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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786970/density-functional-theory-calculations-revealing-metal-like-band-structures-for-ultrathin-ge-111-and-211-surface-layers
#1
Chih-Shan Tan, Michael Hsuan-Yi Huang
To find out if germanium should also possess facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties, surface state density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on 1-6 layers of Ge (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes. Tunable Ge (100) and (110) planes always present the same semiconducting band structure with a band gap of 0.67 eV expected of bulk germanium. In contrast, 1, 2, 4, and 5 layers of Ge (111) and (211) plane models show metal-like band structures with continuous density of states (DOS) throughout the entire band...
May 21, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786943/integrating-a-comprehensive-dna-barcode-reference-library-with-a-global-map-of-yews-taxus-l-for-forensic-identification
#2
Jie Liu, Richard I Milne, Michael Möller, Guang-Fu Zhu, Lin-Jiang Ye, Ya-Huang Luo, Jun-Bo Yang, Moses Cheloti Wambulwa, Chun-Neng Wang, De-Zhu Li, Lian-Ming Gao
Rapid and accurate identification of endangered species is a critical component of bio-surveillance and conservation management, and potentially policing illegal trades. However, this is often not possible using traditional taxonomy, especially where only small or pre-processed parts of plants are available. Reliable identification can be achieved via a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library, accompanied by precise distribution data. However, these require extensive sampling at spatial and taxonomic scales, which has rarely been achieved for cosmopolitan taxa...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786861/temporally-feathered-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-a-planning-technique-to-reduce-normal-tissue-toxicity
#3
Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786775/stormram-4-an-mr-safe-robotic-system-for-breast-biopsy
#4
Vincent Groenhuis, Françoise J Siepel, Jeroen Veltman, Jordy K van Zandwijk, Stefano Stramigioli
Suspicious lesions in the breast that are only visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) need to be biopsied under MR guidance with high accuracy and efficiency for accurate diagnosis. The aim of this study is to present a novel robotic system, the Stormram 4, and to perform preclinical tests in an MRI environment. Excluding racks and needle, its dimensions are 72 × 51 × 40 mm. The Stormram 4 is driven by two linear and two curved pneumatic stepper motors. The linear motor is capable of exerting 63 N of force at a pressure of 0...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786577/post-stroke-fatigue-and-its-dimensions-over-the-second-half-year-after-stroke
#5
Mykhaylo Y Delva, Iryna I Delva, Nataliya V Lytvynenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a common and often debilitating sequel of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The aim: Assess the rates and intensities of PSF over the second half year after stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: There were examined 128 patients at 6, 9 and 12 months after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset. PSF was measured by fatigue assessment scale (FAS), multidimensional fatigue inventory-20 (MFI-20) and fatigue severity scale (FSS)...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786552/intestinal-organoids-for-modelling-intestinal-development-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Kathryn L Fair, Jennifer Colquhoun, Nicholas R F Hannan
Gastrointestinal diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent in developed countries. Immortalized cells and animal models have delivered important but limited insight into the mechanisms that initiate and propagate these diseases. Human-specific models of intestinal development and disease are desperately needed that can recapitulate structure and function of the gut in vitro Advances in pluripotent stem cells and primary tissue culture techniques have made it possible to culture intestinal epithelial cells in three dimensions that self-assemble to form 'intestinal organoids'...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786447/thickness-tunable-synthesis-of-ultrathin-type-ii-dirac-semimetal-ptte-2-single-crystals-and-their-thickness-dependent-electronic-properties
#7
Huifang Ma, Peng Chen, Bo Li, Jia Li, Ruoqi Ai, Zhengwei Zhang, Guangzhuang Sun, Kangkang Yao, Zhaoyang Lin, Bei Zhao, Ruixia Wu, Xuwan Tang, Xidong Duan, Xiangfeng Duan
The recent discovery of topological semimetals has stimulated extensive research interest due to their unique electronic properties and novel transport properties related to a chiral anomaly. However, the studies to date are largely limited to bulk crystals and exfoliated flakes. Here, we report the controllable synthesis of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) platinum telluride (PtTe2 ) nanosheets with tunable thickness and investigate the thickness-dependent electronic properties. We show that PtTe2 nanosheets can be readily grown, using a chemical vapor deposition approach, with a hexagonal or triangular geometry and a lateral dimension of up to 80 μm, and the thickness of the nanosheets can be systematically tailored from over 20 to 1...
