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Swine production

D Cano-Terriza, M A Risalde, S Jiménez-Ruiz, J Vicente, J Isla, J Paniagua, I Moreno, C Gortázar, J A Infantes-Lorenzo, I García-Bocanegra
In recent decades, habitat change and the intensive management of wild ungulates for hunting have led to an increase in their populations in south-central Spain. This implies a higher generation of hunting waste, which can favour the transmission of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the proper disposal of hunting waste as TB control measure in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the 2008/2009 to 2016/2017 hunting seasons...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Benjamin B A Raymond, Ranya Madhkoor, Ina Schleicher, Cord C Uphoff, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Manfred Rohde, Matthew P Padula, Steven P Djordjevic
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , an agriculturally important porcine pathogen, disrupts the mucociliary escalator causing ciliostasis, loss of cilial function, and epithelial cell death within the porcine lung. Losses to swine production due to growth rate retardation and reduced feed conversion efficiency are severe, and antibiotics are used heavily to control mycoplasmal pneumonia. Notably, little is known about the repertoire of host receptors that M. hyopneumoniae targets to facilitate colonization. Here we show, for the first time, that actin exists extracellularly on porcine epithelial monolayers (PK-15) using surface biotinylation and 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM), and that M...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Raquel Portugal, Alexandre Leitão, Carlos Martins
ASFV causes an important disease of domestic swine and wild boar. Currently no vaccine is available, highlighting the necessity to understand ASFV modulation of innate immune responses in natural host cells. With this aim, macrophage cultures enriched in SWC9 and CD163 differentiation markers were infected in parallel with high virulent ASFV/L60 and low virulent ASFV/NHV, the latter lacking MGF 360 and 505/530 genes associated with type I interferon (IFN I) control. IFN I production and signaling were studied after completion of the viral cycles...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
A Palma, B Ortiz, L Mendoza, G Matamoros, J A Gabrie, A L Sánchez, G Fontecha
Ascaris sp. is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) significantly affecting the health of human and swine populations. Health inequities and poverty, with resulting deficiencies in water, sanitation and hygiene, are directly associated with Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in humans. Resource constraints also lead to small-scale livestock production under unsanitary conditions. Free-ranging pigs, for instance, are exposed to a number of infectious agents, among which Ascaris suum is one of the most common. Under these conditions, close proximity between people and pigs can result in cross-contamination; that is, pigs harbouring human Ascaris and vice versa...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Chang-Il Kwon, Gwangil Kim, Jong Pil Moon, Ho Yun, Weon Jin Ko, Joo Young Cho, Sung Pyo Hong
Background/Aims: Recently, to lower the production costs and risk of infection, new disposable biopsy forceps made using simple manufacturing techniques have been introduced. However, the effects of the manufacturing techniques are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate which types of biopsy forceps could obtain good-quality specimens according to the manufacturing techniques. Methods: By using an in vitro nitrile glove popping model, we compared the popping ability among eight different disposable biopsy forceps (one pair of biopsy forceps with cups made by a cutting method [cutting forceps], four pairs of biopsy forceps with cups made by a pressing method [pressing forceps], and three pairs of biopsy forceps with cups made using a injection molding method [molding forceps])...
