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"Alcohol Withdrawal"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864953/deaths-in-unlicensed-alcohol-rehabilitation-facilities
#1
Keng-Chih Su, Lawrence Nguyen, Christopher Rogers
Non-English-speaking people do not always seek medical care through established institutions. This paper reports a series of deaths in unlicensed alcohol rehabilitation facilities serving Spanish-speaking men. These facilities are informal groups of alcohol abusing men who live together. New members receive various treatments, including administration of ethanol or isopropanol, restraint, and seclusion. We reviewed 42 deaths in unlicensed alcohol rehabilitation facilities in Los Angeles County during the years 2003-2014...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862011/effective-reduction-of-acute-ethanol-withdrawal-by-the-tetracycline-derivative-tigecycline-in-female-and-male-dba-2j-mice
#2
Joseph M Martinez, Jessica A Groot, David C Curtis, Clayton L Allison, Patrick C Marquardt, Ashley N Holmes, David S Edwards, David R M Trotter, Peter J Syapin, Deborah A Finn, Susan E Bergeson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a spectrum disorder characterized by mild to severe symptoms, including potential withdrawal signs upon cessation of consumption. Approximately five hundred thousand patients with AUD undergo clinically relevant episodes of withdrawal annually (New Engl J Med, 2003, 348, 1786). Recent evidence indicates potential for drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways as new AUD therapies. We have previously shown the immunomodulatory drugs, minocycline and tigecycline, were effective in reducing ethanol (EtOH) consumption in both the 2-bottle choice and drinking-in-the-dark paradigms...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850872/1236-benzodiazepine-reduction-with-the-use-of-adjunct-agents-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal
#3
Cassandra Doyno, Stefanie Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850538/900-alternative-approach-to-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#4
Jennifer Severing, Adam Manko, William Healy, Derek Brown, Manu Kaushal, Christopher Kempe, Jessica Kynyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850515/877-correlation-between-mminds-and-ciwa-ar-scoring-tools-in-patients-with-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#5
Audrey Littlefield, Claire Chan, Dawn Cooper, Jason Heavner, Jeanette Kurtz, Margaret Pisani, Mojdeh Heavner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850144/504-phenobarbital-versus-benzodiazepines-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome
#6
Douglas Hsu, John Marshall, George Abdallah, Randy Hollins, Peter Clardy, Michael Donnino, Kenneth Mukamal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849505/a-prospective-observation-study-of-medical-toxicology-consultation-in-a-u-s-combat-theater
#7
Joseph K Maddry, Patrick C Ng, Daniel Sessions, Vikhyat S Bebarta
OBJECTIVES: Since 2001, U.S. military personnel and active duty, uniformed physicians providing medical support have been deployed to Afghanistan. Medical toxicologists are among the physicians deployed. There is a paucity of information present in the literature that has documented cases treated by toxicologists in theater. This prospective observational study describes 15 male patients treated in theater by a military medical toxicologist. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study in which a medical toxicologist consulted and reported on deployed toxicology cases occurring during a 5-month deployment to Bagram, Afghanistan...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848217/pregabalin-for-the-treatment-of-drug-and-alcohol-withdrawal-symptoms-a-comprehensive-review
#8
REVIEW
Rainer Freynhagen, Miroslav Backonja, Stephan Schug, Gavin Lyndon, Bruce Parsons, Stephen Watt, Regina Behar
Treatments for physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms following the abrupt discontinuation of prescription drugs (such as opioids and benzodiazepines), nicotine, alcohol, and cannabinoids are available, but there is still a need for new and more effective therapies. This review examines evidence supporting the potential use of pregabalin, an α2δ voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ligand, for the treatment of physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms. A literature search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases up to and including 11 December 2015 was conducted...
November 16, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829960/ketoacidosis-in-a-non-diabetic-adult-with-chronic-etoh-consumption
#9
Catherine-Audrey Boutin, Mikhael Laskine
Although much more rare than its diabetic counterpart, ketoacidosis secondary to alcohol withdrawal in the context of fasting has its own complex pathophysiology and can easily mimic the acute insulin deficiency presentation. We present here a rare case of a non-diabetic alcoholic patient who presented in ketoacidosis after a period of reduced intake.
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814792/atp1a2-contributes-modestly-to-alcohol-related-behaviors
#10
Stephanie M Gritz, Colin Larson, Richard A Radcliffe
Atp1a2 has been previously studied for anxiety, learning and motor function disorders, and fear. Since Atp1a2 has been shown to be involved in anxiety and this behavior is a known risk factor for developing alcoholism, we have been investigating Atp1a2 for its potential role in responses to alcohol. This study utilized Atp1a2 knockout mice; Atp1a2 heterozygous mice, with half the amount of protein compared to wild-type mice, were used because Atp1a2 homozygous null mice die shortly after birth. The alcohol-related behavioral experiments performed were loss of righting reflex (LORR), acute alcohol withdrawal measured by handling-induced convulsions (HIC), drinking in the dark (DID), open-field activity (OFA), and elevated plus-maze (EPM)...
November 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803505/outcomes-after-implementation-of-an-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-at-a-single-institution
#11
Mary E Eberly, Anna G Lockwood, Sean Lockwood, Kelly W Davis
Background: There are varying dosing strategies for the administration of benzodiazepines in the setting of alcohol withdrawal. In October 2014, a symptom-based alcohol withdrawal protocol (AWP) using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol, Revised (CIWA-Ar) scale was implemented at one institution. Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the AWP. Methods: Retrospective chart review was completed, including patients receiving at least one dose of diazepam for alcohol withdrawal pre- and post-protocol...
