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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788126/characterizing-the-acute-heat-stress-response-in-gilts-ii-assessing-repeatability-and-association-with-fertility
#1
Kody L Graves, Jacob T Seibert, Aileen F Keating, Lance H Baumgard, Jason W Ross
Mitigating heat stress (HS) in swine production is important as it detrimentally affects multiple aspects of overall animal production efficiency. Study objectives were to determine if gilts characterized as tolerant (TOL) or susceptible (SUS) in response to HS maintain that phenotype later in life and if that phenotype influences reproductive ability during HS. Individual gilts identified as TOL (n = 50) or SUS (n = 50) from a prepubertal HS challenge were selected based on their rectal temperature (TR) during acute HS...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785263/methodologies-on-estimating-the-energy-requirements-for-maintenance-and-determining-the-net-energy-contents-of-feed-ingredients-in-swine-a-review-of-recent-work
#2
REVIEW
Zhongchao Li, Hu Liu, Yakui Li, Zhiqian Lv, Ling Liu, Changhua Lai, Junjun Wang, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
In the past two decades, a considerable amount of research has focused on the determination of the digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of feed ingredients fed to swine. Compared with the DE and ME systems, the net energy (NE) system is assumed to be the most accurate estimate of the energy actually available to the animal. However, published data pertaining to the measured NE content of ingredients fed to growing pigs are limited. Therefore, the Feed Data Group at the Ministry of Agricultural Feed Industry Centre (MAFIC) located at China Agricultural University has evaluated the NE content of many ingredients using indirect calorimetry...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778199/disinfection-of-transboundary-animal-disease-viruses-on-surfaces-used-in-pork-packing-plants
#3
Peter W Krug, Talina Davis, Catherine O'Brien, Michael LaRocco, Luis L Rodriguez
In the event of an intentional or accidental incursion of a transboundary animal disease (TAD) virus into the US, a major concern to the meat industry would be the potential contamination of packing plants by processing infected animals. TAD agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are found in swine products such as blood and feces and are present in the tissues of infected animals. To test the disinfection of TAD viruses in a pork-packing environment, a previously developed disinfection assay was used to test two biocides currently used by industry sanitarians, against TAD viruses dried on industry relevant surfaces in saline or swine products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778193/single-nucleotide-variants-in-innate-immune-genes-associated-with-salmonella-shedding-and-colonization-in-swine-on-commercial-farms
#4
Margaret H Ainslie-Garcia, Abdolvahab Farzan, Mohsen Jafarikia, Brandon N Lillie
Foodborne human salmonellosis is an important food safety concern worldwide. Food-producing animals are one of the major sources of human salmonellosis, and thus control of Salmonella at the farm level could reduce Salmonella spread in the food supply system. Genetic selection of pigs with resistance to Salmonella infection may be one way to control Salmonella on swine farms. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variants in the porcine innate immune system with on-farm Salmonella shedding and Salmonella colonization tested at slaughter...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778187/sensitivity-of-african-swine-fever-virus-asfv-to-heat-alkalinity-and-peroxide-treatment-in-presence-or-absence-of-porcine-plasma
#5
I D Kalmar, A B Cay, M Tignon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly resistant viraemic virus with devastating socio-economic impact. Its present epidemiology in Eastern Europe and Russia warrants increased biosecurity measures in Western Europe. This includes proactive precautions on traffic of pork products within and between areas that are officially free from ASF. Namely, delayed notification of clinical signs or introduction of a low-virulent strain in ASF-free areas could result in presence of ASFV in veterinary inspected pork and pork by-products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778154/effects-of-chlortetracycline-cu-and-their-combination-on-the-performance-and-microbial-community-dynamics-in-swine-manure-anaerobic-digestion
#6
Rui Wang, Junya Zhang, Jibao Liu, Dawei Yu, Hui Zhong, Yawei Wang, Meixue Chen, Juan Tong, Yuansong Wei
Swine manure was typical for the combined pollution of heavy metals and antibiotics. The effects of widely used veterinary antibiotic chlortetracycline (CTC), Cu and their combination on swine manure anaerobic digestion performance and microbial community have never been investigated. Thus, four 2L anaerobic digestion reactors were established including reactor A (control), B (CTC spiked by 0.5g/kg dry weight, dw), C (Cu spiked by 5g/kg dw) and D (combination of CTC, 0.5g/kg dw, and Cu, 5g/kg dw), and dynamics of bacterial and archaeal community structure was investigated using high throughput sequencing method...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772742/characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-and-class-1-and-class-2-integrons-in-salmonella-enterica-spp-multidrug-resistant-isolates-from-pigs
#7
Héctor Argüello, Beatriz Guerra, Irene Rodríguez, Pedro Rubio, Ana Carvajal
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and Salmonella spp., are primary concerns in public health. The present study characterizes the AMR determinants of 62 multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica spp., isolates from swine, which were obtained between 2004⁻2006, a major source of human salmonellosis. The AMR determinants were investigated by PCR, checking the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons and 29 resistance genes. Genes sul1 , blaTEM1 -like, aadA2 , tet (A), and dfrA12 were more prevalent ( p < 0...
