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"Alcohol Withdrawal"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775679/identification-and-validation-of-midbrain-kcnq4-regulation-of-heavy-alcohol-consumption-in-rodents
#1
Natalie S McGuier, Jennifer A Rinker, Reginald Cannady, Diana B Fulmer, Sara R Jones, Michaela Hoffman, Patrick J Mulholland
Currently available pharmacotherapies for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) suffer from deleterious side effects and are not efficacious in diverse populations. Clinical and preclinical studies provide evidence that the Kcnq family of genes that encode KV 7 channels influence alcohol intake and dependence. KV 7 channels are a class of slowly activating voltage-dependent K+ channels that regulate neuronal excitability. Studies indicate that the KV 7 channel positive modulator retigabine can decrease dopaminergic neuron firing, alter dopamine (DA) release, and reduce alcohol intake in heavy drinking rodents...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753371/cardiovascular-events-in-alcoholic-syndrome-with-alcohol-withdrawal-history-results-from-the-national-inpatient-sample
#2
Parasuram Krishnamoorthy, Aditi Kalla, Vincent M Figueredo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) events with moderate alcohol consumption. However, heavy and binge drinking may be associated with higher CVD risk. Utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we studied the association between a troublesome alcohol history (TAH), defined as those with diagnoses of both chronic alcohol syndrome and acute withdrawal history and CVD events. METHODS: Patients >18 years with diagnoses of both chronic alcohol syndrome and acute withdrawal using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 303...
May 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748926/adjunctive-use-of-ketamine-for-benzodiazepine-resistant-severe-alcohol-withdrawal-a-retrospective-evaluation
#3
Poorvi Shah, Marc McDowell, Reika Ebisu, Tabassum Hanif, Theodore Toerne
INTRODUCTION: Benzodiazepine (BZD)-resistant alcohol withdrawal remains a challenge for most institutions due to limited evidence with available agents. One published study currently exists utilizing the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, ketamine, for alcohol withdrawal. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of adjunctive ketamine continuous infusion on symptom control and lorazepam infusion requirements for BZD-resistant alcohol withdrawal patients in the intensive care unit...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739414/psychiatric-consultation-requests-by-inpatient-medical-teams-an-observational-study
#4
Carla Pezzia, Jacqueline A Pugh, Holly J Lanham, Luci K Leykum
BACKGROUND: We describe the way psychiatric issues are addressed by inpatient medical teams through analysis of discussions of patients with behavioral health concerns and examination of teams' subsequent consultation practices. METHODS: We observed morning rounds for nine inpatient medical teams for approximately month-long periods, for a total of 1941 observations. We compared discussions of patients admitted for behavioral health related medical conditions between those who did and did not receive a psychiatric consultation, developing categories to describe factors influencing consultation or other management...
May 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735241/use-of-a-gabapentin-protocol-for-the-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal-a-preliminary-experience-expanding-from-the-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service
#5
Jonathan G Leung, Daniela B Rakocevic, Nicholas D Allen, Elliot M Handler, Bruno A Perossa, Kristin L Borreggine, Amy L Stark, Hannah K Betcher, Daniel K Hosker, Blaine A Minton, Benjamin R Braus, Ross A Dierkhising, Kemuel L Philbrick
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are the conventional mainstay to manage alcohol withdrawal; however, patients are subsequently at increased risk for poor sleep, cravings, and return to drinking. Research on alternative pharmacologic agents to facilitate safe alcohol withdrawal is scant. Gabapentin is one medication shown in small studies to reduce the need for benzodiazepines in the setting of alcohol withdrawal. The continuation of gabapentin after alcohol withdrawal appears to be safe during early sobriety and may aid in reducing alcohol-related cravings or returning to alcohol consumption...
March 21, 2018: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728649/small-molecule-modulators-of-%C3%AF-2r-tmem97-reduce-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-behaviors
#6
Luisa L Scott, James J Sahn, Antonio Ferragud, Rachel C Yen, Praveen N Satarasinghe, Michael D Wood, Timothy R Hodges, Ted Shi, Brooke A Prakash, Kaitlyn M Friese, Angela Shen, Valentina Sabino, Jonathan T Pierce, Stephen F Martin
Repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal enhance the negative reinforcing properties of alcohol and lead to neuroadaptations that underlie withdrawal symptoms driving alcohol dependence. Pharmacotherapies that target these neuroadaptations may help break the cycle of dependence. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) subtype has attracted interest as a possible modulator of the rewarding and reinforcing effects of alcohol. However, whether the sigma-2 receptor, recently cloned and identified as transmembrane protein 97 (σ2R/TMEM97), plays a role in alcohol-related behaviors is currently unknown...
