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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341332/the-viral-innate-immune-antagonism-and-an-alternative-vaccine-design-for-prrs-virus
#1
REVIEW
Hanzhong Ke, Dongwan Yoo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains one of the most economically significant diseases in the swine industry worldwide. The current vaccines are less satisfactory to confer protections from heterologous infections and long-term persistence, and the need for better vaccines are urgent. The immunological hallmarks in PRRSV-infected pigs include the unusually poor production of type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) and the aberrant and delayed adaptive immune responses, indicating that PRRSV has the ability to suppress both innate and adaptive immune responses in the host...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340426/porcine-parvovirus-induces-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-pk-15-cells-mediated-by-toll-like-receptors
#2
Liyan Cao, Jianfei Chen, Yanwu Wei, Hongyan Shi, Xin Zhang, Jing Yuan, Da Shi, Jianbo Liu, Xiangdong Zhu, Xin Wang, Shangjin Cui, Li Feng
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a pathogenic factor that primarily induces severe reproductive failure of pregnant swine, which results in extensive losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, a potential mechanism of PPV-induced activation of the nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) by infection in porcine kidney cells (PK-15) was elucidated for the first time. The subcellular localization of p65 analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that PPV infection induced p65 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335552/virological-surveillance-of-influenza-a-subtypes-isolated-in-2014-from-clinical-outbreaks-in-canadian-swine
#3
Helena Grgić, Jackie Gallant, Zvonimir Poljak
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are respiratory pathogens associated with an acute respiratory disease that occurs year-round in swine production. It is currently one of the most important pathogens in swine populations, with the potential to infect other host species including humans. Ongoing research indicates that the three major subtypes of IAV-H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2-continue to expand in their genetic and antigenic diversity. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of 16 IAVs isolated from different clinical outbreaks in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in 2014...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335454/porcine-rotaviruses-epidemiology-immune-responses-and-control-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Anastasia N Vlasova, Joshua O Amimo, Linda J Saif
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333045/the-manureecomine-pilot-installation-advanced-integration-of-technologies-for-the-management-of-organics-and-nutrients-in-livestock-waste
#5
Cristina Pintucci, Marta Carballa, Sam Varga, Jimena Sarli, Lai Peng, Johannes Bousek, Chiara Pedizzi, Maël Ruscalleda, Elena Tarragó, Delphine Prat, Giovanni Colica, Merijn Picavet, Joop Colsen, Oscar Benito, Marilos Balaguer, Sebastià Puig, Juan M Lema, Jesús Colprim, Werner Fuchs, Siegfried E Vlaeminck
Manure represents an exquisite mining opportunity for nutrient recovery (nitrogen and phosphorus), and for their reuse as renewable fertilisers. The ManureEcoMine proposes an integrated approach of technologies, operated in a pilot-scale installation treating swine manure (83.7%) and Ecofrit(®) (16.3%), a mix of vegetable residues. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion was performed for 150 days, the final organic loading rate was 4.6 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), with a biogas production rate of 1.4 Nm(3) m(-3) d(-1). The digester was coupled to an ammonia side-stream stripping column and a scrubbing unit for free ammonia inhibition reduction in the digester, and nitrogen recovery as ammonium sulphate...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330290/successful-cloning-of-an-adult-breeding-boar-from-the-novel-chinese-guike-no-1-swine-specialized-strain
#6
Jun-Yu Nie, Xiang-Xing Zhu, Bing-Kun Xie, Su-Qun Nong, Qing-Yan Ma, Hui-Yan Xu, Xiao-Gan Yang, Yang-Qing Lu, Ke-Huan Lu, Yu-Ying Liao, Sheng-Sheng Lu
Somatic cloning, also known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), is a promising technology which has been expected to rapidly extend the population of elaborately selected breeding boars with superior production performance. Chinese Guike No. 1 pig breed is a novel swine specialized strain incorporated with the pedigree background of Duroc and Chinese Luchuan pig breeds, thus inherits an excellent production performance. The present study was conducted to establish somatic cloning procedures of adult breeding boars from the Chinese Guike No...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327531/porcine-dendritic-cells-as-an-in-vitro-model-to-assess-the-immunological-behaviour-of-streptococcus-suis-subunit-vaccine-formulations-and-the-polarizing-effect-of-adjuvants
#7
Léa Martelet, Sonia Lacouture, Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Guy Beauchamp, Charles Surprenant, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
An in vitro porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) culture was developed as a model for evaluating immune polarization induced by adjuvants when administered with immunogens that may become vaccine candidates if appropriately formulated. The swine pathogen Streptococcus suis was chosen as a prototype to evaluate proposed S. suis vaccine candidates in combination with the adjuvants Poly I:C, Quil A ®, Alhydrogel ®, TiterMax Gold ® and Stimune ®. The toll-like receptor ligand Poly I:C and the saponin Quil A ® polarized swine DC cytokines towards a type 1 phenotype, with preferential production of IL-12 and TNF-α...
