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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327614/intracellular-african-swine-fever-virus-dna-remains-unmethylated-in-infected-vero-cells
#1
Stefanie Weber, Astghik Hakobyan, Hovakim Zakaryan, Walter Doerfler
AIM: Sequence-specific CpG methylation of eukaryotic promoters is an important epigenetic signal for long-term gene silencing. We have now studied the methylation status of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA at various times after infection of Vero cells in culture. METHODS & RESULTS: ASFV DNA was detectable throughout the infection cycle and was found unmethylated in productively infected Vero cells as documented by bisulfite sequencing of 13 viral DNA segments...
January 12, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319804/effects-of-agricultural-organic-dusts-on-human-lung-resident-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-function
#2
Tara M Nordgren, Kristina L Bailey, Art J Heires, Dawn Katafiasz, Debra J Romberger
Agricultural organic dust exposures trigger harmful airway inflammation, and workers experiencing repetitive dust exposures are at increased risk for lung disease. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) regulate wound repair processes in the lung, and may contribute to either pro-resolution or pro-fibrotic lung responses. It is unknown how organic dust exposures alter lung-resident MSC activation and pro-inflammatory versus pro-repair programs in the lung. To address this gap in knowledge, we isolated human lung-resident MSC from lung tissue...
January 8, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319526/mrsa-in-pig-population
#3
Meldra Ivbule, Edvīns Miklaševičs, Liene Čupāne, Laima Bērziņa, Andris Bāliņš, Anda Valdovska
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is widespread worldwide in different types of animal species and as a zoonosis takes a great risk for human health not only as a food toxicoinfection, but also as a highly resistant pathogen causing serious soft tissue infectious, septicaemia and even death. One of the most affected food-producing animal species is swine in the production of which new antibiotics in big amounts are used more and more continuously, increasing antimicrobial resistance. In this study several commercial pig farms and pigs with different age groups as well as farm workers and samples from environment were examined with the purpose of detecting MRSA prevalence and evaluating antimicrobial resistance...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317201/mutation-induced-changes-of-transmembrane-pore-size-revealed-by-combined-ion-channel-conductance-and-single-vesicle-permeabilization-analyses
#4
Eneko Largo, Douglas P Gladue, Johana Torralba, Vicente M Aguilella, Antonio Alcaraz, Manuel V Borca, José L Nieva
Permeabilization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is instrumental in the progression of host-cell infection by many viral pathogens. We have described that permeabilization of ER model membranes by the pore-forming domain of the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) p7 protein depends on two sequence determinants: the C-terminal transmembrane helix, and the preceding polar loop that regulates its activity. Here, by combining ion-channel activity measurements in planar lipid bilayers with imaging of single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs), we demonstrate that point substitutions directed to conserved residues within these regions affect ER-like membrane permeabilization following distinct mechanisms...
January 6, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313103/plant-synthetic-gp4-and-gp5-proteins-from-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-elicit-immune-responses-in-pigs
#5
Chul Han An, Salik Nazki, Sung-Chul Park, Yu Jeong Jeong, Ju Huck Lee, Su-Jin Park, Amina Khatun, Won-Il Kim, Youn-Il Park, Jae Cheol Jeong, Cha Young Kim
We demonstrated successful overexpression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-derived GP4D and GP5D antigenic proteins in Arabidopsis. Pigs immunized with transgenic plants expressing GP4D and GP5D proteins generated both humoral and cellular immune responses to PRRSV. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes PRRS, the most economically significant disease affecting the swine industry worldwide. However, current commercial PRRSV vaccines (killed virus or modified live vaccines) show poor efficacy and safety due to concerns such as reversion of virus to wild type and lack of cross protection...
January 8, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311002/humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-in-mice-induced-by-the-classical-swine-fever-virus-e2-protein-fused-to-the-porcine-cd154-antigen
#6
Yusmel Sordo, Marisela Suárez, Rosalina Caraballo, Talía Sardina, Emma Brown, Carlos Duarte, Joanna Lugo, Lázaro Gil, Danny Perez, Ayme Oliva, Milagros Vargas, Elaine Santana, Rodolfo Valdés, María Pilar Rodríguez
The development of subunit vaccines against classical swine fever is a desirable goal, because it allows discrimination between vaccinated and infected animals. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response elicited in inbred BALB/c mice by immunization with a recombinant classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein fused to porcine CD154 antigen (E2CD154) was assessed. This model was used as a predictor of immune response in swine. Mice were immunized with E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50V2 or dissolved in saline on days 1 and 21...
