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"Alcohol Withdrawal"

Brittany A Matthews, Junchao Tong, Sophia Attwells, Xin Xu, Anh Le, Stephen J Kish, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: A key component of alcohol dependence (AD), a severe form of alcohol use disorder, is the negative emotional state during withdrawal. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important enzyme that metabolizes monoamines and creates oxidative stress. Elevations in MAO-A level, especially in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC), are associated with low mood states, including the dysphoria of early alcohol withdrawal in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic alcohol vapor exposure causes an upregulation of MAO-A activity or level in the PFC and ACC of rodents during acute withdrawal...
February 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Julia M Lappin, Muhammad H Ayub, David Rogers, Madeleine Morgan, Jean-Yves Kanyamibwa, Anthony Shakeshaft
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a routine screening and triage tool for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in improving clinical care delivery in an ED setting. METHODS: In a regional ED in Australia, a screening and triage tool for AWS was introduced to routine ED assessment for a 13 week period. Subjects were all presentations to ED aged 16 and above with relevant presenting problems during the pre-intervention phase (1 January 2015-31 December 2016) and the post-intervention phase (8 August 2016-4 November 2016)...
March 12, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Prabin Sharma, Rodrigo Aguilar, Mark Abi Nader, Shaheryar Siddiqui, Ramkaji Baniya, Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Carmen Elena Cervantes, Ricardo Correa, Amir Masoud
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the difference in overall outcomes between weekend admissions for acute pancreatitis (AP) and weekday admissions. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2012, data were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample on adult patients with AP. Exclusion criteria were applied for chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic and biliary malignancies. In-hospital mortality, length of stay, hospitalization costs, comorbidities, complications, and intervention rates were compared between the weekend and weekday admissions...
April 2018: Pancreas
Kai H Lee, Michael Qiu, Jiandong Sun
OBJECTIVES: The algorithm for maxillofacial trauma management is well defined; however, provision of alcohol assessment for patients after trauma is not widely practiced. This study aims to investigate the rate of alcohol assessment achieved within the demographic characteristics of patients with facial trauma and the circumstances where this intervention was implemented. STUDY DESIGN: This study retrospectively examined the Victorian Admitted Episodes Data Set (VAED) from 2004 to 2013...
February 1, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Prosper N'Gouemo
Voltage-sensitive Ca2+ (CaV ) channels are the primary route of depolarization-induced Ca2+ entry in neurons and other excitable cells, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ). The resulting increase in [Ca2+ ]i activates a wide range of Ca2+ -dependent processes in neurons, including neurotransmitter release, gene transcription, activation of Ca2+ -dependent enzymes, and activation of certain K+ channels and chloride channels. In addition to their key roles under physiological conditions, CaV channels are also an important target of alcohol, and alcohol-induced changes in Ca2+ signaling can disturb neuronal homeostasis, Ca2+ -mediated gene transcription, and the function of neuronal circuits, leading to various neurological and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders, including alcohol withdrawal induced-seizures and alcoholism...
March 3, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Jennifer G Bray, Kenneth C Reyes, Amanda J Roberts, Donna L Gruol
CNS actions of the chemokine CCL2 are thought to play a role in a variety of conditions that can have detrimental consequences to CNS function, including alcohol use disorders. We used transgenic mice that express elevated levels of CCL2 in the CNS (CCL2-tg) and their non-transgenic (non-tg) littermate control mice to investigate long-term consequences of CCL2/alcohol/withdrawal interactions on hippocampal synaptic function, including excitatory synaptic transmission, somatic excitability, and synaptic plasticity...
February 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Snehalata V Gajbhiye, Raakhi K Tripathi, Anup Uttam Petare, Anirudha Vyankatesh Potey, Arun Shankar
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and negative sensations due to alcohol withdrawal are factors leading to alcohol relapse and addiction. Minocycline, an antibiotic, can decrease alcohol consumption in rats, however, its effects on alcohol withdrawal anxiety and relapse have not been studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Part 1: Forced alcohol drinking in gradually increasing concentration was administered till day 22 in rats. Effect of drugs on anxiety was assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM) and two chambered box apparatus, after removal of alcohol...
February 27, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Yoonsun Mo, Michael C Thomas, Corey S Laskey, Natalia Shcherbakova, Megan L Bankert, Robert H Halloran
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine current practice patterns surrounding the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the Northeast region of the United States. Methods: A survey questionnaire with several treatment options related to current practice in the management of AWS was developed. All hospitals with 100 beds or more located in the Northeast region were selected, and 512 surveys were mailed to pharmacy directors of those hospitals...
March 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Ida Fredriksson, Malin Wirf, Pia Steensland
Alcohol craving, in combination with impaired impulse control, often leads to relapse. The dopamine system mediates the rewarding properties of alcohol but is also involved in regulating impulsive behavior. The monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) has the ability to stabilize dopamine activity depending on the prevailing dopaminergic tone and may therefore normalize the dopaminergic transmission regulating both alcohol use disorder and impulsivity. We have recently showed that OSU6162 attenuates voluntary alcohol consumption, operant alcohol self-administration, alcohol withdrawal symptoms and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats...
February 26, 2018: Addiction Biology
Savita Malhotra, Debasish Basu, Abhishek Ghosh, Madhu Khullar, Neera Chugh, Neeraj Kakkar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Delirium Tremens (DT) is the most severe form of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, with a potential risk of mortality. Search for the predictors of DT led to study of candidate genes, with inconsistent and inconclusive results. This study aimed to explore the association of various candidate gene polymorphisms and DT in a case-control design. METHODS: This was a genetic association study with a case control design. Two hundred ten Alcohol dependent (AD) male subjects and 200 age matched controls were recruited...