March 22, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325625/-serological-detection-of-brucella-suis-influenza-virus-and-aujeszky-s-disease-virus-in-backyard-and-small-swine-holders-in-argentina
#8
Marina Dibarbora, Javier A Cappuccio, María N Aznar, Fernando A Bessone, Hernán Piscitelli, Ariel J Pereda, Daniel R Pérez
Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina...
March 18, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322012/3d-printed-multidrug-eluting-stent-from-graphene-nanoplatelet-doped-biodegradable-polymer-composite
#9
Santosh K Misra, Fatemeh Ostadhossein, Ramya Babu, Joseph Kus, Divya Tankasala, Andre Sutrisno, Kathleen A Walsh, Corinne R Bromfield, Dipanjan Pan
Patients with percutaneous coronary intervention generally receive either bare metal stents or drug-eluting stents to restore the normal blood flow. However, due to the lack of stent production with an individual patient in mind, the same level of effectiveness may not be possible in treating two different clinical scenarios. This study introduces for the first time the feasibility of a patient-specific stenting process constructed from direct 3D segmentation of medical images using direct 3D printing of biodegradable polymer-graphene composite with dual drug incorporation...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318241/mitigating-greenhouse-gas-and-ammonia-emissions-from-swine-manure-management-a-system-analysis
#10
Yue Wang, Hongmin Dong, Zhiping Zhu, Pierre J Gerber, Hongwei Xin, Pete Smith, Carolyn Opio, Henning Steinfeld, Dave Chadwick
Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems is urgently needed to help mitigate climate change and to improve atmospheric air quality. This study presents a meta-analysis and an integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for NH3, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) (direct and indirect) losses from four typical swine manure management systems (MMSs)...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316972/prediction-of-pig-trade-movements-in-different-european-production-systems-using-exponential-random-graph-models
#11
Anne Relun, Vladimir Grosbois, Tsviatko Alexandrov, Jose M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Agnes Waret-Szkuta, Sophie Molia, Eric Marcel Charles Etter, Beatriz Martínez-López
In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303244/comparison-of-antimicrobial-consumption-patterns-in-the-swiss-and-danish-cattle-and-swine-production-2007-2013
#12
Luís P Carmo, Liza R Nielsen, Lis Alban, Cedric R Müntener, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Ioannis Magouras
Veterinary antimicrobial consumption patterns vary considerably across Europe. These differences are not only limited to the total amount consumed but are also observed with regards to the relative proportion of the various antimicrobial classes used. Currently, most of the data on veterinary antimicrobials are reported at sales level without any information on the consumption by different animal species. This hinders a proper comparison of antimicrobial consumption at the species level between countries. However, it is imperative to improve our understanding on antimicrobial usage patterns at the species level, as well as on the drivers contributing to those differences...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298603/african-swine-fever-virus-np868r-capping-enzyme-promotes-reovirus-rescue-during-reverse-genetics-by-promoting-reovirus-protein-expression-virion-assembly-and-rna-incorporation-into-infectious-virions
#13
Heather E Eaton, Takeshi Kobayashi, Terence S Dermody, Randal N Johnston, Philippe H Jais, Maya Shmulevitz
Reoviruses, like many eukaryotic viruses, contain an inverted 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap linked to the 5' nucleotide of mRNA. Traditional functions of capping are to promote mRNA stability, protein translation, and concealment from cellular proteins that recognize foreign RNA. To address the role of mRNA capping during reovirus replication, we assessed the benefits of adding the African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme. C3P3, a fusion protein containing T7 RNA polymerase and NP868R, was found to increase protein expression 5 to 10-fold, as compared to T7 RNA polymerase alone, while enhancing reovirus rescue from the current reverse genetics system by 100-fold...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290554/the-core-protein-of-a-pestivirus-protects-the-incoming-virus-against-ifn-induced-effectors
#14
Christiane Riedel, Benjamin Lamp, Benedikt Hagen, Stanislav Indik, Till Rümenapf
A multitude of viral factors - either inhibiting the induction of the IFN-system or its effectors - have been described to date. However, little is known about the role of structural components of the incoming virus particle in protecting against IFN-induced antiviral factors during or immediately after entry. In this study, we take advantage of the previously reported property of Classical swine fever virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Pestivirus) to tolerate a deletion of the core protein if a compensatory mutation is present in the NS3-helicase-domain (Vp447∆c)...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289592/associations-of-biochemical-changes-and-maternal-traits-with-mutation-1843-c-t-in-the-ryr1-gene-as-a-common-cause-for-porcine-stress-syndrome
#15
Z T Popovski, B Tanaskovska, E Miskoska-Milevska, S Andonov, S Domazetovska
Stress syndrome is usually caused by a mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene (ryr1) and it is widely studied in humans and swine populations. The protein product of this gene plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium transport in muscle cells. A G>T mutation in the human ryr1 gene, which results in the replacement of a conserved arginine at position 614 where a leucine occurs at the same position as the previously identified Arg→Cys mutation reported in all cases of porcine stress syndrome (PSS)...
