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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417490/motor-and-extra-motor-gray-matter-integrity-may-underlie-neurophysiologic-parameters-of-motor-function-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-transcranial-stimulation-study
#1
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Georgios Velonakis, Michail Rentzos, Thomas Zambelis, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Sophia Xirou, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Nikolaos Karandreas
The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396401/abnormal-cerebellar-processing-of-the-neck-proprioceptive-information-drives-dysfunctions-in-cervical-dystonia
#2
T Popa, C Hubsch, P James, A Richard, M Russo, S Pradeep, S Krishan, E Roze, S Meunier, A Kishore
The cerebellum can influence the responsiveness of the primary motor cortex (M1) to undergo spike timing-dependent plastic changes through a complex mechanism involving multiple relays in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway. Previous TMS studies showed that cerebellar cortex excitation can block the increase in M1 excitability induced by a paired-associative stimulation (PAS), while cerebellar cortex inhibition would enhance it. Since cerebellum is known to be affected in many types of dystonia, this bidirectional modulation was assessed in 22 patients with cervical dystonia and 23 healthy controls...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289719/the-distribution-of-ki-67-and-doublecortin-immunopositive-cells-in-the-brains-of-three-strepsirrhine-primates-galago-demidoff-perodicticus-potto-and-lemur-catta
#3
Thandi M Fasemore, Nina Patzke, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R Manger, Amadi O Ihunwo
This study investigated the pattern of adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of three prosimian primate species using immunohistochemical techniques for endogenous markers of this neural process. Two species, Galago demidoff and Perodicticus potto were obtained from wild populations in the primary rainforest of central Africa, while one species, Lemur catta, was captive-bred. Two brains from each species, perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, were sectioned (50 µm section thickness) in sagittal and coronal planes...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246845/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-explicit-and-incidental-processing-of-facial-emotional-expressions-a-study-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#4
Chiara Ferrari, Viola Oldrati, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Growing evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a critical role in non-motor functions, contributing to cognitive and affective processing. In particular, the cerebellum might represent an important node of the "limbic" network, underlying not only emotion regulation but also emotion perception and recognition. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed further light on the role of the cerebellum in emotional perception by specifically testing cerebellar contribution to explicit and incidental emotional processing...
December 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208533/assessing-cerebellar-brain-inhibition-cbi-via-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Lara Fernandez, Brendan P Major, Wei-Peng Teo, Linda K Byrne, Peter G Enticott
The inhibitory tone that the cerebellum exerts on the primary motor cortex (M1) is known as cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI). Studies show CBI to be relevant to several motor functions, including adaptive motor learning and muscle control. CBI can be assessed noninvasively via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using a double-coil protocol. Variability in parameter choice and controversy surrounding the protocol's ability to isolate the cerebellothalamocortical pathway casts doubt over its validity in neuroscience research...
December 2, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191439/effects-of-cerebellar-neuromodulation-in-movement-disorders-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Carina França, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Ricardo Galhardoni, Valquiria Silva, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Rubens Gisbert Cury
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum is involved in the pathophysiology of many movement disorders and its importance in the field of neuromodulation is growing. OBJECTIVES: To review the current evidence for cerebellar modulation in movement disorders and its safety profile. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified after a systematic literature review of the effects of cerebellar modulation in cerebellar ataxia, Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), dystonia and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
November 23, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154805/the-effects-of-imaginary-voluntary-muscle-contraction-and-relaxation-on-cerebellar-brain-inhibition
#7
Hiroaki Tanaka, Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yohei Okada
The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) during imaginary muscle contraction (Contract-I) and relaxation (Relax-I) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twenty-nine healthy adults completed two experiments. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle were induced by TMS over the left M1 and measured with or without TMS over the right cerebellum during Contract-I (first experiment) and Relax-I (second experiment) of the right FDI, and these were compared to the findings in a no-imagery (No-I) condition...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141551/noninvasive-cerebellar-stimulation-as-a-complement-tool-to-pharmacotherapy
#8
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by balance and coordination disturbance, dysarthria, dyssynergia and adyadococinesia, caused by a dysfunction in the cerebellum. In recent years there has been growing interest in discovering therapeutical strategy for specific forms of cerebellar ataxia. Together with pharmacological studies, there has been growing interest in non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques to improve ataxia and limb coordination. Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques to modulate cerebro and cerebellar cortex excitability using magnetic or electric fields...
November 14, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074317/alteration-of-cortical-excitability-and-its-modulation-by-miglustat-in-niemann-pick-disease-type-c
#9
Shady Safwat Hassan, Carlos Trenado, Saskia Elben, Alfons Schnitzler, Stefan Jun Groiss
Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disease. Cortical excitability using different transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols together with clinical and neuropsychological testing was longitudinally assessed in a patient with NP-C. Cerebellar inhibition, a measure for the integrity of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network, was impaired. Short-latency afferent inhibition, a measure for cholinergic transmission, and cognitive functions were also impaired and improved under Miglustat treatment...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073474/effects-of-continuous-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cortical-excitability-in-patients-with-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy
#10
Guray Koc, Zeki Gokcil, Semai Bek, Tayfun Kasikci, Erdal Eroglu, Zeki Odabasi
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique for investigating cortical physiologic functions in the brain. In this study, the effects of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) on motor evoked potential (MEP) parameters in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with IGE were included. Motor threshold (MT) and cortical silent period (CSP) were determined before cTBS application...
