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gastric prophylaxis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663672/gastric-varices-in-cirrhosis-vs-extrahepatic-portal-venous-obstruction-and-response-to-endoscopic-n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate-injection
#1
Barjesh C Sharma, Shivakumar Varakanahalli, Jatinder P Singh, Siddharth Srivastava
BACKGROUND: Gastric varices (GV) are found in patients with portal hypertension. Incidence of bleeding from GV is relatively low, but is severe, and associated with higher mortality. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the types of GV in cirrhosis vs. extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) and the results of endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBC, glue) injection. METHODS: Four hundred and fifty-four patients undergone glue injection of GV for primary prophylaxis or control of bleeding for first episode of bleeding from GV between August 2010 and August 2015 were analyzed...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656047/multicenter-phase-2-study-about-the-safety-of-no-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-use-in-low-risk-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-distal-gastrectomy-for-gastric-carcinoma-ksweet-01-study
#2
Oh Jeong, Mi Ran Jung, Seong Yeob Ryu, Young-Kyu Park, Min Chan Kim, Ki Han Kim, Seung Wan Ryu, In Gyu Kwon, Young Gil Son
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown a lower risk of surgical site infections (SSI) after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy compared to open surgery. This is a phase 2 study aiming to determine the incidence of SSI after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy without using antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP). METHODS: cT1N0 gastric cancers that were subject to laparoscopic distal gastrectomy were enrolled. Based on the unacceptable SSI incidence of ≥12.5% and the target SSI incidence of ≤5%, 105 patients were enrolled with an α of 0...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634542/angioedema-perioperative-management
#3
Andrew A Maynard, Christina F Burger, Joseph J Schlesinger
OBJECTIVE: To describe the perioperative management of a patient with acquired angioedema (AAE). METHODS: A 66-year-old Caucasian male presented from an outside hospital with a history of acquired angioedema and gastrointestinal stromal tumor-related intractable urticaria and mastocytosis. He was admitted for urgent laparoscopic partial gastrectomy, secondary to gastric outlet obstruction symptomatology. Previous combined attacks were characterized by a widespread rash, abdominal pain and respiratory distress resulting in hospitalization...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612224/extrahepatic-portal-venous-obstruction-what-should-be-the-mainstay-of-treatment
#4
Richa Lal, Moinak Sen Sarma, Manish K Gupta
The two cornerstones of management for Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) are endotherapy and surgery [Porto-systemic shunts (PSS)/Mesorex bypass (MRB)]. Endotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for acute variceal bleed control and has also been used extensively for secondary prophylaxis till variceal eradication is achieved. However, long-term follow-up beyond endoscopic eradication of esophageal varices (EEEV) indicates that there are numerous delayed bleed and non bleed sequelae of EHPVO, which merit surgery as a definitive procedure to decompress the hypertensive portal venous system...
June 14, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601441/evaluation-and-handling-of-constipation-in-critical-patients
#5
J Pérez-Sánchez, J Fernández-Boronat, E Martínez-Méndez, M L Marín-Cagigas, D Mota-Puerto, M C Pérez-Román, G Martínez-Estalella
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care against constipation and to identify, analyze and evaluate causes and consequences. METHODOLOGY: Observational, descriptive and prospective study in polyvalent ICU tertiary hospital (2013-2015). INCLUSION CRITERIA: >18 years, stay >7 days, connected to respiratory support, with nasogastric tube and enteral or mixed nutrition. Patients with gastrointestinal pathology, encephalopathic and jejunostomy/ileostomy were excluded...
June 7, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572098/prophylactic-acid-suppressive-therapy-in-hospitalized-adults-indications-benefits-and-infectious-complications
#6
Andrew C Faust, Kelly L Echevarria, Rebecca L Attridge, Lyndsay Sheperd, Marcos I Restrepo
Acid-suppressive therapy for prophylaxis of stress ulcer bleeding is commonly prescribed for hospitalized patients. Although its use in select, at-risk patients may reduce clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding, the alteration in gastric pH and composition may place these patients at a higher risk of infection. Although any pharmacologic alteration of the gastric pH and composition is associated with an increased risk of infection, the risk appears to be highest with proton pump inhibitors, perhaps owing to the potency of this class of drugs in increasing the gastric pH...