May 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769346/porcine-deltacoronavirus-accessory-protein-ns6-antagonizes-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-interfering-with-the-binding-of-rig-i-mda5-to-double-stranded-rna
#8
Puxian Fang, Liurong Fang, Jie Ren, Yingying Hong, Xiaorong Liu, Yunyang Zhao, Dang Wang, Guiqing Peng, Shaobo Xiao
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has recently emerged as an enteric pathogen that can cause serious vomiting and diarrhea in suckling piglets. The first outbreak of PDCoV occurred in the United States in 2014 and was followed by reports of PDCoV in South Korea, China, Thailand, Lao people's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam, leading to economic losses for pig farms and posing considerable threat to the swine industry worldwide. Our previous studies have shown that PDCoV encodes three accessory proteins, NS6, NS7, and NS7a, but the functions of these proteins in viral replication, pathogenesis, and immune regulation remain unclear...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767102/methodological-aspects-of-determining-phosphorus-digestibility-in-swine-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Yue She, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
The role of phosphorus (P) in swine nutrition has been taken on new significance in recent years. Methods to determine the available phosphorus (AP) content of swine feeds include relative bioavailability (RBV), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), standardized total tract digestibility (STTD), and true total tract digestibility (TTTD). The RBV of P is determined by measuring bone ash or bone P, whereas the ATTD of P is determined by calculating the difference between P intake and P excretion in feces...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767089/using-probiotics-to-improve-swine-gut-health-and-nutrient-utilization
#10
REVIEW
Shengfa F Liao, Martin Nyachoti
To maintain a healthy gut is definitely key for a pig to digest and absorb dietary nutrients efficiently. A balanced microbiota (i.e., a healthy micro-ecosystem) is an indispensable constituent of a healthy gut. Probiotics, the live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer good health benefits onto the host, are a category of feed additives that can be used to replenish the gut microbial population while recuperating the host immune system. Besides their antitoxin and diarrhea reduction effects, dietary supplementation of probiotics can improve gut health, nutrient digestibilities and, therefore, benefit nutrient utilization and growth performance of pigs...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765021/prospective-surveillance-for-influenza-virus-in-chinese-swine-farms
#11
Benjamin D Anderson, Mai-Juan Ma, Guo-Lin Wang, Zhen-Qiang Bi, Bing Lu, Xian-Jun Wang, Chuang-Xin Wang, Shan-Hui Chen, Yan-Hua Qian, Shao-Xia Song, Min Li, Teng Zhao, Meng-Na Wu, Laura K Borkenhagen, Wu-Chun Cao, Gregory C Gray
Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment...
May 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759819/problematic-effects-of-antibiotics-on-anaerobic-treatment-of-swine-wastewater
#12
REVIEW
D L Cheng, H H Ngo, W S Guo, S W Chang, D D Nguyen, S Mathava Kumar, B Du, Q Wei, D Wei
Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes...
May 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757442/effect-of-intravenous-fluid-volumes-on-the-adrenal-glucocorticoid-response-after-burn-injury-in-swine
#13
Belinda I Gómez, Celestine He, Tony Chao, Michael A Dubick, David M Burmeister
Objective: Severe thermal injury induces metabolic and physiological stress, prompting a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential confounding effects of Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation on adrenal damage and cortisol production following burn. Methods: Anesthetized swine were instrumented with jugular catheters and sustained 40% TBSA burns from brass probes heated to 100ºC. Animals recovered to consciousness and received IV fluid resuscitation with LR at two different volumes: 15 mL/kg/day (Limited Volume; LV, n=6) or 2 mL/kg/%TBSA/day (Modified Brooke; MB, n=6)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733985/orexin-a-in-swine-corpus-luteum
#14
G Basini, R Ciccimarra, S Bussolati, S Grolli, L Ragionieri, F Ravanetti, M Botti, F Gazza, A Cacchioli, R Di Lecce, A M Cantoni, F Grasselli
Orexin A (OXA) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide which acts on 2 known G-protein-coupled receptors. It has been demonstrated that OXA is a central molecular link between food intake and reproduction. More recently, its peripheral role has been investigated, and we demonstrated its involvement in regulating ovarian follicle function. The present study was undertaken to explore a potential physiological role of orexin system in swine corpus luteum, a transient ovarian endocrine organ. Our aim was, first, to analyze the localization and eventual colocalization of OXA and its 2 receptors within the different cell types composing the corpus luteum structure...