October 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797817/self-disembowelment-during-delirium-tremens-why-early-diagnosis-is-vital
#12
Rachel Thomasson, Vanessa Craig, Elspeth Guthrie
Delirium tremens is a serious yet treatable complication of alcohol withdrawal. Timely diagnosis is critical as there are well-established treatment regimens that provide symptomatic relief within hours to days. We report the case of a 34-year-old man with an undisclosed history of alcohol dependency. He presented with paranoid beliefs and was transferred to a psychiatric inpatient unit with suspected schizophrenia. Classic features of delirium tremens such as sympathetic overdrive and visual hallucinations were not salient features of his presentation...
October 24, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797712/prazosin-prevents-increased-anxiety-behavior-that-occurs-in-response-to-stress-during-alcohol-deprivations
#13
Dennis D Rasmussen, Carrie L Kincaid, Janice C Froehlich
AIMS: Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. METHODS: Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles...
October 26, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787460/implementing-an-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-a-quality-improvement-project
#14
Cynthia Holt, Valorie Dearmon, Sherry M Lawrence, Chrystal L Lewis, Christine E Skotzko
This quality improvement project evaluates the effectiveness of implementing an evidence-based alcohol withdrawal protocol in an acute care setting. Patient outcomes, length of stay, and nurses' knowledge and satisfaction with care are compared pre- and postimplementation. Implementation resulted in significant reduction of restraint use, transfers to critical care, 1:1 observation, and length of stay, whereas no reduction was seen in rapid response calls. Nurses' knowledge post-alcohol withdrawal protocol education increased and satisfaction with patient care improved...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733668/evaluation-of-a-symptom-triggered-benzodiazepine-protocol-utilizing-sas-and-ciwa-ar-scoring-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-the-critically-ill
#15
Soumitra Sen, Philip Grgurich, Amanda Tulolo, Andrew Smith-Freedman, Yuxiu Lei, Anthony Gray, James Dargin
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the efficacy of symptom-triggered therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a symptom-triggered benzodiazepine protocol utilizing Riker Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) scoring for the treatment of AWS in the ICU. METHODS: We performed a before-and-after study in a medical ICU. A protocol incorporating SAS scoring and symptom-triggered benzodiazepine dosing was implemented in place of a protocol that utilized the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scale and fixed benzodiazepine dosing...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723498/alcohol-withdrawal-in-epileptic-rats-effects-on-postictal-depression-respiration-and-death
#16
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Srinivasan Tupal, Carl L Faingold
Patients with epilepsy are at risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The most common series of events in witnessed cases of SUDEP is a generalized convulsive seizure followed by terminal apnea. Risk factors for SUDEP include prolonged postictal depression (PID), as well as alcohol abuse. The present study examined these issues in a genetic epilepsy model that exhibits generalized convulsive audiogenic seizures (AGSz) but rarely exhibits seizure-induced death, the genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-9s)...
October 7, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716957/alcohol-withdrawal-increases-protein-kinase-a-activity-in-the-rat-inferior-colliculus
#17
Luli R Akinfiresoye, Clive Miranda, David M Lovinger, Prosper N'Gouemo
BACKGROUND: Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling is a key target for the action of alcohol and may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal seizures (AWSs). Here, we investigated the role of PKA activity with respect to increased seizure susceptibility in rats that were subjected to alcohol withdrawal. METHODS: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 3 daily doses of ethanol (EtOH) (or vehicle) for 4 consecutive days. Rats were then tested for susceptibility to acoustically evoked AWSs 3, 24, and 48 hours after the last alcohol dose...
November 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665607/age-related-differences-in-anxiety-like-behavior-and-amygdalar-ccl2-responsiveness-to-stress-following-alcohol-withdrawal-in-male-wistar-rats
#18
Kathryn M Harper, Darin J Knapp, Meredith A Park, George R Breese
RATIONALE: Behavioral and neuroimmune vulnerability to withdrawal from chronic alcohol varies with age. The relation of anxiety-like behavior to amygdalar CCL2 responses following stress after withdrawal from chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) was investigated in adolescent and adult rats. METHODS: Adolescent and adult Wistar rats were exposed to CIA (three 5-day blocks of dietary alcohol separated by 2 days of withdrawal) at concentrations that created similar blood alcohol levels across age...
September 24, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616301/environmental-enrichment-may-protect-against-neural-and-behavioural-damage-caused-by-withdrawal-from-chronic-alcohol-intake
#19
Manoel Jorge Nobre
Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610136/clinical-evolution-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis-in-a-patient-with-alcohol-withdrawal-a-blurred-clinical-horizon
#20
Abdul S Mohammed, Prajwal Boddu, Dina F Yazdani
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), a potentially fatal and debilitating neurological condition, was first described in 1959 in a study on alcoholic and malnourished patients. It is a condition most frequently related to rapid correction of hyponatremia. Chronic alcoholism associated CPM tends to be benign with a favorable prognosis compared to CPM secondary to rapid correction of hyponatremia. We describe a normonatremic, alcoholic patient who presented with CPM after a rapid rise in his sodium levels. Our case illustrates the fact that CPM can manifest even in patients who are normonatremic at baseline...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
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