April 20, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722073/complications-related-to-chronic-supratherapeutic-use-of-codeine-containing-compound-analgesics-in-a-cohort-of-patients-presenting-for-codeine-withdrawal
#7
Victoria Cock, Carolyn Edmonds, Charles Cock
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study aimed to compare complications arising due to the supratherapeutic use of paracetamol/codeine or ibuprofen/codeine containing compound analgesics in primary codeine-dependent patients presenting to a drug and alcohol withdrawal service. Data was compared to determine if there was any difference in the number of complications observed between the two groups. DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective case review of patients presenting for primary codeine dependence from 2009 to 2014...
May 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713956/repeated-diazepam-administration-reversed-working-memory-impairments-and-glucocorticoid-alterations-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-after-short-but-not-long-alcohol-withdrawal-periods
#8
G Dominguez, N Henkous, C Pierard, C Belzung, N Mons, Daniel Beracochea
The study was designed to assess whether repeated administration of diazepam (Valium®, Roche)-a benzodiazepine exerting an agonist action on GABAA receptors-may alleviate both the short (1 week, 1W) and long-term (6 weeks, 6W) deleterious effects of alcohol withdrawal occurring after chronic alcohol consumption (6 months; 12% v/v) in C57/BL6 male mice. More pointedly, we first evidenced that 1W and 6W alcohol-withdrawn mice exhibited working memory deficits in a sequential alternation task, associated with sustained exaggerated corticosterone rise and decreased pCREB levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
April 30, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705711/alcohol-microbiome-and-their-effect-on-psychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Hillemacher, Oliver Bachmann, Kai G Kahl, Helge Frieling
There is accumulating evidence that alcohol consumption and especially alcohol withdrawal increase brain levels of known innate immune signaling molecules and cause neuroinflammation. It has been shown that microbiota play a pivotal role in this process and affect central neurochemistry and behavior. Disruption of or alterations in the intimate cross-talk between microbiome and brain may be a significant factor in many psychiatric disorders. Alterations in the composition of the microbiome, so called dysbiosis, may result in detrimental distortion of microbe-host homeostasis modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704590/protective-influences-of-n-acetylcysteine-against-alcohol-abstinence-induced-depression-by-regulating-biochemical-and-grin2a-grin2b-gene-expression-of-nmda-receptor-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#10
Rutuja Yawalkar, Harish Changotra, Girdhari Lal Gupta
Evidences have indicated a high degree of comorbidity of alcoholism and depression. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown its clinical efficiency in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders and is identified as a multi-target acting drug. The ability of NAC to prevent alcohol abstinence-induced depression-like effects and underlying mechanism(s) have not been adequately addressed. This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of NAC in the alcohol abstinence-induced depression developed following long-term voluntary alcohol intake...
April 25, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676057/the-effects-of-acute-alcohol-withdrawal-on-sleep
#11
Christopher J Hodges, Rowan P Ogeil, Dan I Lubman
OBJECTIVES: Although sleep disturbances are prominent during alcohol withdrawal, less is known about the specific components of sleep that are disturbed prior to and during acute detoxification. This study aimed to determine whether specific sleep components are affected prior to and during acute detoxification and their relationship to psychological distress. METHODS: Twenty-nine participants were recruited from a residential detoxification service in Melbourne, Australia, and completed both subjective methods of sleep and distress, in addition to wearing an actigraphy device...
April 20, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665174/a-managed-alcohol-program-in-sydney-australia-acceptability-cost-savings-and-non-beverage-alcohol-use
#12
Nadine Ezard, Michael E Cecilio, Brendan Clifford, Eileen Baldry, Lucy Burns, Carolyn A Day, Marian Shanahan, Kate Dolan
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a novel harm reduction intervention for people who experience long-term homelessness and severe long-term alcohol dependence. MAPs provide regulated amounts of alcohol onsite under supervision. Preliminary international evidence suggests that MAPs are associated with improvements such as reduced non-beverage alcohol consumption and decreases in some alcohol-related harms. There are currently no MAPs in Australia. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a MAP in inner-Sydney...
