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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902762/presenting-influenza-a-m2e-antigen-on-recombinant-spores-of-bacillus-subtilis
#1
Tomasz Łęga, Paulina Weiher, Michał Obuchowski, Dawid Nidzworski
Effective vaccination against influenza virus infection is a serious problem mainly due to antigenic variability of the virus. Among many of investigated antigens, the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) features high homology in all strains of influenza A viruses and antibodies against M2e and is protective in animal models; this makes it a potential candidate for generation of a universal influenza vaccine. However, due to the low immunogenicity of the M2e, formulation of a vaccine based on this antigen requires some modification to induce effective immune responses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902420/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-il-1ra-an-early-immunomodulatory-cytokine-induced-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#2
Teerawut Nedumpun, Piya Wongyanin, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Patcharee Ritprajuk, Tanapat Palaga, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection poorly induces pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) and type I IFN production during the early phase of infection. Our microarray analysis indicated strong upregulation of the IL1RA gene in type 2 PRRSV infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an early inhibitory cytokine, which suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and T lymphocyte responses. To investigate the induction of IL-1Ra by PRRSV, MoDC were cultured with type 2 PRRSV or other swine viruses...
November 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902360/high-genetic-diversity-of-species-a-rotaviruses-detected-in-swine-farms-in-chile
#3
Hernan Canon Jones, Hernan Cortes, Aldo Gaggero, Jorge Levican, Mario Castillo-Ruiz, Trinidad Schlotterbeck, Ricardo San Martin
Rotavirus A is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in lactating and weaned pigs worldwide. Its impact in the swine industry is well documented. However, in Chile the current epidemiological status of rotavirus in porcine farms is unknown. This study evaluated the current epidemiologic status of rotavirus A infection in Chile using on-farm detection technique, electrophoretic confirmation, genotyping and phylogenetic clustering by analysis of partial sequences of VP4 and VP7 genes. Rotavirus A was detected in 4 out of 5 farms with an overall prevalence of 17,7% in diarrheic pigs...
November 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898925/heritability-of-udder-morphology-and-colostrum-quality-traits-in-swine
#4
A Balzani, H J Cordell, E Sutcliffe, S A Edwards
The heritability of udder quality traits, defined as morphology and colostrum IgG concentration at farrowing, was estimated together with the genetic and phenotypic correlations of these traits with other production and reproduction criteria. Udder morphology traits were recorded in 988 Meidam sows and colostrum samples were collected from 528 sows. Teat length, teat diameter (DIA), interteat distance within the same row (SAMER), and teat distance from the abdominal midline (AML) were recorded to the nearest millimeter...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898857/vitamin-e-plasma-kinetics-in-swine-show-low-bioavailability-and-short-half-life-of-%C3%AE-tocopheryl-acetate
#5
T A T G van Kempen, M H Reijersen, C de Bruijn, S De Smet, J Michiels, M G Traber, C Lauridsen
Vitamin E is important for animal production because of its effects on health and product quality, but the amount and form required remains controversial. Our objective was to quantify the absolute bioavailability of oral -α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TAc) in swine (22 ± 1 kg and 8 wk old, fitted with jugular catheters) adapted to a diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg -α-TAc; 75 mg/kg was chosen because this level represents the nonweighted average inclusion level in piglet diets across Western key swine-producing countries...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898775/sodium-tetraborate-decahydrate-treatment-reduces-hydrogen-sulfide-and-the-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-population-of-swine-manure
#6
Melvin T Yokoyama, Cheryl Spence, Susan M Hengemuehle, Terence R Whitehead, Robert von Bernuth, Michael Cotta
Emission of odorous and toxic gases from stored livestock manure is well documented and poses a serious health risk to farmers and livestock. Hydrogen sulfide emissions have been sharply rising with increasingly intensive livestock production and are of particular concern because of the acute toxicity of this gas. Numerous strategies, technologies, and chemical treatments have been used to control hydrogen sulfide emissions, but none have worked particularly well because they are neither cost-effective nor environmentally sustainable, or they are too toxic for animals...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881653/microrna-373-facilitated-the-replication-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-by-its-negative-regulation-of-type-i-interferon-induction
#8
Jing Chen, Xibao Shi, Xiaozhuan Zhang, Aiping Wang, Li Wang, Yanyan Yang, Ruiguang Deng, Gai-Ping Zhang
: microRNAs (miRNAs) played an important role in the regulation of immune response. Previous studies have indicated that dysregulating the miRNAs may lead to the immunosuppression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). However, it's not clear about how PRRSV regulated the expression of host miRNA which may make the immune escape or promote the replication of the virus. The present work suggested that PRRSV up-regulated the expression of miR-373 through elevating the expression of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in MARC-145 cells...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878979/prevalence-of-the-novel-torque-teno-sus-virus-species-k2b-from-pigs-in-the-united-states-and-lack-of-association-with-post-weaning-multisystemic-wasting-syndrome-or-mulberry-heart-disease
#9
A J Rogers, Y-W Huang, C L Heffron, T Opriessnig, A R Patterson, X-J Meng
The family Anelloviridae includes a number of viruses infecting humans (Torque teno viruses, TTV) and other animals including swine (Torque teno sus viruses, TTSuV). Two genetically distinct TTSuV species have been identified from swine thus far (TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2), although their definitive association with disease remains debatable. In 2012, a novel TTSuV species was identified from commercial swine serum and classified in the genus Kappatorquevirus as TTSuVk2b. The other Kappatorquevirus species, TTSuVk2a, has been associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) when coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)...
