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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164458/phosphorus-speciation-and-release-kinetics-of-swine-manure-biochar-under-various-pyrolysis-temperatures
#1
Xinqiang Liang, Yi Jin, Miaomiao He, Christophe Niyungeko, Jin Zhang, Chunlong Liu, Guangming Tian, Yuji Arai
Converting swine manure to biochar is an effective way to recycle valuable nutrients, but there are few reports on its feasibility as a phosphorus (P) source. The objective of this study was to clarify the unique nature, including P speciation, of manure biochar products under various pyrolysis temperatures. We used solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and P K-edge X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (P XANES) to characterize P species in swine manure biochar. For every 100 °C increment starting from 300 °C, the P content in manure biochar increased by 2...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163417/csfv-infection-up-regulates-the-unfolded-protein-response-to-promote-its-replication
#2
Wencheng He, Hailuan Xu, Hongchao Gou, Jin Yuan, Jiedan Liao, Yuming Chen, Shuangqi Fan, Baoming Xie, Shaofeng Deng, Yangyi Zhang, Jinding Chen, Mingqiu Zhao
Classical swine fever (CSF) is an OIE-listed, highly contagious animal disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle in which the replication of many RNA viruses takes place. During viral infection, a series of events elicited in cells can destroy the ER homeostasis that cause ER stress and induce an unfolded protein response (UPR). In this study, we demonstrate that ER stress was induced during CSFV infection as several UPR-responsive elements such as XBP1(s), GRP78 and CHOP were up-regulated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162713/capsular-polysaccharide-interferes-with-biofilm-formation-by-pasteurella-multocida-serogroup-a
#3
Briana Petruzzi, Robert E Briggs, W Edward Swords, Cristina De Castro, Antonio Molinaro, Thomas J Inzana
Pasteurella multocida is an important multihost animal and zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing respiratory and multisystemic diseases, bacteremia, and bite wound infections. The glycosaminoglycan capsule of P. multocida is an essential virulence factor that protects the bacterium from host defenses. However, chronic infections (such as swine atrophic rhinitis and the carrier state in birds and other animals) may be associated with biofilm formation, which has not been characterized in P. multocida Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was inversely related to capsule production and was confirmed with capsule-deficient mutants of highly encapsulated strains...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158944/comparative-metagenomic-analysis-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-differentially-inoculated-swine-wastewater-fed-microbial-fuel-cells
#4
Irina V Khilyas, Anatoly A Sorokin, Larisa Kiseleva, David J W Simpson, V Fedorovich, Margarita R Sharipova, Mami Kainuma, Michael F Cohen, Igor Goryanin
Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS) or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS). The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157378/monitoring-breeding-herd-production-data-to-detect-prrsv-outbreaks
#5
G S Silva, M Schwartz, R B Morrison, D C L Linhares
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) causes substantial economic impact due to significant losses in productivity. Thus, measuring changes in farm productivity before and after PRRS infection enables quantifying the production and economic impact of outbreaks. This study assessed the application of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), a statistical process control method, on selected production data (number of abortions, pre-weaning mortality rate and prenatal losses) to supplement PRRS surveillance programs by detecting significant deviations on productivity in a production system with 55,000 sows in 14 breed-to-wean herds in Minnesota, U...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157367/a-multilevel-study-of-the-environmental-determinants-of-swine-ascariasis-in-england
#6
Ângelo Joel Mendes, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Milton Severo, João Niza-Ribeiro
Ascariasis is considered a common parasitosis of swine worldwide. The disease causes significant economic losses due to its effect on feed conversion ratio and liver condemnations at slaughter (liver milk spots). This study aimed to characterise the between-farm and spatial variance in porcine ascariasis in England and to assess the association between the percentage of infected animals and potential environmental risk factors, including production system, socioeconomic deprivation, soil characteristics (pH, topsoil bulk density, topsoil organic matter, topsoil texture class, soil water regime, topsoil available water capacity, and elevation), and climatic conditions (relative humidity, air temperature, and rainfall) before slaughter...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154473/influences-of-quorum-quenching-probiotic-bacteria-on-the-gut-microbial-community-and-immune-function-in-weaning-pigs
#7
Jonggun Kim, Jaepil Kim, Younghoon Kim, Sangnam Oh, Minho Song, Jee Hwan Choe, Kwang-Youn Whang, Kwang Hyun Kim, Sejong Oh
The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic gut microbial diversity in weaning swine after administering feed supplemented with probiotic bacteria that specifically inhibit the activity of quorum molecules. Initially, the universal quorum molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) bioassay results indicated that AI-2 activity was profoundly inhibited in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in the presence of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain 30SC cell extract, although the growth of EHEC was not affected...
