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"Alcohol Withdrawal"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320026/-alcohol-withdrawal-and-its-major-complications
#1
Klaus Junghanns, Tilman Wetterling
Delirium tremens is one of the most common complications of alcohol withdrawal. It is potentially lethal and therefore should be detected as early as possible and be monitored and treated intensively. The assessment of risk factors with the Luebeck Alcohol-Withdrawal Risk Scale short form (LARS-11) can help to predict the risk of severe withdrawal adequately. As delirium cannot be differentiated from Wernicke-Encephalopathy with sufficient certainty high parenteral doses of Vitamin B1 and Magnesium orally should be given in case of any severe withdrawal symptoms...
March 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#2
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303497/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-alcohol-related-neuroinflammation-in-rats
#3
Ricardo Schneider, Solange Bandiera, Débora Guerini Souza, Bruna Bellaver, Greice Caletti, André Quincozes-Santos, Elaine Elisabetsky, Rosane Gomez
Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289647/central-pontine-myelinolysis-induced-by-alcohol-withdrawal-a-case-report
#4
Jae Ho Kim, Sae Hyun Kim, Ho Joong Jeong, Young Joo Sim, Dong Kyu Kim, Ghi Chan Kim
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by the loss of myelin in the center of the basis pons, and is mainly caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. We report the case of a young woman who presented with gait disturbance and alcohol withdrawal, and who was eventually diagnosed with CPM. Generally, the cause and pathogenesis of CPM in chronic alcoholics remain unclear. In this cases, the CPM may be unrelated to hyponatremia or its correction. However, it is possible that the osmotic pressure changes due to refeeding syndrome after alcohol withdrawal was the likely cause in this case...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266937/occurrence-predictors-and-prognosis-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-and-delirium-tremens-following-traumatic-injury
#5
Kristin Salottolo, Emmett McGuire, Charles W Mains, Erika C van Doorn, David Bar-Or
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine occurrence, predictors, and prognosis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and delirium tremens in patients with traumatic injury. DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter cohort study. SETTING: Three U.S. trauma centers. PATIENTS: Twenty-eight thousand one hundred one trauma patients admitted from 2010-2014. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Measures included occurrence of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and delirium tremens, injury characteristics, risk factors for alcohol withdrawal syndrome, clinical outcomes, pharmacologic treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol, Revised (CIWA-Ar) scores...
March 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265221/electrocardiogram-interpretation-in-a-man-with-alcohol-withdrawal-and-hypothermia
#6
Joanna Troulakis, Roman Zeltser, Amgad N Makaryus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240838/liver-transplantation-for-patients-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#7
Florent Artru, Alexandre Louvet, Philippe Mathurin
Alcoholic liver disease, considered as a self-inflected disease, is an example of how moral judgment may affect ethical exercise of medicine which requires equity and fair utilization of a scarce resource in a context of organ shortage. Some consider that selection process should prioritize access to liver transplantation (LT) for patients who develop liver failure "through no fault of their own" even if limiting care because of a patient's perceived responsibility has been considered unethical. The absence of improvement after alcohol withdrawal, the high short-term mortality risk and the poor predictability of the 6-month rule in post-LT relapse in alcohol consumption in AH patients not responding to medical therapy led to recommend an evaluation of LT...
March 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196024/clinical-and-morphological-features-of-paraduodenal-pancreatitis-an-italian-experience-with-120-patients
#8
Nicolò de Pretis, Fabiana Capuano, Antonio Amodio, Mattia Pellicciari, Luca Casetti, Riccardo Manfredi, Giuseppe Zamboni, Paola Capelli, Riccardo Negrelli, Pietro Campagnola, Arnaldo Fuini, Armando Gabbrielli, Claudio Bassi, Luca Frulloni
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological features and clinical outcomes of paraduodenal pancreatitis (PP). METHODS: A final diagnosis of PP was based on surgical specimens in resected patients and on imaging in nonoperated patients. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data were collected and reevaluated. RESULTS: We studied 120 patients, 97.5% of whom were drinkers and 97.5% were smokers. Symptoms at clinical onset were acute pancreatitis in 78 patients (65%) and continuous pain in 68 patients (55...
April 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188055/the-emergency-medicine-management-of-severe-alcohol-withdrawal
#9
Drew Long, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use is widespread, and withdrawal symptoms are common after decreased alcohol intake. Severe alcohol withdrawal may manifest with delirium tremens, and new therapies may assist in management of this life-threatening condition. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review of the emergency medicine management of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. DISCUSSION: The underlying pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is central nervous system hyperexcitation...
February 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174112/epigenetic-basis-of-the-dark-side-of-alcohol-addiction
#10
REVIEW
Subhash C Pandey, Evan J Kyzar, Huaibo Zhang
Alcoholism is a complex brain disease characterized by three distinct stages of the addiction cycle that manifest as neuroadaptive changes in the brain. One such stage of the addiction cycle is alcohol withdrawal and the negative affective states that promote drinking and maintain addiction. Repeated alcohol use, genetic predisposition to alcoholism and anxiety, and alcohol exposure during crucial developmental periods all contribute to the development of alcohol-induced withdrawal and negative affective symptoms...
