval of 100 ms were delivered over M1, SMA and cerebellum...
December 2015: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25581971/the-influence-of-deltalycyn-and-transcranial-cerebellar-stimulation-upon-recovery-of-retina-after-photo-stress-in-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#20
Nataliya Valentinivna Kresyun
AIM: The characteristics of visual evoked potentials (VEP) have been studied in diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Magnetic impulses (2.0 T1 at the height of impulse) have been delivered to the cerebellar surface transcranially using the "Neuro-MS/D", (Russia Federation). Delta- sleep inducing peptide ("Deltalycyn", "Biopharma", Russia Federation) was intranasally delivered in 30 min before photostress. Afterwards VEP have been registered every 20 s from the moment of photo stress during one minute...
October 2014: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
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