November 23, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875546/evaluation-of-control-strategies-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-prrs-in-swine-breeding-herds-using-a-discrete-event-agent-based-model
#10
Andréia Gonçalves Arruda, Robert Friendship, Jane Carpenter, Amy Greer, Zvonimir Poljak
The objective of this study was to develop a discrete event agent-based stochastic model to explore the likelihood of the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in swine herds with different PRRS control measures in place. The control measures evaluated included vaccination with a modified-live attenuated vaccine and live-virus inoculation of gilts, and both were compared to a baseline scenario where no control measures were in place. A typical North American 1,000-sow farrow-to-wean swine herd was used as a model, with production and disease parameters estimated from the literature and expert opinion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865508/occurrence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-cattle-herds-related-swine-farms-and-humans-in-contact-with-herds
#11
C Locatelli, P Cremonesi, A Caprioli, V Carfora, A Ianzano, A Barberio, S Morandi, A Casula, B Castiglioni, V Bronzo, P Moroni
In this study we investigated the circulation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 2 dairy cattle farms (farm A and B), previously identified as MRSA-positive in bulk tank milk samples, and epidemiologically related to swine farms. Collected specimens included quarter milk samples and nasal swabs from dairy cows, pig nasal swabs collected at both the farm and slaughterhouse level, environmental dust samples, and human nasal swabs from the farms' owners and workers. The prevalence of MRSA was estimated at the herd level by testing quarter milk samples...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860313/origin-distribution-and-potential-risk-factors-associated-with-influenza-a-virus-in-swine-in-two-production-systems-in-guatemala
#12
Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana L Ramírez, María L Müller, David Orellana, Silvia M Sosa, Pablo Ola, Jorge Paniagua, Lucía Ortíz, Jorge Hernandez, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Daniel R Perez
BACKGROUND: Guatemala is the country with the largest swine production in Central America; however, evidence of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs has not been clearly delineated. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we analyzed the presence and spatial distribution of IAV in commercial and backyard swine populations. METHODS: Samples from two nation-wide surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 were tested using virological (rRT-PCR and virus isolation) and serological (ELISA and Hemagglutination Inhibition) assays to detect IAV...
November 12, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857030/seasonal-variation-in-growth-of-berkshire-pigs-in-alternative-production-systems
#13
Hannah Park, Sang-Hyon Oh
Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of farrowing month (FM), parity and sex on the growth performance of Berkshire swine raised in alternative production systems. Methods: A total of 40 farrowing records from 27 sows and 1258 BW records from 274 piglets collected over a two-year period were used for the analysis. Body weights were recorded at birth, weaning (28 d), 56, 84, 112 and 140 days. Any BW not recorded on schedule was recalculated to conform the days of age among corresponding BW records, using growth curves drawn with polynomial functions whose power was determined by the number of existing observations for each individual...