May 22, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786444/exploring-the-confinement-effect-of-carbon-nanotubes-on-the-electrochemical-properties-of-prussian-blue-nanoparticles
#8
Ti-Wei Chen, Zhong-Qiu Li, Kang Wang, Feng-Bin Wang, Xing-Hua Xia
A novel and efficient photochemical method has been proposed for the encapsulation of Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) inside the channels of carbon nanotubes (PB-in-CNTs) in an acidic ferrocyanide solution under UV/Vis illumination and the confinement effect of CNTs on the electrochemical properties of PBNPs is systematically explored. PB-in-CNTs shows a faster electron transfer process, an enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H2O2 and an increased anti-base ability compared to PBNPs loaded outside of CNTs (PB-out-CNTs)...
May 22, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786430/galaxygpcrloop-template-based-and-ab-initio-structure-sampling-of-the-extracellular-loops-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#9
Jonghun Won, Gyu Rie Lee, Hahnbeom Park, Chaok Seok
The second extracellular loops (ECL2s) of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often involved in GPCR functions, and their structures have important implications in drug discovery. However, structure prediction of ECL2 is difficult because of its long length and the structural diversity among different GPCRs. In this study, a new ECL2 conformational sampling method involving both template-based and ab initio sampling was developed. Inspired by observation of similar ECL2 structures of closely related GPCRs, a template-based sampling method employing loop structure templates selected from the structure database was developed...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786183/-hyperkalemia-as-a-limiting-factor-in-the-use-of-drugs-that-block-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-raas
#10
Antonio Santoro, Marcora Mandreoli
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors and ARBs have shown real efficacy in reducing blood pressure, proteinuria, in slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (MRC) and in clinical improvement. in patients with heart failure, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. However, their use is limited by some side effects such as the increase in serum potassium (K), which can be particularly severe in patients with renal insufficiency. In the 23,000 patients followed by the PIRP project of the Emilia-Romagna Region, hyperkalaemia at the first visit (K> 5...
May 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785961/trajectories-of-childhood-blood-pressure-and-adult-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-the-bogalusa-heart-study
#11
Tao Zhang, Shengxu Li, Lydia Bazzano, Jiang He, Paul Whelton, Wei Chen
This longitudinal study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood and examine the impact of level-independent childhood BP trajectories on adult left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling patterns. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 1154 adults (787 whites and 367 blacks) who had repeated measurements of BP 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years) and assessment of echocardiographic LV dimensions in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785926/intramedullary-nail-fixation-versus-locking-plate-fixation-for-adults-with-a-fracture-of-the-distal-tibia-the-uk-fixdt-rct
#12
Matthew L Costa, Juul Achten, Susie Hennings, Nafisa Boota, James Griffin, Stavros Petrou, Mandy Maredza, Melina Dritsaki, Thomas Wood, James Masters, Ian Pallister, Sarah E Lamb, Nick R Parsons
BACKGROUND: The best treatment for fractures of the distal tibia remains controversial. Most of these fractures require surgical fixation, but the outcomes are unpredictable and complications are common. OBJECTIVES: To assess disability, quality of life, complications and resource use in patients treated with intramedullary (IM) nail fixation versus locking plate fixation in the 12 months following a fracture of the distal tibia. DESIGN: This was a multicentre randomised trial...