June 2017: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530258/enhanced-recovery-program-erp-in-major-laryngeal-surgery-building-a-protocol-and-testing-its-feasibility
#7
M Gemma, S Toma, F Lira Luce, L Beretta, M Braga, M Bussi
Enhanced recovery programs (ERP) represent a multimodal approach to perioperative patient care. The benefits of ERP are well demonstrated in colorectal surgery and Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) programs, that epitomise the ERP concept, have being introduced in different specialties, including vascular, gastric, pancreatic, urogynecologic and orthopaedic surgery. However, no ERP has been proposed for head and neck surgery. We developed an expert-opinion-based ERP for laryngeal surgery based on the key principles of colorectal surgery ERAS®...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506028/comparison-of-the-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-risk-of-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-versus-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-stress-ulcers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Mohamed Azab, Loomee Doo, Daniel H Doo, Yousif Elmofti, Muazer Ahmed, John Jay Cadavona, Xibei B Liu, Amaan Shafi, Moon Kyung Joo, Ji Won Yoo
Background/Aims: Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers in hospital settings, there are concerns that PPIs increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, little is known about the risk of CDI following PPI and histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use. We evaluated the comparative hospital-acquired CDI occurrence risk associated with the concurrent use of PPIs versus H2RAs. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE/ Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and Google Scholar through August 19, 2016, identified 12 studies that reported the hospital-acquired CDI occurrence following H2RA and PPI use for the prevention and treatment of stress gastric ulcers...
May 17, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496035/alleviating-effects-of-artificial-tear-instillation-on-s-1-induced-ocular-toxicity-in-dogs
#9
Shohei Kanie, Mitsuhiro Fujieda, Tomoaki Hitotsumachi, Satoshi Suzuki, Fumio Morita, Kazuo Hakoi, Hirofumi Yasui
S-1 is an anticancer agent that consists of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. S-1 is used to treat metastatic and resectable gastric cancer. However, the extensive use of S-1 in clinical practice results in watery eyes, a serious clinical problem, which worsens patients' quality of life. Although repeated instillation of artificial tears is recommended, therapy or prophylaxis against S-1-induced ocular toxicity has not been established. In the present study, we evaluated the alleviating effects of repeated artificial tear instillation on S-1-induced ocular toxicity in dogs...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491877/nodular-regenerative-hyperplasia-a-case-of-rare-prognosis
#10
Mindy Lee, Manhal Izzy, Ashwin Akki, Kathryn Tanaka, Harmit Kalia
Introduction: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is a known etiology of noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Cases of biopsy-proven NRH in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have been described. While these patients often have normal synthetic liver function, several reports described disease progression to liver failure. Case: We here present a 26-year-old woman with history of congenital HIV on antiretroviral therapy complicated by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia at age 14. CD4 counts have been >300 with undetectable viral load...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469042/systemic-treatment-strategies-for-patients-with-hereditary-breast-cancer-syndromes
#11
Amanda Parkes, Banu K Arun, Jennifer K Litton
Hereditary breast cancer syndromes are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and constitute a unique patient population, making up approximately 5%-10% of breast cancer cases in the United States. By virtue of the germline mutations that define these syndromes, invasive breast cancers in these patients have unique mechanisms that can be rationally targeted for therapeutic opportunities distinct from standard of care treatments in nongermline mutation associated breast cancers. This review intends to describe existing data on several of the most common hereditary breast cancer syndromes, including BRCA-related breast cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome, specifically focusing on rational therapeutics utilized in these distinct patient subgroups and completed or ongoing clinical trials evaluating their efficacy...
June 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461706/possibilities-for-modifying-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-intensive-care-patients-results-of-a-retrospective-observational-study
#12
Radovan Uvizl, Milan Kolar, Tomas Herkel, Michaela Vobrova, Katerina Langova
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) development is affected by a range of risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study processing data on all consecutive intensive care patients older than 18 years of age between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2015. The aim was to determine the incidence of potential risk factors and their impact on the development of HAP. RESULTS: A total of 2229 patients. The overall mortality was 24...