March 5, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Y Xu, X Wen, X Feng, Z Liang, X Ye, H Nie, X Liao, J Li, Y Zeng, S Tang, J He
The objective of this work was to manufacture an enteric formulation of florfenicol (FF) using hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology and to evaluate its in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetics. For the HME process, hypromellose acetate succinate LG (HPMCAS-LG) was the enteric polymer mixed with FF, and the two components were extruded with a standard screw configuration at a speed of 50 rpm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were performed to characterize the HME extrudate...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Cécile Revellin, Alain Hartmann, Sébastien Solanas, Edward Topp
Antibiotics are entrained into agricultural soil through the application of manures from medicated animals. In the present study, a series of small field plots was established in 1999 that receive annual spring applications of a mixture of tylosin, sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg kg-1 soil. These antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production. The field plots were cropped continuously to soybeans and in 2012, after 14 annual antibiotic applications, nodules from soybean roots were sampled and the occupying bradyrhizobia characterized...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Maodong Zhang, Alexander Zakhartchouk
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important pathogens in the swine industry, causing reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disorders in piglets. Glycosylated protein 5 (GP5) is a major envelope protein of the virus. It is essential for virus particle assembly and involved in viral pathogenesis. In the present study, we identified the host cellular proteins that interact with GP5 by performing immunoprecipitation in MARC-145 cells infected by a recombinant PRRSV containing a FLAG-tag insertion in GP5...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Virology
Emily Ouma, Michel Dione, Rosemirta Birungi, Peter Lule, Lawrence Mayega, Kanar Dizyee
Pig production in peri-urban smallholder value chains in Uganda is severely constrained by impact of disease, particularly African swine fever (ASF), and the economic consequences of an inefficient pig value chain. Interventions in the form of biosecurity to control ASF disease outbreaks and pig business hub models to better link smallholder farmers to pig markets have the potential to address the constraints. However, there is a dearth of evidence of the effects of the interventions on performance and distribution of outcomes along the pig value chain...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Mingxin Zhang, Qianqian Wu, Yao Chen, Mubing Duan, Ge Tian, Xianbo Deng, Yankuo Sun, Tong Zhou, Guihong Zhang, Weisan Chen, Jianxin Chen
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widely prevalent and endemic swine pathogen that causes significant economic losses for the global pig industry annually. Currently, the most prevalent strategy for PRRSV control remains the prevention of virus transmission, with highly effective therapeutic agents and vaccines still lacking. Proanthocyanidin A2 (PA2) belongs to the family of tea polyphenols, which have been reported to exhibit a range of biological activities including anti-oxidative, cardio-protective, anti-tumoural, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as in vivo...
2018: PloS One
Courtney Daigle
Pregnancy and parturition in all mammals is accompanied with physical, psychological, social, and hormonal shifts that impact the mother physically and psychologically. Pre-weaning piglet mortality continues to be a major welfare and economic issue in U.S. swine production, running at 12-15% with crushing by the sow the major cause. Much research has focused on farrowing environment design, yet the fact that little progress has been made emphasizes that psychosocial factors may impact rates of postpartum disorders (PPD)...
February 6, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Wei Tang, Zhengyan Guo, Zhenju Cao, Min Wang, Pengwei Li, Xiangxi Meng, Xuejin Zhao, Zhoujie Xie, Wenzhao Wang, Aihua Zhou, Chunbo Lou, Yihua Chen
Seven-carbon-chain-containing sugars exist in several groups of important bacterial natural products. Septacidin represents a group of l-heptopyranoses containing nucleoside antibiotics with antitumor, antifungal, and pain-relief activities. Hygromycin B, an aminoglycoside anthelmintic agent used in swine and poultry farming, represents a group of d-heptopyranoses-containing antibiotics. To date, very little is known about the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here we sequenced the genome of the septacidin producer and identified the septacidin gene cluster by heterologous expression...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Katelyn M Kimble, Sarah E Dickinson, Fernando H Biase
OBJECTIVE: Analyses of single oocytes are essential for a fine dissection of molecular features governing developmental competence. We adapted the phenol-chloroform procedure for the purification of total RNA from single oocytes. RESULTS: Key modifications include the use of Phasemaker™ tubes, a second chloroform wash of the aqueous phase, and the precipitation of the RNA with glyclogen in a 200 μl micro-centrifuge tube. Assessment of the RNA profile from single oocytes showed distinct peaks for 18S and 28S ribosomal subunits...
February 27, 2018: BMC Research Notes
José Antonio Parrón, Daniel Ripollés, Sergio José Ramos, María Dolores Pérez, Zeynep Semen, Pedro Rubio, Miguel Calvo, Lourdes Sánchez
Rotaviral gastroenteritis causes a high rate of infant mortality and severe healthcare implications worldwide. Several studies have pointed out that human milk and dairy fractions, such as whey and buttermilk, possess antirotaviral activity. This activity has been mainly associated with glycoproteins, among them lactoferrin (LF). Thermal treatments are necessary to provide microbiological safety and extend the shelf life of milk products, though they may diminish their biological value. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment is a non-thermal method that causes lower degradation of food components than other treatments...