December 1, 2016: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286014/proteomics-based-network-analysis-characterizes-biological-processes-and-pathways-activated-by-preconditioned-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-cardiac-repair-mechanisms
#16
Dario Di Silvestre, Francesca Brambilla, Giovanni Scardoni, Pietro Brunetti, Sara Motta, Marco Matteucci, Carlo Laudanna, Fabio A Recchia, Vincenzo Lionetti, Pierluigi Mauri
BACKGROUND: We have demonstrated that intramyocardial delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells preconditioned with a hyaluronan mixed ester of butyric and retinoic acid (MSCp(+)) is more effective in preventing the decay of regional myocardial contractility in a swine model of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the understanding of the role of MSCp(+) in proteomic remodeling of cardiac infarcted tissue is not complete. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive analysis of the proteome of infarct remote (RZ) and border zone (BZ) of pigs treated with MSCp(+) or unconditioned stem cells...
March 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284605/pro-apoptotic-effect-of-a-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-putative-type-i-signal-peptidase-on-pk-15-swine-cells
#17
Jéssica A Paes, Veridiana G Virginio, Martín Cancela, Fernanda M A Leal, Thiago J Borges, Natália Jaeger, Cristina Bonorino, Irene S Schrank, Henrique B Ferreira
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). Important processes for swine infection by M. hyopneumoniae depend on cell surface proteins, many of which are secreted by secretion pathways not completely elucidated so far. A putative type I signal peptidase (SPase I), a possible component of a putative Sec-dependent pathway, was annotated as a product of the sipS gene in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome. This M. hyopneumoniae putative SPase I (MhSPase I) displays only 14% and 23% of sequence identity/similarity to Escherichia coli bona fide SPase I, and, in complementation assays performed with a conditional E...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284596/kinetics-of-single-and-dual-infection-of-pigs-with-swine-influenza-virus-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#18
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Ewelina Stasiak, Zygmunt Pejsak
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a common problem in modern pork production worldwide. Pathogens that are amongst other pathogens frequently involved in PRDC etiology are swine influenza virus (SIV) and A. pleuropneumoniae. The effect of dual infection with mentioned pathogens has not been investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae with regard to clinical course, pathogens shedding, lung lesions and early immune response...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284415/sampling-guidelines-for-oral-fluid-based-surveys-of-group-housed-animals
#19
Marisa L Rotolo, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, Luis Giménez-Lirola, David H Baum, Phillip C Gauger, Karen M Harmon, Marlin Hoogland, Rodger Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
Formulas and software for calculating sample size for surveys based on individual animal samples are readily available. However, sample size formulas are not available for oral fluids and other aggregate samples that are increasingly used in production settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveys in commercial swine farms. Oral fluid samples were collected in 9 weekly samplings from all pens in 3 barns on one production site beginning shortly after placement of weaned pigs...
February 17, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283224/effects-of-thermal-treatment-on-high-solid-anaerobic-digestion-of-swine-manure-enhancement-assessment-and-kinetic-analysis
#20
Jing Wu, Yu-Ying Hu, Shi-Feng Wang, Zhi-Ping Cao, Huai-Zhi Li, Xin-Mei Fu, Kai-Jun Wang, Jian-E Zuo
Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8...
March 7, 2017: Waste Management
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