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Swine production

Junya Zhang, Ziyue Wang, Yawei Wang, Hui Zhong, Qianwen Sui, Changping Zhang, Yuansong Wei
The role of graphene oxide (GO) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure concerning the performance, microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) reduction was investigated. Results showed that methane production was reduced by 13.1%, 10.6%, 2.7% and 17.1% at GO concentration of 5mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L and 500mg/L, respectively, but propionate degradation was enhanced along with GO addition. Both bacterial and archaeal community changed little after GO addition. AD could well reduce ARGs abundance, but it was deteriorated at the GO concentration of 50mg/L and 100mg/L and enhanced at 500mg/L, while no obvious changes at 5mg/L...
September 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
H Rojas, J R Romero
The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Martin Fraiberk, Michaela Hájková, Magdaléna Krulová, Martina Kojzarová, Alena Drda Morávková, Ivan Pšikal, Jitka Forstová
The aim of this study was to develop a suitable vaccine antigen against porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome, which causes significant economic losses in swine breeding. Chimeric antigens containing PCV2b Cap protein sequences based on the mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) nanostructures were developed. First, universal vectors for baculovirus-directed production of chimeric MPyV VLPs or pentamers of the major capsid protein, VP1, were designed for their exploitation as vaccines against other pathogens...
2017: PloS One
Jennifer M Cox, Jason M Rall
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is associated with most potentially survivable deaths on the battlefield. Effective and field-tested products are lacking to treat junctional and noncompressible injuries. XSTAT® is a newly developed, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved product designed to treat junctional hemorrhage. The Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care has recently approved the product for use as part of its treatment guidelines, but data are lacking to assess its efficacy in different wounding patterns and physiologic states...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Yan-Dong Tang, Ji-Ting Liu, Tong-Yun Wang, Ming-Xia Sun, Zhi-Jun Tian, Xue-Hui Cai
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a swine herpesvirus that causes significant morbidity and mortality in swine populations and has caused huge economic losses in the worldwide swine industry. Currently, there is no effective antiviral drug in clinical use for PRV infection; it is also difficult to eliminate PRV from infected swine. In our study, we set out to combat these swine herpesvirus infections by exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We designed 75 single guide RNAs (sgRNA) by targeting both essential and non-essential genes across the genome of PRV...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
Jung Kon Kim, Dong Jun Lee, Balsubramani Ravindran, Kwang-Hwa Jeong, Jonathan Woon-Chung Wong, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Obuli P Karthikeyan, Jung-Hoon Kwag
The study investigated the effect of different initial moisture (IM) content (55, 60, 65, and 70%) of composting mixtures (swine manure and sawdust) for the production of nutrient rich manure, and the recovery of ammonia through a condensation process using a vertical cylindrical in-vessel composter for 56days. The composting resulted in a significant reduction in C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC), with a slight increase in pH in all products. The NH3 were emitted notably, and at the same time the NO3(-)-N concentration gradually increased with the reduction of NH4(+)-N in the composting mixtures...
August 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Rebecca A Ober, James B Thissen, Crystal J Jaing, Ada G Cino-Ozuna, Raymond R R Rowland, Megan C Niederwerder
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are two of the most important pathogens affecting the swine industry worldwide. Co-infections are common on a global scale, resulting in pork production losses through reducing weight gain and causing respiratory disease in growing pigs. Our initial work demonstrated that the fecal microbiome was associated with clinical outcome of pigs 70days post-infection (dpi) with PRRSV and PCV2. However, it remained uncertain if microbiome characteristics could predispose response to viral infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Ana Herrero-Fresno, Camilla Zachariasen, Nanna Nørholm, Anders Holm, Lasse Engbo Christiansen, John Elmerdahl Olsen
A major concern derived from using antimicrobials in pig production is the development of resistance. This study aimed to assess the impact of selected combinations of oral dose and duration of treatment with oxytetracycline (OTC) on selection of tetracycline resistant (TET-R) coliforms recovered from swine feces. The work encompassed two studies: 1) OTC 5mg/kg and 20mg/kg were administered to nursery pigs for 3 and 10days, respectively, under controlled experimental conditions, and 2) 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg OTC were given to a higher number of pigs for 6, 3 and 2days, respectively, under field conditions...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Eduardo Fernández-Carrión, Marta Martínez-Avilés, Benjamin Ivorra, Beatriz Martínez-López, Ángel Manuel Ramos, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno
Early detection of infectious diseases can substantially reduce the health and economic impacts on livestock production. Here we describe a system for monitoring animal activity based on video and data processing techniques, in order to detect slowdown and weakening due to infection with African swine fever (ASF), one of the most significant threats to the pig industry. The system classifies and quantifies motion-based animal behaviour and daily activity in video sequences, allowing automated and non-intrusive surveillance in real-time...