October 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938143/contribution-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-assessment-of-brain-connectivity-and-networks
#11
REVIEW
Mark Hallett, Riccardo Di Iorio, Paolo Maria Rossini, Jung E Park, Robert Chen, Pablo Celnik, Antonio P Strafella, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Ugawa
The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex...
November 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928632/neurophysiology-of-the-celiac-brain-disentangling-gut-brain-connections
#12
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giuseppe Lanza
Celiac disease (CD) can be considered a complex multi-organ disorder with highly variable extra-intestinal, including neurological, involvement. Cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, headache, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric diseases are complications frequently reported. These manifestations may be present at the onset of the typical disease or become clinically evident during its course. However, CD subjects with subclinical neurological involvement have also been described, as well as patients with clear central and/or peripheral nervous system and intestinal histopathological disease features in the absence of typical CD manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900413/impaired-cerebellum-to-primary-motor-cortex-associative-plasticity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#13
Ming-Kuei Lu, Jui-Cheng Chen, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ulf Ziemann, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Functional perturbation of the cerebellum (CB)-motor cortex (M1) interactions may underlie pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Recently, M1 motor excitability can be bidirectionally modulated in young subjects by corticocortical paired associative stimulation (PAS) on CB and contralateral M1 with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), probably through the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical (CDTC) circuit...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781049/role-of-the-cerebellum-in-adaptation-to-delayed-action-effects
#14
Liyu Cao, Domenica Veniero, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross
Actions are typically associated with sensory consequences. For example, knocking at a door results in predictable sounds. These self-initiated sensory stimuli are known to elicit smaller cortical responses compared to passively presented stimuli, e.g., early auditory evoked magnetic fields known as M100 and M200 components are attenuated. Current models implicate the cerebellum in the prediction of the sensory consequences of our actions. However, causal evidence is largely missing. In this study, we introduced a constant delay (of 100 ms) between actions and action-associated sounds, and we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) data as participants adapted to the delay...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669908/modulation-of-cognitive-cerebello-cerebral-functional-connectivity-by-lateral-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation
#15
Anuj Rastogi, Robin Cash, Katharine Dunlop, Michael Vesia, Aaron Kucyi, Ayda Ghahremani, Jonathan Downar, Joyce Chen, Robert Chen
Network connectivity measured with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has revealed the contribution of distinct cerebellar lobules to an array of brain wide networks sub-serving motor and cognitive processes. As distinct cerebellar lobules form relatively accessible nodes of different brain networks, this raises the possibility for site-specific modulation of network connectivity using non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) induces long-lasting inhibition of cortical areas...
September 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495634/network-targeted-cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-improves-attentional-control
#16
Michael Esterman, Michelle Thai, Hidefusa Okabe, Joseph DeGutis, Elyana Saad, Simon E Laganiere, Mark A Halko
Developing non-invasive brain stimulation interventions to improve attentional control is extremely relevant to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, yet few studies have identified reliable biomarkers that can be readily modified to improve attentional control. One potential biomarker of attention is functional connectivity in the core cortical network supporting attention - the dorsal attention network (DAN). We used a network-targeted cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) procedure, intended to enhance cortical functional connectivity in the DAN...
August 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137969/cerebellar-m1-connectivity-changes-associated-with-motor-learning-are-somatotopic-specific
#17
Danny A Spampinato, Hannah J Block, Pablo A Celnik
One of the functions of the cerebellum in motor learning is to predict and account for systematic changes to the body or environment. This form of adaptive learning is mediated by plastic changes occurring within the cerebellar cortex. The strength of cerebellar-to-cerebral pathways for a given muscle may reflect aspects of cerebellum-dependent motor adaptation. These connections with motor cortex (M1) can be estimated as cerebellar inhibition (CBI): a conditioning pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered to the cerebellum before a test pulse over motor cortex...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132412/dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellar-contribution-to-in-group-attitudes-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#18
Lucile Gamond, Chiara Ferrari, Stefania La Rocca, Zaira Cattaneo
We tend to express more positive judgments and behaviors toward individuals belonging to our own group compared to other (out-) groups. In this study, we assessed the role of the cerebellum and of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) - two regions critically implicated in social cognition processes - in mediating implicit valenced attitudes toward in-group and out-group individuals. To this aim, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with a standard attitude priming task, in which Caucasian participants had to categorize the valence of a series of adjectives primed by either an in-group or an out-group face...
April 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029595/pulse-duration-as-well-as-current-direction-determines-the-specificity-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-motor-cortex-during-contraction
#19
Ricci Hannah, John C Rothwell
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggested that anterior-posterior (AP) directed currents induced by TMS in motor cortex (M1) activate interneuron circuits different from those activated by posterior-anterior currents (PA). The present experiments provide evidence that pulse duration also determines the activation of specific interneuron circuits. OBJECTIVE: To use single motor unit (SMU) recordings to confirm the difference in onset latencies of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by different current directions and pulse durations: AP30, AP120, PA30 and PA120...
January 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994543/repetitive-tms-on-left-cerebellum-affects-impulsivity-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-pilot-study
#20
Giulia Zelda De Vidovich, Riccardo Muffatti, Jessica Monaco, Nicoletta Caramia, Davide Broglia, Edgardo Caverzasi, Francesco Barale, Egidio D'Angelo
The borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a severe pattern of instability in emotional regulation, interpersonal relationships, identity and impulse control. These functions are related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and since PFC shows a rich anatomical connectivity with the cerebellum, the functionality of the cerebellar-PFC axis may impact on BPD. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections in impulsive reactions through a pre/post stimulation design...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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