April 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725815/classical-swine-fever-in-india-current-status-and-future-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Vinod Kumar Singh, Kaushal Kishore Rajak, Amit Kumar, Sharad Kumar Yadav
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a globally significant disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus. The virus affects the wild boars and pigs of all age groups, leading to acute, chronic, late-onset or in-apparent course of the disease. The disease causes great economic loss to the piggery industry due to mortality, stunted growth, poor reproductive performance, and by impeding the international trade of pig and pig products. In India, CSF outbreaks are reported from most of the states wherever pig rearing is practiced and more frequently from northeast states...
May 4, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724508/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-expressing-e2-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-protects-pigs-from-a-lethal-challenge-of-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-and-csfv
#16
Fei Gao, Yifeng Jiang, Guoxin Li, Yanjun Zhou, Lingxue Yu, Liwei Li, Wu Tong, Hao Zheng, Yujiao Zhang, Hai Yu, Tongling Shan, Shen Yang, Huan Liu, Kuan Zhao, Guangzhi Tong
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and classical swine fever (CSF) are economically significant diseases that affect the swine industry worldwide. However, the current vaccination strategy, which uses two single live attenuated vaccines, can result in interference for each other. In addition, the universally used CSFV vaccine C-strain does not allow for differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. In this study, rPRRSV-E2, PRRS virus (PRRSV) expressing CSF virus (CSFV) E2, was constructed by reverse genetics...
April 30, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723844/effect-of-combining-adsorption-stripping-treatment-with-acidification-on-the-growth-of-chlorella-vulgaris-and-nutrient-removal-from-swine-wastewater
#17
Leipeng Cao, Ting Zhou, Zihan Li, Jingjing Wang, Juan Tang, Roger Ruan, Yuhuan Liu
After swine wastewater (SW) was treated with adsorption-stripping stage, the concentration of NH4 + -N and Total phosphorus (TP) in SW significantly decreased from 598.04, 42.95 to 338.02, 8.36 mg L-1 , respectively. The concentration of heavy metals, especially Zn2+ (96.78%), decreased by the ion exchange of artificial zeolite (AZ). The acidification of SW could significantly improve the nutrient utilization efficiency and promote the growth rate of C. vulgaris due to the hydrolysis of macromolecular substances into smaller molecules usable for algae...
April 25, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720287/review-are-we-using-probiotics-correctly-in-post-weaning-piglets
#18
E Barba-Vidal, S M Martín-Orúe, L Castillejos
Intensive farming may involve the use of diets, environments or management practices that impose physiological and psychological stressors on the animals. In particular, early weaning is nowadays a common practice to increase the productive yield of pig farms. Still, it is considered one of the most critical periods in swine production, where piglet performance can be seriously affected and where they are predisposed to the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Pig producers nowadays face the challenge to overcome this situation in a context of increasing restrictions on the use of antibiotics in animal production...
May 3, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713469/metabolomic-analysis-of-longissimus-from-underperforming-piglets-relative-to-piglets-with-normal-preweaning-growth
#19
Timothy G Ramsay, Margo J Stoll, Amy E Shannon, Le Ann Blomberg
Background: Recent increases in intra-litter variability in weaning weight have raised swine production costs. A contributor to this variability is the normal birth weight pig that grows at a slower rate than littermates of similar birth weight. The goal of this study was to interrogate biochemical profiles manifested in skeletal muscle originating from slow growing (SG) and faster growing littermates (control), with the aim of identifying differences in metabolic pathway utilization between skeletal muscle of the SG pig relative to its littermates...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708832/antimicrobial-resistance-of-thermotolerant-campylobacter-species-isolated-from-humans-food-producing-animals-and-products-of-animal-origin-a-worldwide-meta-analysis
#20
Marcelo L Signorini, Eugenia Rossler, Diego C Díaz David, Carolina R Olivero, Analía Romero-Scharpen, Lorena P Soto, Diego M Astesana, Ayelen P Berisvil, Jorge A Zimmermann, Marcia L Fusari, Laureano S Frizzo, María V Zbrun
The objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize available information on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter species in humans, food-producing animals, and products of animal origin. A number of multilevel random-effect meta-analysis models were fitted to estimate mean occurrence rate of antimicrobial-resistant thermotolerant Campylobacter and to compare them throughout the years and among the species, food-producing animals (i.e., bovine, pigs, broilers, hen, goat, and sheep), country of origin, sample type, methodology to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, and the species of Campylobacter...
April 30, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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