2017: PloS One
Verónica Córdoba, Mónica Fernández, Estela Santalla
Methane production from swine wastewater was evaluated by using sewage sludge as inoculum in three substrate to inoculum ratios (SIRs) named A (1:1), B (3:1) and C (6:1), with the objective to identify the proportion that optimizes the performance of the process. Duplicated batch bioreactors of 1 L capacity under mesophilic conditions were used to carry out the experiment. The highest biogas yield was observed in A treatment (554 ± 75 mL/g volatile solid (VS)). Cumulative methane production decreased from 382 ± 22 to 232 ± 5 mL/g VS when SIR increased from 1:1 to 6:1...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elena G Sánchez, Elena Riera, Marisa Nogal, Carmina Gallardo, Paloma Fernández, Raquel Bello-Morales, José Antonio López-Guerrero, Carol G Chitko-McKown, Jürgen A Richt, Yolanda Revilla
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly pathogenic, double-stranded DNA virus with a marked tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, affecting swine species and provoking severe economic losses and health threats. In the present study, four established porcine cell lines, IPAM-WT, IPAM-CD163, C∆2+ and WSL, were compared to porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) in terms of surface marker phenotype, susceptibility to ASFV infection and virus production. The virulent ASFV Armenia/07, E70 or the naturally attenuated NHV/P68 strains were used as viral models...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ryoko Uemura, Tomoko Katsuge, Yosuke Sasaki, Shinya Goto, Masuo Sueyoshi
Swine edema disease is caused by Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Addition of highly concentrated zinc formulations to feed has been used to treat and prevent the disease, but the mechanism of the beneficial effect is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of highly concentrated zinc formulations on bacterial growth, hemolysin production, and an Stx2e release by STEC in vitro. STEC strain MVH269 isolated from a piglet with edema disease was cultured with zinc oxide (ZnO) or with zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), each at up to 3,000 ppm...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ling Yang, Xingmeng Lu, Weihuan Fang
OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple method for efficient expression of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein. RESULTS: The pFastBac HT B vector (pFastHTB-M1) was modified by adding a melittin signal peptide sequence. The E2 gene fragment without the transmembrane region was cloned into pFastHTB-M1. The modified vector has clear advantage over the original one, as evidenced by the purified recombinant E2 protein that was detected significantly by SDS-PAGE. CONCLUSIONS: The modified vector has the potential for large-scale production and easy purification of the CSFV E2 protein or other proteins of interests...
September 1, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Adib Amini, Veronica Aponte-Morales, Meng Wang, Merrill Dilbeck, Ori Lahav, Qiong Zhang, Jeffrey A Cunningham, Sarina J Ergas
Wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are challenging to treat because they are high in organic matter and nutrients. Conventional swine waste treatment options in the U.S., such as uncovered anaerobic lagoons, result in poor effluent quality and greenhouse gas emissions, and implementation of advanced treatment introduces high costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance and life cycle costs of an alternative system for treating swine CAFO waste, which recovers valuable energy (as biogas) and nutrients (N, P, K(+)) as saleable fertilizers...
August 29, 2017: Waste Management
R V Knox, K R Stewart, W L Flowers, M E Swanson, S K Webel, R R Kraeling
A novel gel formulation was selected for intravaginal delivery of the GnRH agonist (triptorelin) for synchronizing ovulation in pigs. Studies with gilt models were used to assess LH response profiles. The lowest dose of triptorelin that induced the most gilts to show an LH surge was 100 μg in 1.2% methylcellulose gel. This formulation had a similar effect in weaned sows while also advancing ovulation. The timing of administration was evaluated in sows after weaning. Administration at 96 h induced more sows to ovulate (58%) by 48 h compared to treatment at estrus (45%) or for controls (34%), but the desired level of ovulation synchrony was not achieved...
August 24, 2017: Theriogenology
Crystal Jaing, Raymond R R Rowland, Jonathan E Allen, Andrea Certoma, James B Thissen, John Bingham, Brenton Rowe, John R White, James W Wynne, Dayna Johnson, Natasha N Gaudreault, David T Williams
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a macrophage-tropic virus responsible for ASF, a transboundary disease that threatens swine production world-wide. Since there are no vaccines available to control ASF after an outbreak, obtaining an understanding of the virus-host interaction is important for developing new intervention strategies. In this study, a whole transcriptomic RNA-Seq method was used to characterize differentially expressed genes in pigs infected with a low pathogenic ASFV isolate, OUR T88/3 (OURT), or the highly pathogenic Georgia 2007/1 (GRG)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yoichi Yatsukawa, Daisuke Kusuno, Takahiro Matsuda, Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Tetsuro Ohba
New automatic pretreatment equipment (FASVED; Food Automatic Analytical Systems for Veterinary Drugs) was developed. FASVED consists of ten main units: reagent dispenser, homogenizer, transfer hand, lid opening/closing device, centrifugal separator, pipette, shaker, column purification device, centrifugal evaporator and cooling device, and it is capable of freely combining operations by these units. A validation study was performed on two methods for determination of 178 veterinary drugs in livestock products, swine muscle, egg and shrimp, according to the method validation guideline of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan...
2017: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Maurice T Washington, Thomas B Moorman, Michelle L Soupir, Mack Shelley, Amy J Morrow
This study evaluated the influence of temporal variation on the occurrence, fate, and transport of tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (SMZ); antibiotics commonly used in swine production. Atrazine (ATZ) was used as a reference analyte to indicate the agricultural origin of the antibiotics. We also assessed the impact of season and hydrology on antibiotic concentrations. A reconnaissance study of the South Fork watershed of the Iowa River (SFIR), was conducted from 2013 to 2015. Tile drain effluent and surface water were monitored using polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) technology...
August 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shucheng Chen, Huimin Sun, Su Li, Pinghuang Liu, Jifei Ma, Huaji Qiu
Classical swine fever (CSF), one of OIE-listed diseases, is a highly contagious and economically important disease of pigs. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of CSF. The capsid (C) protein and the glycoproteins Erns, E1 and E2, are structural components of the virus. E2 is the most immunogenic protein of the CSFV glycoproteins, inducing neutralizing antibodies that provide protection against lethal CSFV challenge. In a previous study, we developed a murine MAb HQ06 against the E2 protein of CSFV...
August 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Elizabeth Luby Rieke, Thomas B Moorman, Elizabeth L Douglass, Michelle L Soupir
The Midwestern United States is dominated by agricultural production with high concentrations of swine, leading to application of swine manure onto lands with artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations which administer antimicrobials. While previous studies have examined the occurrence of ARGs around confined swine feeding operations, little information is known how their transport from tile-drained fields receiving swine manure application impacts downstream environments...
August 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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