January 5, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306839/two-step-heating-mode-with-the-same-energy-consumption-as-conventional-heating-for-enhancing-methane-production-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-swine-wastewater
#7
Yi Liu, Shichun Ma, Liang Huang, Shiyu Wang, Gangjin Liu, Hongnan Yang, Dan Zheng, Jingsi Cheng, Ze Xu, Liangwei Deng
With high percentage of washing water, swine wastewater is characterized by large volume and low concentration of total solids. Thus, in treating swine wastewater, it is relatively difficult to heat digesters, resulting in low methane production at low ambient temperatures (ATs). To increase methane production from swine wastewater, this study proposed a novel "two-step heating (TSH)" mode with the same energy consumption as a one-step process for anaerobic digestion. Compared with the traditionally heated digesters (one-step heating), the digestion temperature in TSH digesters increased by 3...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306352/porcine-commensal-escherichia-coli-a-reservoir-for-class-1-integrons-associated-with-is26
#8
Cameron J Reid, Ethan R Wyrsch, Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Tiziana Zingali, Michael Liu, Aaron E Darling, Toni A Chapman, Steven P Djordjevic
Porcine faecal waste is a serious environmental pollutant. Carriage of antimicrobial-resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence-associated genes (VAGs), and the zoonotic potential of commensal Escherichia coli from swine are largely unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the role of commensal E. coli as contributors to the mobilization of ARGs between food animals and the environment. Here, we report whole-genome sequence analysis of 103 class 1 integron-positive E. coli from the faeces of healthy pigs from two commercial production facilities in New South Wales, Australia...
December 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299685/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-and-biosecurity-levels-in-fattening-pigs-and-sows-serological-and-molecular-epidemiology-in-the-intensive-pig-industry-lombardy-northern-italy
#9
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Marianna Marangi, Luca Villa, Maria Elena Ragona, Emanuela Olivieri, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Annunziata Giangaspero, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan affecting animals and humans. One of the major routes of human infection is through the consumption of raw or under-cooked meat, particularly of certain animal species, including pigs. Although T. gondii represents an important public health issue, its control at slaughter is not mandatory. Consequently, available information on T. gondii infection in domestic animals destined for human consumption is scarce. Thus, an epidemiologic survey was designed to update information on T...
January 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288673/construction-and-immunogenicity-analysis-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-expressing-a-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-s-gene-fused-to-a-dc-targeting-peptide
#10
Ke-Yan Huang, Gui-Lian Yang, Yu-Bei Jin, Jing Liu, Hong-Liang Chen, Peng-Bo Wang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Hai-Bin Huang, Jian-Zhong Wang, Guang Wang, Yuan-Huan Kang, Wen-Tao Yang, Chun-Feng Wang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is one of the most important causative pathogens of swine diarrhea, which is widely prevalent throughout the world and is responsible for significant economic losses in the commercial pig industry, both domestic and abroad. The spike (S) protein in the PEDV capsid structure can carry the major B lymphocyte epitope, which induces production of neutralizing antibodies and provides immunoprotective effects. Moreover, the conserved region encoded by the S gene can be considered a target for establishing a new diagnostic method and is a new candidate for vaccine design...
December 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282795/interplay-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-with-cell-mediated-and-humoral-immunity-of-host
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Abubakar, Shumaila Manzoor, Afshan Ahmed
Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a communicable disease of cloven hoofed animals, resulting in major economic losses during disease outbreaks. Like other members of the Picornaviridae FMDV has a relatively short infectious cycle; initiation of infection and dissemination, with production of infectious virions occurs in less than a week. The components of innate immunity as well as cell-mediated and humoral immunity play a crucial role in control of FMDV. However, it has been shown in vitro using a mouse model that FMDV has evolved certain mechanisms to counteract host immune responses ensuring its survival and spread...
December 28, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280976/a-novel-multi-approach-protocol-for-the-characterization-of-occupational-exposure-to-organic-dust-swine-production-case-study
#12
Carla Viegas, Tiago Faria, Ana Monteiro, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Anita Quintal Gomes, Susana Viegas
Swine production has been associated with health risks and workers' symptoms. In Portugal, as in other countries, large-scale swine production involves several activities in the swine environment that require direct intervention, increasing workers' exposure to organic dust. This study describes an updated protocol for the assessment of occupational exposure to organic dust, to unveil an accurate scenario regarding occupational and environmental risks for workers' health. The particle size distribution was characterized regarding mass concentration in five different size ranges (PM0...
December 27, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273011/time-course-study-of-the-response-to-lps-targeting-the-pig-immune-gene-networks
#13
Elena Terenina, Valérie Sautron, Caroline Ydier, Darya Bazovkina, Amélie Sevin-Pujol, Laure Gress, Yannick Lippi, Claire Naylies, Yvon Billon, Laurence Liaubet, Pierre Mormede, Nathalie Villa-Vialaneix
BACKGROUND: Stress is a generic term used to describe non-specific responses of the body to all kinds of challenges. A very large variability in the response can be observed across individuals, depending on numerous conditioning factors like genetics, early influences and life history. As a result, there is a wide range of individual vulnerability and resilience to stress, also called robustness. The importance of robustness-related traits in breeding strategies is increasing progressively towards the production of animals with a high level of production under a wide range of climatic conditions and management systems, together with a lower environmental impact and a high level of animal welfare...