April 17, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658504/-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-dynamics-during-treatment-with-nooclerin-deanoli-aceglumas
#13
T V Agibalova, O Zh Buzik, O V Rychkova, A V Smyshlyaev, V V Rumbesht
AIM: To study the efficacy of nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas) in alcohol withdrawal syndrome assessed by clinical and biochemical characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicenter, open, randomized, comparative study of nooclerin in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome included 90 patients. The patients were randomized into nooclerin group (n=55) and control group (n=35). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Nooclerin reduced alcohol withdrawal symptoms more significantly throughout the whole study period...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658502/-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-in-alcohol-abusers
#14
Yu P Sivolap
The tendency to anxiety is a characteristic feature of alcohol abusers, and anxiety can be a symptom of alcohol withdrawal as well as comorbid disorder. The frequent comorbidity of alcohol use disorders and anxiety is due to a number of reasons including general hereditary predisposition, mutual conditioning and similar pathogenesis. Pharmacological therapy of anxiety disorders in alcohol-dependent patients is carried out on the basis of general principles of anxiety treatment and involves the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants and, in some cases, antipsychotics as second-line medicines...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650446/prognostic-impact-and-predictors-of-ejection-fraction-recovery-in-patients-with-alcoholic-cardiomyopathy
#15
Almudena Amor-Salamanca, Gonzalo Guzzo-Merello, Esther González-López, Fernando Domínguez, Alejandra Restrepo-Córdoba, Marta Cobo-Marcos, Manuel Gómez-Bueno, Javier Segovia-Cubero, Luis Alonso-Pulpón, Pablo García-Pavía
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been described in alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) after a period of alcohol withdrawal. Nevertheless, the prognostic impact of LVEF recovery in ACM and its determinants have not been studied. We sought to define the role of LVEF improvement in the long-term outcome of ACM and to identify predictors of LVEF recovery in these patients. METHODS: We evaluated 101 ACM patients during a median follow-up period of 82 months [interquartile range 36-134]...
April 9, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617889/insomnia-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-prevalence-risk-factors-and-acamprosate-effect-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#16
Pascal Perney, Philippe Lehert
Aims: The prevalence of insomnia ranges from 36% to 91% in alcohol-dependent patients and may persist after alcohol withdrawal. Acamprosate has been shown to decrease insomnia in abstinent patients. Based on a large clinical trial database, the aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy of acamprosate in reducing insomnia, and if indeed it does reduce insomnia, to better understand its action mechanism. Short Summary: The aim of the study is to confirm the efficacy of acamprosate to reduce insomnia using an individual patient data meta-analysis...
March 30, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617711/predictors-of-alcohol-withdrawal-readmissions
#17
Siva Harsha Yedlapati, Scott H Stewart
Aims: Hospital readmissions serve as a major benchmark for the quality of care and alcohol withdrawal (AW) may lead to multiple hospitalizations and readmissions. We sought to evaluate readmission rates and predictors of having AW-related readmissions in a nationally representative sample. Short summary: In a nationally representative sample, AW readmission within 30 days and multiple readmissions during the year were high and were particularly predicted by discharge against medical advice (AMA), comorbid psychosis, comorbid depression, poor socioeconomic status, comorbid drug abuse and alcohol-related medical disease...
March 30, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615864/molecular-neuropathology-of-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#18
REVIEW
José J Miguel-Hidalgo
Postmortem studies reveal structural and molecular alterations of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in both the gray and white matter (GM and WM) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in human subjects with chronic alcohol abuse or dependence. These glial cellular changes appear to parallel and may largely explain structural and functional alterations detected using neuroimaging techniques in subjects with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Moreover, due to the crucial roles of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in neurotransmission and signal conduction, these cells are very likely major players in the molecular mechanisms underpinning alcoholism-related connectivity disturbances between the PFC and relevant interconnecting brain regions...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604618/an-open-prospective-pilot-study-of-a-herbal-combination-relief-as-a-supportive-dietetic-measure-during-alcohol-withdrawal
#19
Kenza Mansoor, Fadi Qadan, Andreas Hinum, Caroline Schneider, Klaus Hechenbichler, Mathias Schmidt, Georg Linsinger, Khalid Matalka
OBJECTIVE: A herbal combination (saffron extract, passion flower herb extract, cocoa seed extract, radish extract and black cumin extract) called "Relief" was designed as a supportive therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). This combination was based on the scientific evidence of each constituent effect on AWS-like symptoms. In addition, our preclinical studies have shown the effectiveness of Relief on AWS detoxification. The rationale of the study was to document whether the oral intake of the designed content of Relief could have a positive effect on the course of alcohol detoxification by reducing some of the AWS in hospitalized patients...
March 1, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602186/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-striatal-synaptic-plasticity-relevance-to-chronic-alcohol-consumption-and-seeking
#20
Kim T Blackwell, Armando G Salinas, Parul Tewatia, Brad English, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski, David M Lovinger
The striatum, the input structure of the basal ganglia, is a major site of learning and memory for goal-directed actions and habit formation. Spiny projection neurons of the striatum integrate cortical, thalamic, and nigral inputs to learn associations, with cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity as a learning mechanism. Signaling molecules implicated in synaptic plasticity are altered in alcohol withdrawal, which may contribute to overly strong learning and increased alcohol seeking and consumption. To understand how interactions among signaling molecules produce synaptic plasticity, we implemented a mechanistic model of signaling pathways activated by dopamine D1 receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and glutamate...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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