February 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170108/caspase-cleaved-k18-fragments-increase-during-alcohol-withdrawal-and-predict-liver-related-death-in-patients-with-ald
#11
S Mueller, P Nahon, V Rausch, T Peccerella, I Silva, E Yagmur, B K Straub, C Lackner, H K Seitz, P Rufat, A Sutton, H Bantel, T Longerich
Non-invasive assessment of disease activity in patients with non-alcoholic (NALFD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is still unsettled but essential for the evaluation of disease progression. We here studied the association of total (M65) and caspase-cleaved (M30) serum keratin-18 fragments (n=204) with histological parameters (n=106) in heavy drinkers primarily admitted for alcohol withdrawal before and after alcohol detoxification. An age, gender and fibrosis-stage matched NAFLD cohort (n=30) was used for comparison...
February 7, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166603/electroacupuncture-attenuates-hyperalgesia-in-rats-withdrawn-from-chronic-alcohol-drinking-via-habenular-mu-opioid-receptors
#12
Jing Li, Caihong Fu, Hongwei Liu, Rao Fu, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Pei Chen, Danielle Gregor, Rose Paulose, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
BACKGROUND: Hyperalgesia or increased sensitivity to pain is often found in alcoholics during alcohol withdrawal and may contribute to relapse drinking. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA), through mechanisms involving opioid receptors, may reduce pain and substance dependence and withdrawal syndromes. The lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure rich in mu opioid receptors (MORs), is a critical target for both drugs of abuse and pain. We previously observed hyperalgesia in rats withdrawn from chronic ethanol (EtOH) drinking and found that EA at the acupoint Zusanli (ST36) reduced EtOH intake...
March 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162513/-276-role-of-ampa-receptor-regulation-in-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-prolongation-of-incisional-pain
#13
S Liu, Y Guo, H Shu, X Yang, F Tao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162419/-189-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-hyperalgesia-in-young-adult-binge-drinkers-preliminary-finding
#14
D You, M Meagher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162410/-183-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-hyperalgesia-and-alcohol-craving-in-young-adult-binge-drinkers
#15
H Hahn, D You, M Meagher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139538/sexual-dysfunctions-in-alcohol-dependent-men-a-study-from-north-india
#16
Shreyas Pendharkar, Surendra K Mattoo, Sandeep Grover
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Sexual dysfunctions have been reported in alcohol-dependent men. Most of the studies conducted had limitation of using non-validated measures of sexual dysfunction and sampling design. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the typology, demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent men. METHODS: One hundred and one patients with alcohol dependence (AD) attending the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre and 50 healthy controls were evaluated in this cross-sectional study...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115043/-benzodiazepines-should-still-be-first-line-treatment-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#17
Gro Askgaard, Anton Pottegård, Anders Fink-Jensen
In this review, we summarize the evidence for benzodiazepines and barbiturates as alcohol withdrawal treatment and outline a treatment guideline. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that benzodiazepine treatment decreases alcohol withdrawal seizures and is safe. For barbiturates, only a few RCTs have been undertaken, and barbiturates were not found to be superior to benzodiazepines. Consequently, we suggest that benzodiazepines should still be first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal...
January 16, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110168/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-uhplc-ms-ms-for-determination-of-ghb-precursors-and-metabolites-in-different-specimens-application-to-clinical-and-forensic-cases
#18
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Emilia Marchei, Roberta Pacifici, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, Simona Pichini
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Sodium salt of GHB has been used as a medication for narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal. Moreover, GHB and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), are illegal recreational drugs of abuse. A procedure based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and hair for acute and chronic exposure to GHB and in seized preparations coming from black market...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101764/diazepam-in-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-alcohol-withdrawal
#19
Steven J Weintraub
Benzodiazepines ameliorate or prevent the symptoms and complications of moderate to severe alcohol withdrawal, which can include autonomic hyperactivity, agitation, combativeness, hallucinations, seizures, delirium, and death. The benzodiazepines most commonly used for this purpose are lorazepam, chlordiazepoxide, oxazepam, and diazepam. It is widely asserted that no member of this group is superior to the others for treatment of alcohol withdrawal. However, of these, diazepam has the shortest time to peak effect, which facilitates both rapid control of symptoms and accurate titration to avoid over-sedation...
January 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098946/negative-association-between-mr-spectroscopic-glutamate-markers-and-gray-matter-volume-after-alcohol-withdrawal-in-the-hippocampus-a-translational-study-in-humans-and-rats
#20
Ulrich Frischknecht, Derik Hermann, Nuran Tunc-Skarka, Guo-Ying Wang, Markus Sack, Julia van Eijk, Traute Demirakca, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Bertram Krumm, Sandra Dieter, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Gabriele Ende, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: Both chronic alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal lead to neural tissue damage which partly recovers during abstinence. This study investigated withdrawal-associated changes in glutamatergic compounds, markers of neuronal integrity, and gray matter volumes during acute alcohol withdrawal in the hippocampus, a key region in development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in humans and rats. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (N = 39) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements within 24 hours after the last drink and after 2 weeks of abstinence...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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