February 26, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Lili Hou, Fang Gan, Xuan Zhou, Yajiao Zhou, Gang Qian, Zixuan Liu, Kehe Huang
The co-contamination of cereals, grains, crops, and animal feeds by mycotoxins is a universal problem. Humans and animals are exposed to several mycotoxins simultaneously as evidenced by extensive studies on this topic. Yet, most studies have addressed the effects of mycotoxins individually. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A can induce immunotoxicity. However, it remains unclear whether a combination of these mycotoxins aggravates immunotoxicity and the potential mechanism underlying this effect. In this study, we used the cell line 3D4/21, swine alveolus macrophages and innate immune cell...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Alice Ferreira, Paula Marques, Belina Ribeiro, Paula Assemany, Henrique Vieira de Mendonça, Ana Barata, Ana Cristina Oliveira, Alberto Reis, Helena M Pinheiro, Luisa Gouveia
The ability of microalgae to grow in nutrient-rich environments and to accumulate nutrients from wastewaters (WW) makes them attractive for the sustainable and low-cost treatment of WW. The valuable biomass produced can be further used for the generation of bioenergy, animal feed, fertilizers, and biopolymers, among others. In this study, Scenedesmus obliquus was able to remove nutrients from different wastewaters (poultry, swine and cattle breeding, brewery and dairy industries, and urban) with removal ranges of 95-100% for nitrogen, 63-99% for phosphorus and 48-70% for chemical oxygen demand...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Research
K M Seelenbinder, L D Zhao, M D Hanigan, M W Hulver, R P McMillan, L H Baumgard, J T Selsby, J W Ross, N K Gabler, R P Rhoads
Heat stress and immune challenges negatively impact nutrient allocation and metabolism in swine, especially due to elevated heat load. In order to assess the effects of heat stress during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on metabolism, 9-week old crossbred barrows were individually housed, fed ad libitum, divided into four treatments: thermo-neutral (TN), thermo-neutral PRRSV infected (TP), heat stress (HS), and heat stress PRRSV infected (HP), and subjected to two experimental phases...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Li Zhang, Weida Wu, Yuan-Kun Lee, Jingjing Xie, Hongfu Zhang
Pigs are one of the most important economic livestock. Gut microbiota is not only critical to the health but also the production efficiency of pigs. Manipulating gut microbiota relies on the full view of gut microbiome and the understanding of drive forces shaping microbial communities. 16s rDNA sequencing was used to profile microbiota along the longitudinal and radical axes to obtain the topographical map of microbiome in different intestinal compartments in young pigs. Alpha and beta-diversities revealed distinct differences in microbial compositions between the distal ileum and cecum and colon, as well as between the lumen and mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
B N Smith, R N Dilger
In this review, the potential for use of soy-derived bioactive compounds as immunomodulatory feed additives in pigs is discussed. Soy is a major component of the modern U.S. swine diet in today's commercial industry, providing the bulk of dietary AA necessary for growth and production. However, soy use has generally been limited in early growth phases, during which the risks of immunological insult and disease are among the highest. Improvements of soybean processing and development of soy protein products with little to no antinutritional factors have made soy more appropriate for use in young pigs but additional processing may impact bioactive compound levels in the feed...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Lucieli Kamila Focht Müller, Diovani Paiano, Jeferson Gugel, William Raphael Lorenzetti, Janio Morais Santurio, Fernando de Castro Tavernari, Eduardo Micotti da Gloria, Matheus D Baldissera, Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva
Mycotoxins are responsible for economic losses in the swine production industry, especially during post-weaning, when piglets are physiologically immature. Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), added to pig diets, may help reduce losses due to mycotoxins. This work investigates the effects of SDPP in post-weaning piglets fed with diets containing natural contaminants or with more contaminants (co-contamination by mycotoxins). Fifty-six castrated weaned piglets were used in a randomized 2 (0 and 6% of SDPP) x 2 (natural contamination or co-contamination with mycotoxin) factorial design, with seven experimental units of two piglets each...
February 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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