April 26, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460165/development-of-a-rapidly-dissolvable-oral-pediatric-formulation-for-mefloquine-using-liposomes
#13
Wei-Lun Tang, Wei-Hsin Tang, Weihsu Claire Chen, Charles Diako, Carolyn F Ross, Shyh-Dar Li
Mefloquine (Mef), a poorly soluble and highly bitter drug, has been used for malaria prophylaxis and treatment. The dosage form for Mef is mostly available as adult tablets, and thus children under the age of 5 suffer from poor medication adherence. We have developed a stable, rapidly dissolvable, and palatable pediatric formulation for Mef using liposomes composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol with a mean diameter of ∼110 nm. Mef was actively loaded into the liposomes via an ammonium sulfate gradient using the solvent-assisted loading technology (SALT) developed in our lab...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458356/control-of-constipation-in-patients-receiving-chop-or-chop-like-chemotherapy-regimens-for-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#14
Hiroko Hayashi, Akio Suzuki, Koichi Ohata, Masashi Ishihara, Yushi Kubota, Ryo Kobayashi, Yuhei Shibata, Hiroshi Nakamura, Nobuhiko Nakamura, Junichi Kitagawa, Hisashi Tsurumi, Masahito Shimizu, Yoshinori Itoh
Management of constipation in patients receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP) or CHOP-like chemotherapy regimens is important for prevention of paralytic ileus. We reported earlier that the laxative action of magnesium oxide is reversed by the concomitant use of antacids in cancer patients receiving opioid analgesics. Here, we assessed the prevalence of prophylactic laxative medication for the control of constipation in patients receiving CHOP or CHOP-like regimens for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441053/evaluation-of-oxygen-administration-with-a-high-flow-nasal-cannula-to-clinically-normal-dogs
#15
Jennifer L Daly, Christine L Guenther, Jamie M Haggerty, Iain Keir
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oxygen administration by use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in sedated clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs undergoing routine dental prophylaxis. PROCEDURES Dogs were sedated with butorphanol tartrate and dexmedetomidine. An esophageal balloon catheter was inserted into the esophagus, a double-pronged nasal cannula was inserted into the nares, and a catheter was inserted into the dorsal pedal artery. Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440519/-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-perioperative-complications-of-bariatric-and-metabolic-surgery
#16
Haifu Wu, Ming Zhong, Di Zhou, Chenye Shi, Heng Jiao, Wei Wu, Xinxia Chang, Jing Cang, Hua Bian
Surgical operation in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes is popularizing rapidly in China. Correct prevention and recognition of perioperation-related operative complications is the premise of ensuring surgical safety. Familiar complications of the operation include deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary artery embolism, anastomotic bleeding, anastomotic fistula and marginal ulcer. The prevention of deep venous thrombosis is better than treatment. The concrete measures contain physical prophylaxis (graduated compression stocking and intermittent pneumatic compression leg sleeves) and drug prophylaxis (unfractionated heparin and low molecular heparin), and the treatment is mainly thrombolysis or operative thrombectomy...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326488/is-lmwh-sufficient-for-anticoagulant-prophylaxis-in-bariatric-surgery-prospective-study
#17
Farraj Moaad, Bramnik Zakhar, Kvasha Anton, Merie Moner, Sbeit Wisam, Farraj Safy, Waksman Igor
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the coagulation profile by thromboelastography in morbidly obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery. Morbid obesity entails increased risk for thromboembolic events. There is no clear protocol for thromboembolic prophylaxis, regarding timing and length of treatment, in bariatric surgery. Thromboelastography provides data on a coagulation process from creation of the clot until the fibrinolysis. METHODS: Ninety-three morbidly obese patients were prospectively recruited within a 2-year period...
March 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320077/marginal-ulcers-after-one-anastomosis-mini-gastric-bypass-a-survey-of-surgeons
#18
K K Mahawar, A N Reed, Y N H Graham
Many surgeons believe that one anastomosis (mini) gastric bypass (OAGB/MGB) is associated with a high marginal ulcer (MU) rate and that this is associated with complications in a significant number of patients. The purpose of this survey was to find out the participant-reported incidence of MU after OAGB/MGB and its complications. We also aimed to understand practices in this cohort concerning prophylaxis, diagnosis, treatment and management of complications. Bariatric surgeons who perform OAGB/MGB procedures were invited to participate in a confidential, online survey using SurveyMonkey®...
June 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258343/efficacy-safety-and-feasibility-of-antifungal-prophylaxis-with-posaconazole-tablet-in-paediatric-patients-after-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Michaela Döring, Karin Melanie Cabanillas Stanchi, Manon Queudeville, Judith Feucht, Franziska Blaeschke, Patrick Schlegel, Tobias Feuchtinger, Peter Lang, Ingo Müller, Rupert Handgretinger, Werner J Heinz
PURPOSE: Paediatric recipients of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have a high risk for invasive fungal infections. Posaconazole oral suspension has proven to be effective in antifungal prophylaxis in adult and paediatric patients. A new posaconazole tablet formulation with absorption independent of the gastric conditions was approved by the FDA in 2013. This is the first report on the use of posaconazole tablets in paediatric patients. METHODS: This single-centre study included 63 paediatric patients with haemato-oncological malignancies who received posaconazole for antifungal prophylaxis after HSCT...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121044/randomized-clinical-trial-of-24-versus-72-h-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-patients-undergoing-open-total-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A Takagane, Y Mohri, T Konishi, R Fukushima, T Noie, S Sueyoshi, K Omura, S Ono, M Kusunoki, H Mochizuki, Y Sumiyama
BACKGROUND: Open total gastrectomy carries a high risk of surgical-site infection (SSI). This study evaluated the non-inferiority of antimicrobial prophylaxis for 24 compared with 72 h after open total gastrectomy. METHODS: An open-label, randomized, non-inferiority study was conducted at 57 institutions in Japan. Eligible patients were those who underwent open total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Patients were assigned randomly to continued use of β-lactamase inhibitor for either 24 or 72 h after surgery...
January 2017: British Journal of Surgery
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