December 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259325/clinical-characteristics-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-e-in-shenzhen-china-a-shift-toward-foodborne-transmission-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#14
Siddharth Sridhar, Simon Kf Lo, Fanfan Xing, Jin Yang, Haiyan Ye, Jasper Fw Chan, Jade Ll Teng, Chuan Huang, Cyril Cy Yip, Susanna Kp Lau, Patrick Cy Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in China. Recently, a shift in molecular epidemiology from hepatitis E genotype 1 (HEV-1) to hepatitis E genotype 4 (HEV-4) has been observed in Northern China, marking a switch from human-to-human transmission to zoonosis. However, similar data from cities in Southern China are lacking. This observational study of human hepatitis E cases in Shenzhen, a metropolitan city in the Pearl River Delta region, aimed to describe the clinical features and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E in Southern China...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244872/the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-is-required-for-african-swine-fever-replication
#15
Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Diego Martínez-Alonso, Sergio Viedma, Covadonga Alonso
Several viruses manipulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to initiate a productive infection. Determined viral proteins are able to change the host's ubiquitin machinery and some viruses even encode their own ubiquitinating or deubiquitinating enzymes. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a gene homologous to the E2 ubiquitin conjugating (UBC) enzyme. The viral ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCv1) is expressed throughout ASFV infection and accumulates at late times post infection. UBCv is also present in the viral particle suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway could play an important role at early ASFV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236357/live-attenuated-influenza-virus-vaccine-reduces-virus-shedding-of-newborn-piglets-in-the-presence-of-maternal-antibody
#16
Marika Genzow, Christa Goodell, Troy J Kaiser, Wesley Johnson, Marc Eichmeyer
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) causes an acute respiratory disease of swine which results in great economic losses in pig production. Major control strategies include the use of killed vaccines (KV) in breeding females to confer passive immunity to their offspring. A bivalent H1N1 and H3N2 NS1-truncated live attenuated IAV-S vaccine has recently become available, which showed promising results in young pigs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an intranasal vaccination of newborn pigs with or without maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on virus shedding (via nasal swabs tested by virus isolation)...
December 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234349/genome-wide-association-study-of-piglet-uniformity-and-farrowing-interval
#17
Yuan Wang, Xiangdong Ding, Zhen Tan, Chao Ning, Kai Xing, Ting Yang, Yongjie Pan, Dongxiao Sun, Chuduan Wang
Piglet uniformity (PU) and farrowing interval (FI) are important reproductive traits related to production and economic profits in the pig industry. However, the genetic architecture of the longitudinal trends of reproductive traits still remains elusive. Herein, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect potential genetic variation and candidate genes underlying the phenotypic records at different parities for PU and FI in a population of 884 Large White pigs. In total, 12 significant SNPs were detected on SSC1, 3, 4, 9, and 14, which collectively explained 1-1...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231854/nisin-in-combination-with-cinnamaldehyde-and-edta-to-control-growth-of-escherichia-coli-strains-of-swine-origin
#18
Des Field, Inès Baghou, Mary C Rea, Gillian E Gardiner, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an economically important disease in pig production worldwide. Although antibiotics have contributed significantly to mitigate the economic losses caused by PWD, there is major concern over the increased incidence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria isolated from pigs. Consequently, suitable alternatives that are safe and effective are urgently required. Many naturally occurring compounds, including the antimicrobial peptide nisin and a number of plant essential oils, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective as antimicrobial agents against pathogenic microorganisms...
December 12, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230814/nigella-sativa-l-as-an-alternative-antibiotic-feed-supplement-and-effect-on-growth-performance-in-weanling-pigs
#19
Branko T Petrujkić, Ross C Beier, Haiqi He, Kenneth J Genovese, Christina L Swaggerty, Michael E Hume, Tawni L Crippen, Roger B Harvey, Robin C Anderson, David J Nisbet
BACKGROUND: Nigella sativa L. (NS) is a plant containing bioactive constituents like thymoquinone. Extracts of NS improve performance and reduce enteropathogen colonization in poultry and small ruminants but studies with swine are lacking. In two different studies oral administration of NS extracts at doses equivalent to 0, 1.5 and 4.5 g extract kg-1 diet was assessed on piglet performance and intestinal carriage of wildtype Escherichia coli and Campylobacter, and Salmonella Typhimurium...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229731/activation-of-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-by-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-lipopolysaccharide-via-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-pathway
#20
Bi Li, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Sirui Yin, Tingting He, Mingxian Yang, Junliang Deng, Liuhong Shen, Xiaoping Ma, Shumin Yu, Ya Wang, Zhihua Ren
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is a causative agent of the porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and Resistin in lung is an important feature of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. These pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance inflammatory and immunological responses. However, the mechanism that leads to cytokines production remains unclear. As a major virulent factor of A. pleuropneumoniae, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may act as a potent stimulator of TLR4, triggering a number of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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