February 12, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
E Domi, E Barbier, E Augier, G Augier, D Gehlert, R Barchiesi, A Thorsell, L Holm, M Heilig
Prior work suggests a role of kappa-opioid signaling in the control of alcohol drinking, in particular when drinking is escalated due to alcohol-induced long-term neuroadaptations. Here, we examined the small molecule selective kappa antagonist CERC-501 in rat models of alcohol-related behaviors, with the objective to evaluate its potential as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders. We first tested the effect of CERC-501 on acute alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. CERC-501 was then tested on basal as well as escalated alcohol self-administration induced by 20% alcohol intermittent access...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dhara P Amin, Michael N Cooper, Kim I Newton
BACKGROUND: Lingual hematoma (LH) is a relatively uncommon entity seen after both medical and traumatic etiologies. Regardless of the cause, the feared complication is acute airway obstruction. CASE REPORT: Our case involves a 39-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department via emergency medical services with an enlarging LH after an unwitnessed fall, suspected to be an alcohol withdrawal seizure. The bleeding was likely exacerbated by previously undiagnosed thrombocytopenia...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Massoud Stephane, Bachaar Arnaout, Gihyun Yoon
Hallucinations are sometimes encountered in the course of alcohol withdrawal; however, both the factors predisposing to alcohol withdrawal hallucinations (AWH) and the implications of AWH with respect to the mechanisms of hallucinations remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the demographic correlates, alcohol-use clinical patterns, and psychiatric comorbidities in two groups: drinkers with and without a history of AWH...
February 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Pamela Metten, Jason P Schlumbohm, Lawrence C Huang, Gian D Greenberg, Wyatt R Hack, Stephanie E Spence, John C Crabbe
Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time...
September 6, 2017: Alcohol
Brian C Davis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Recent advances have led to a greater understanding of how alcohol alters the brain, both in acute stages (intoxication and alcohol withdrawal) and in chronic misuse. This review focuses on the current understanding of how alcohol affects the brain in cirrhosis patients with and without hepatic encephalopathy. Chronic alcohol use is associated with nutritional deficiencies, dementia, cirrhosis, and decompensating events such as hepatic encephalopathy. Direct toxicity on brain tissue, induction of neuro-inflammation, and alcohol's alterations of the gut microbiome are possible mechanisms for the clinical features of hepatic encephalopathy associated with alcohol use...
February 8, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ashley Jahn, Charlie Bodreau, Kate Farthing, Fawzy Elbarbry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While some case reports indicate that high doses of propylene glycol (PG) may result in metabolic acidosis, there has been no large-scale study that evaluated the risk of metabolic acidosis in patients receiving PG-containing benzodiazepines for acute alcohol withdrawal. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential toxicity of PG in patients with acute alcohol withdrawal treated with intermittent intravenous bolus doses of diazepam and/or lorazepam. METHODS: This is a retrospective case study using data collected from 18 randomly selected patients receiving one or both of these medications per a modified Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA) Class 3 protocol...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Arnauld Belmer, Omkar L Patkar, Vanessa Lanoue, Selena E Bartlett
Repeated episodes of binge-like alcohol consumption produce anxiety, depression and various deleterious effects including alterations in neurogenesis. While the involvement of the serotonin receptor 1 A (5-HT1A) in the regulation of anxiety-like behavior and neurogenesis is well documented, its contribution to alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and alcohol-induced deficits in neurogenesis is less documented. Using the Drinking-In-the-Dark (DID) paradigm to model chronic long-term (12 weeks) binge-like voluntary alcohol consumption in mice, we show that the selective partial activation of 5-HT1A receptors by tandospirone (3 mg/kg) prevents alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety in a battery of behavioral tests (marble burying, elevated-plus-maze, open-field), which is accompanied by a robust decrease in binge-like ethanol intake (1 and 3 mg/kg)...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hui-Wen Xiao, Chang Ge, Guo-Xing Feng, Yuan Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Li Dong, Hang Li, Haichao Wang, Ming Cui, Sai-Jun Fan
Excessive alcohol consumption remains a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Accumulative experimental evidence has suggested an important involvement of gut microbiota in the modulation of host's immunological and neurological functions. However, it is previously unknown whether enteric microbiota is implicated in the formation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using a murine model of chronic alcoholism and withdrawal, we examined the impact of alcohol consumption on the possible alterations of gut microbiota as well as alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and behavior changes...
January 29, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Igor Bazov, Daniil Sarkisyan, Olga Kononenko, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Tatiana Yakovleva, Anita C Hansson, Wolfgang H Sommer, Rainer Spanagel, Georgy Bakalkin
Molecular changes induced by excessive alcohol consumption may underlie formation of dysphoric state during acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal which leads to craving and relapse. A main molecular addiction hypothesis is that the upregulation of the dynorphin (DYN)/κ-opioid receptor (KOR) system in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent individuals causes the imbalance in activity of D1- and D2 dopamine receptor (DR) expressing neural circuits that results in dysphoria. We here analyzed post-mortem NAc samples of human alcoholics to assess changes in prodynorphin (PDYN) and KOR (OPRK1) gene expression and co-expression (transcriptionally coordinated) patterns...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
T Wetterling, K Junghanns
Every year more than 100,000 people with an alcohol intoxication are admitted to German hospitals. Many of them refuse inpatient observation or treatment. Therefore the physician in charge at the emergency room has to decide, how to proceed. The capacity to consent has to be judged, especially if the patient insists on being discharged. In this context the risks of injuries, complicated alcohol withdrawal, aggressive and suicidal behavior must be evaluated. In this article the juridical aspects and the necessary mental and physical assessments especially in case of discharge of the patient against medical advice are presented...
January 30, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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