November 20, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149627/a-simple-and-sensitive-two-tube-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-ten-meat-species
#8
Olga V Prusakova, Xenia A Glukhova, Gaida V Afanas'eva, Yulia A Trizna, Ludmila F Nazarova, Igor P Beletsky
A sensitive and reliable technique for meat species identification is required to prevent food adulteration, particularly in meat production. This work developed an optimized multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous identification of five commonly consumed and five commonly banned meat species in meat products. We designed primers that specifically amplified mitochondrial ATPase subunit 8 gene regions of different lengths of bovine, ovine, swine, chicken, turkey, cat, dog, mouse and human DNAs. The developed multiplex PCR assay proved to be specific, sensitive down to 30pg DNA per reaction, reproducible and economical...
October 26, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143703/dose-response-evaluation-of-the-standardized-ileal-digestible-tryptophan-lysine-ratio-to-maximize-growth-performance-of-growing-finishing-gilts-under-commercial-conditions
#9
M A D Gonçalves, M D Tokach, N M Bello, K J Touchette, R D Goodband, J M DeRouchey, J C Woodworth, S S Dritz
Environmental regulations as well as economic incentives have resulted in greater use of synthetic amino acids in swine diets. Tryptophan is typically the second limiting amino acid in corn-soybean meal-based diets. However, using corn-based co-products emphasizes the need to evaluate the pig's response to increasing Trp concentrations. Therefore, the objective of these studies was to evaluate the dose-response to increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp : Lys on growth performance of growing-finishing gilts housed under large-scale commercial conditions...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140992/transcriptome-profile-of-lung-dendritic-cells-after-in-vitro-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-infection
#10
Maren Julia Pröll, Christiane Neuhoff, Karl Schellander, Muhammad Jasim Uddin, Mehmet Ulas Cinar, Sudeep Sahadevan, Xueqi Qu, Md Aminul Islam, Mikhael Poirier, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Dawit Tesfaye, Ernst Tholen, Christine Große-Brinkhaus
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease that leads to high financial and production losses in the global swine industry. The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on a multitude of factors, and its control remains problematic. The immune system generally defends against infectious diseases, especially dendritic cells (DCs), which play a crucial role in the activation of the immune response after viral infections. However, the understanding of the immune response and the genetic impact on the immune response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) remains incomplete...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140644/evaluation-of-low-cost-hydrogen-sulfide-monitors-for-use-in-livestock-production
#11
Jessica M Beswick-Honn, Thomas M Peters, T Renée Anthony
Direct-reading gas monitors warn workers of the risk of potentially fatal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposures that may arise during manure handling. Low-cost, low-maintenance H2S monitors are available from many manufacturers, but differences in their features and performance make selection challenging for farmers. Moreover, little information is available on the practical maintenance and performance of these devices in agricultural environments. The objective of this study was to provide information to agricultural workers to aid in the selection, maintenance, and use of low-cost H2S monitors...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140262/influence-of-professional-affiliation-on-expert-s-view-on-welfare-measures
#12
Nina Dam Otten, Tine Rousing, Björn Forkman
The present study seeks to investigate the influence of expert affiliation in the weighing procedures within animal welfare assessments. Experts are often gathered with different backgrounds with differing approaches to animal welfare posing a potential pitfall if affiliation groups are not balanced in numbers of experts. At two time points (2012 and 2016), dairy cattle and swine experts from four different stakeholder groups, namely researchers (RES), production advisors (CONS), practicing veterinarians (VET) and animal welfare control officers (AWC) were asked to weigh eight different welfare criteria: Hunger, Thirst, Resting comfort, Ease of movement, Injuries, Disease, Human-animal bond and Emotional state...