May 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785884/morphological-changes-and-myocardial-function-assessed-by-traditional-and-novel-echocardiographic-methods-in-preadolescent-athlete-s-heart
#13
Anders W Bjerring, Hege Ew Landgraff, Svein Leirstein, Anette Aaeng, Hamza Z Ansari, Jørg Saberniak, Klaus Murbræch, Henrik Bruun, Thomas M Stokke, Kristina H Haugaa, Jostein Hallén, Thor Edvardsen, Sebastian I Sarvari
Background Athlete's heart is a term used to describe the morphological and functional changes in the hearts of athletes. Recent studies suggest that these changes may occur even in preadolescent athletes. This study aims to improve our understanding of the changes occurring in the preadolescent athlete's heart. Design and methods Cardiac morphology and function in 76 preadolescent cross-country skiers (aged 12.1 ± 0.2 years) were compared with 25 age-matched non-competing preadolescents. Echocardiography was performed in all subjects, including 2D speckle-tracking strain echocardiography and 3D echocardiography...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785729/tg-51-reference-dosimetry-for-the-halcyon%C3%A2-a-clinical-experience
#14
Samantha A M Lloyd, Tze Yee Lim, Xenia Fave, Everardo Flores-Martinez, Todd F Atwood, Vitali Moiseenko
Halcyon™ is a single-energy (6 MV-FFF), bore-enclosed linear accelerator. Patient setup is performed by first aligning to external lasers mounted to the front of the bore, and then loading to isocenter through pre-defined couch shifts. There is no light field, optical distance indicator or front pointer mechanism, so positioning is verified through MV imaging with kV imaging scheduled to become available in the future. TG-51 reference dosimetry was successfully performed for Halcyon™ in this imaging-based setup paradigm...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785698/specific-parasites-indirectly-influence-niche-occupation-of-non-hosts-community-members
#15
João Custódio Fernandes Cardoso, Radek Michalko, Marcelo Oliveira Gonzaga
The coexistence of phylogenetically related species is an attractive topic because of the potentially intense interspecific competition. The most often investigated mechanisms mediating coexistence of these species are environmental filtering and niche partitioning. However, the role of other factors, such as species-specific parasites, is still poorly understood. Along the riparian understory of a tropical forest, we explored niche occupation and coexistence between Chrysso intervales and Helvibis longicauda, two related syntopic web-building spiders...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785267/a-silent-massive-ossification-of-achilles-tendon-as-a-suspected-rare-late-effect-of-surgery-for-club-foot
#16
Francesco Manfreda, Paolo Ceccarini, Marco Corzani, Rosario Petruccelli, Pierluigi Antinolfi, Giuseppe Rinonapoli, Auro Caraffa
We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with massive ossification of the distal portion of the Achilles tendon, as a late consequence of a surgical release for club foot conducted in his childhood. The singularity of the case report derives from its clinical features: the bone mass was of abnormal dimensions, almost substituting the entire tendon; the condition had always been asymptomatic, without deficits in range of motion, in absence of either pain or biomechanical defects with age. In fact, the condition was diagnosed just recently as a consequence of a tear...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785238/intralesional-injection-of-triamcinolone-acetonide-for-subcutaneous-lipoma-causing-musculoskeletal-and-neurologic-symptoms
#17
William A Hayward, Wilmer L Sibbitt, Randy R Sibbitt, Maheswari Muruganandam, Noelle A Rolle, Monthida Fangtham, N Suzanne Emil, Scarlett K Kettwich
Objective: Benign subcutaneous lipomas can cause musculoskeletal pain and nerve impingement. We hypothesized that the potent lipolytic and atrophic effect of 40mg/mL triamcinolone acetonide would atrophy symptomatic lipomas so surgical excision could be avoided. Design: This was a cohort study. Setting: This study took place in an ultrasound injection clinic. Participants: Eight subjects with painful symptomatic lipoma were included. Measurements: Preprocedurally, the margins of the lipomas were palpated and marked with ink, then measured in centimeters (cm)...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785169/self-reported-functional-communicative-and-critical-health-literacy-on-foodborne-diseases-in-accra-ghana
#18
Sangeeta Gupta, Raymond Asare Tutu, John Boateng, Janice Desire Busingye, Sathya Elavarthi
Background: Although substantial progress has been made in reducing total mortality resulting from foodborne diseases, diarrheal illness are still the second most common illnesses among children. In Ghana, foodborne diseases have consistently been among the top 20 causes of outpatient illness over the last couple of decades. This study, therefore, examines health literacy on foodborne diseases and the relative effects of health literacy on self-rated health. Methods: Foodborne diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785155/the-volume-of-the-cerebellum-in-the-second-semester-of-gestation
#19
Damiana Vulturar, Alexandru Fărcăşanu, Flaviu Turcu, Dan Boitor, Carmen Crivii
Background and aims: The cerebellum ("little brain"), the largest part of hind brain, lies in the posterior cranial fossa, beneath the occipital lobe and dorsal to the brainstem. It develops over a long period: it is one of the first structures in the brain to begin to differentiate, but one of the last to mature. The use of ultrasonography has significantly improved the evaluation of fetal growth and development and has permitted prenatal diagnosis of a variety of congenital malformations...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785154/detection-of-coronary-artery-disease-by-reduced-features-and-extreme-learning-machine
#20
Ram Sewak Singh, Barjinder Singh Saini, Ramesh Kumar Sunkaria
Objective: Cardiovascular diseases generate the highest mortality in the globe population, mainly due to coronary artery disease (CAD) like arrhythmia, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Therefore, an early identification of CAD and diagnosis is essential. For this, we have proposed a new approach to detect the CAD patients using heart rate variability (HRV) signals. This approach is based on subspaces decomposition of HRV signals using multiscale wavelet packet (MSWP) transform and entropy features extracted from decomposed HRV signals...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
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