November 17, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851802/str-profiling-for-discrimination-between-wild-and-domestic-swine-specimens-and-between-main-breeds-of-domestic-pigs-reared-in-belarus
#14
Krzysztof Rębała, Alina A Rabtsava, Svetlana A Kotova, Viachaslau N Kipen, Natalja V Zhurina, Alla I Gandzha, Iosif S Tsybovsky
A panel comprising 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) and a gender-specific amelogenin marker was worked out and tested for robustness in discrimination between wild and domestic swine subspecies encountered in Europe, between regional populations of wild boars and between main breeds of domestic pigs reared in Belarus. The STR dataset comprised 310 wild boars, inhabiting all administrative regions of Belarus, and 313 domestic pigs, representing three local and three cosmopolitan lines. Additionally, a total of 835 wild boars were genotyped for the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) alleles specific for domestic pigs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851746/livestock-associated-antibiotic-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-and-recent-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-among-industrial-hog-operation-workers
#15
Maya Nadimpalli, Jill R Stewart, Elizabeth Pierce, Nora Pisanic, David C Love, Devon Hall, Jesper Larsen, Karen C Carroll, Tsigereda Tekle, Trish M Perl, Christopher D Heaney
Swine production work is a risk factor for nasal carriage of livestock-associated (LA-) Staphylococcus aureus and also for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). However, whether LA-S. aureus nasal carriage is associated with increased risk of SSTI remains unclear. We aimed to examine S. aureus nasal carriage and recent (≤3 months prior to enrollment) SSTI symptoms among industrial hog operation (IHO) workers and their household contacts. IHO workers and their household contacts provided a nasal swab and responded to a questionnaire assessing self-reported personal and occupational exposures and recent SSTI symptoms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847356/substitution-of-porcine-cd163-srcr-domain-5-with-a-cd163-like-homolog-confers-resistance-of-pigs-to-genotype-1-but-not-genotype-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-prrs-viruses
#16
Kevin D Wells, Rachel Bardot, Kristin M Whitworth, Benjamin R Trible, Ying Fang, Alan Mileham, Maureen A Kerrigan, Melissa S Samuel, Randall S Prather, Raymond R R Rowland
: CD163 knockout (KO) pigs are resistant to infection with genotype 2 (Type 2) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Furthermore, the substitution of CD163 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain 5 with a homolog of human CD163-like (hCD163L1) SRCR 8 domain confers resistance of transfected HEK cells to Type 1 PRRSV. As a means to understand the role of domain 5 in PRRSV infection with both Type 1 and Type 2 viruses, pigs were genetically modified (GM) to possess one of the following genotypes: complete knock out (KO) of CD163, deletions within SRCR domain 5, or replacement (domain swap) of SRCR domain 5 with a synthesized exon encoding a homolog of hCD163L1 SRCR domain 8...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843934/prioritization-of-managed-pork-supply-movements-during-a-fmd-outbreak-in-the-us
#17
Gilbert R Patterson, Alicia H Mohr, Tim P Snider, Thomas A Lindsay, Peter R Davies, Tim J Goldsmith, Fernando Sampedro
In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836046/an-economic-evaluation-of-intervention-strategies-for-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-ped
#18
Longfeng Weng, Alfons Weersink, Zvonimir Poljak, Kees de Lange, Mike von Massow
The economic losses of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) and the net benefits of strategies to control the virus are calculated for individual farrow-to-finish herds. A production simulation model that estimates the number of pigs by population cohorts on a weekly basis for a farrow-to-finish farm depending on production parameters is simulated under normal operating conditions and then with an outbreak of PED. The estimated annual costs of a PED outbreak with the closure of the breeding herd as the only intervention is approximately $300,000 for a 700-sow farrow-to-finishing herd...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826719/anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-in-sediments-of-surface-flow-constructed-wetlands-treating-swine-wastewater
#19
Liang Chen, Feng Liu, Fen Jia, Ya-Jun Hu, Cui Lai, Xi Li, Pei Luo, Run-Lin Xiao, Yong Li, Jin-Shui Wu
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) was suggested to be involved in the nitrogen (N) removal process in constructed wetlands (CWs). Nevertheless, its occurrence and role in CWs treating swine wastewater have not been well evaluated yet. In this study, we investigated the diversity, activity, and role of anammox bacteria in sediments of mesoscale surface flow CWs (SFCWs) subjected to different N loads of swine wastewater. We found that anammox bacteria were abundant in SFCW sediments, as indicated by 7.5 × 10(5) to 3...
November 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821546/are-people-living-near-modern-swine-production-facilities-at-increased-risk-of-influenza-virus-infection
#20
Paul M Lantos, Kate Hoffman, Michael Höhle, Benjamin Anderson, Gregory C Gray
BACKGROUND:  Swine can harbor influenza viruses that are pathogenic to humans. Previous studies support an increased risk of human influenza cases among individuals with swine contact. North Carolina has the second-largest swine industry in the United States. METHODS:  We investigated the spatiotemporal association between influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and licensed swine operations from 2008 to 2012 in North Carolina. We determined the week in which ILI cases peaked and statistically estimated their week of onset...
November 6, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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