November 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137887/effects-of-chlortetracycline-on-the-fate-of-multi-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-the-microbial-community-during-swine-manure-composting
#13
Zhiqiang Chen, Yao Wang, Qinxue Wen
Excessive use of antibiotics in breeding industry leads to accumulation of antibiotic residuals and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environment from improperly treated livestock excrements. Four commonly used veterinary antibiotics including chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfamerazine (SMZ), enrofloxacin (ENR) and erythromycin (ERY) were monitored in the swine manure composting. Co-resistance and cross-resistance effects among relative ARGs, correlations between ARGs and bacterial community under multiple antibiotics residual during the composting were investigated in this research...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#14
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117209/persistence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-the-liver-of-non-viremic-naturally-infected-wild-boar
#15
María A Risalde, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Fernando Romero-Palomo, Mario Frías, Pedro López-López, David Cano-Terriza, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Saúl Jiménez-Ruíz, Ángela Camacho, Isabel Machuca, José C Gomez-Villamandos, Antonio Rivero
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with pigs and wild boar serving as reservoirs for human infection through direct contact with infected animals or the consumption of raw or undercooked pork products. The liver is considered the main target site of HEV replication in swine and an important organ in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the target liver cells for HEV entry in naturally infected wild boar and to evaluate the type and severity of the pathological changes in order to reach a better understanding of the hepatic pathogenic mechanisms involved in hepatitis E...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110404/antimicrobial-resistance-trends-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-food-producing-animals-in-france-a-14-year-period-time-series-study
#16
C Boireau, É Morignat, G Cazeau, N Jarrige, É Jouy, M Haenni, J-Y Madec, A Leblond, É Gay
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three livestock productions in France (cattle, swine and poultry). The trend in resistance to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in animal health was analysed as follows: amoxicillin (penicillin), spectinomycin or streptomycin (aminoglycoside), tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur were also taken into account as members of critically important antimicrobial families in human and veterinary medicine, that is fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108048/amino-acid-composition-of-fetus-placenta-and-uterus-in-gilts-throughout-gestation
#17
Y D Jang, Y L Ma, R L Payne, M D Lindemann
An accurate understanding of the AA composition of the products of conception is needed to accurately model dietary AA needs of pregnant swine. To determine AA composition in fetal pigs, the placenta, and the uterus at various stages of gestation, samples from a total of 65 gilts slaughtered at assigned days of gestation (d 43, 58, 73, 91, 101, and 108) were used. The AA concentrations (g/kg each wet tissue) in the fetus, placenta, or uterus increased as gestation progressed, with major increases occurring from d 73 to 108 of gestation ( < 0...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103685/cholesterol-25-hydroxylase-is-an-interferon-inducible-factor-that-protects-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection
#18
Zhongbao Song, Qiaoya Zhang, Xuewei Liu, Juan Bai, Yongxiang Zhao, Xianwei Wang, Ping Jiang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of the Arteriviridae family, has become a global health threat for swine. Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of cholesterol to 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). The purpose of this study was to explore the antiviral activity of CH25H against PRRSV infection. We found that CH25H was induced by interferon-α and PRRSV in Marc-145 monkey kidney cells. In addition, CH25H and 25HC significantly inhibited PRRSV infection by preventing virus entry...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103684/age-susceptibility-of-caesarian-derived-colostrum-deprived-pigs-to-mycoplasma-hyorhinis-challenge
#19
Brian Martinson, F C Minion, Jeremy Kroll, Joseph Hermann
Mycoplasma hyorhinis (MHR) is a major cause of lameness, arthritis, and polyserositis among growing pigs. Reduced performance and culling due to MHR infection result in economic losses in swine production. We have previously developed an MHR challenge model in seven week-old CDCD pigs using cell-associated challenge material which results in both severe pericarditis and lameness. In this study we sequentially challenged CDCD pigs at seven, ten, thirteen, and sixteen weeks of age. Lameness was observed in >60% of the animals in the first three age groups but only 33% in the oldest age group...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102105/cholesterol-exacerbates-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-induced-apoptosis-via-stimulating-proliferation-and-adhesion-to-porcine-alveolar-macrophages
#20
Maojun Liu, Gaimei Du, Beibei Liu, Yun Hu, Jie Liu, Yimin Jia, F Chris Minion, Guoqing Shao, Ruqian Zhao
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) is the agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, a disease that causes considerable economic losses in the swine industry. Induction of apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages is an important pathogenic mechanism of M. hyo. Cholesterol has been reported to influence cell adherence and cell invasion of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma fermentans leading to apoptosis, but the role of cholesterol on the apoptotic inducing activity of M. hyo remains unknown. In this study, we found a positive correlation between cholesterol level and M...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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