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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936822/-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-triggerred-by-alcohol-withdrawal
#1
Tuğçe Mengi, Yaprak Seçil, Aysel Çoban, Yeşim Beckmann
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by headache, altered mental status, epileptic seizures, visual disturbances and typically transient changes in posterior cerebral circulation areas. In this article, we present a case of alcohol withdrawal accompanied by PRES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with visual hallucinations and meaningless speech...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#2
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904034/clinical-institute-withdrawal-assessment-for-alcohol-revised-might-be-an-unreliable-tool-in-the-management-of-alcohol-withdrawal
#3
Erin Knight, Leslie Lappalainen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898879/comparison-of-clomethiazole-and-diazepam-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-clinical-practice
#4
Hannah Sychla, Gerhard Gründer, Sarah Edith Lammertz
BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the effectivity and tolerability of diazepam and clomethiazole in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in a large clinical sample. METHODS: The data of 566 patients admitted to an intensive care psychiatric unit in Germany (2010-2014) were evaluated. The course of withdrawal was analyzed on a matched sample (n = 152) consisting of a diazepam group (n = 76) and a clomethiazole group (n = 76)...
September 13, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887627/-sepsis-masquerading-as-delirium
#5
REVIEW
A Seifert, C S Hartog, J Zweigner, W Schummer, K Reinhart
A previously healthy 60-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with severe headache, altered personality and fever. He was treated for bacterial meningitis with delirium of unknown cause but presumed to be due to alcohol withdrawal. Despite receiving the antibiotic therapy regimen recommended for bacterial meningitis the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated with profound delirium and tachypnea. The intensivist who was consulted immediately suspected sepsis-associated organ failure and admitted the patient to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
September 8, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884167/anxiolytic-effects-of-buspirone-and-mtep-in-the-porsolt-forced-swim-test
#6
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coelho, Kimberly R Sern, MacKayla A Class, Mark D Bocz, Karen K Szumlinski
Traditionally, a reduction in floating behavior or immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) is employed as a predictor of antidepressant efficacy. However, over the past several years, our studies of alcohol withdrawal-induced negative affect consistently indicate the coincidence of increased anxiety-related behaviors on various behavioral tests with reduced immobility in the FST. Further, this behavioral profile correlates with increased mGlu5 protein expression within limbic brain regions. As the role for mGlu5 in anxiety is well established, we hypothesized that the reduced immobility exhibited by alcohol-withdrawn mice when tested in the FST might reflect anxiety, possibly a hyper-reactivity to the acute swim stressor...
January 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882570/taurine-restores-the-exploratory-behavior-following-alcohol-withdrawal-and-decreases-bdnf-mrna-expression-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-chronic-alcohol-treated-rats
#7
Alana Witt Hansen, Felipe Borges Almeida, Solange Bandiera, Rianne Remus Pulcinelli, Ana Luiza Rodrigues Fragoso, Ricardo Schneider, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros, Rosane Gomez
Alcohol use disorder is an alarming health problem, and the withdrawal symptoms increase the risk of relapse. We have hypothesized that taurine, a multitarget substance acting as a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) positive modulator and a partial inhibitor of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, may reduce the withdrawal symptoms or modify behaviors when combined with alcohol. Therefore, we investigated the effects of taurine on behavior in the open field test (OFT), the GABAAR α2 subunit and BDNF mRNA expression in the frontal cortex of rats after chronic alcohol treatment or upon withdrawal...
September 5, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863056/preparing-nursing-and-social-work-students-to-care-for-patients-in-acute-alcohol-withdrawal
#8
Sharon A Gates, James R Brown
Alcohol and other drug abuse has become a national crisis with approximately 26% of general medical patients having alcohol-related problems. New nurses and social workers are often not prepared to care for patients with severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms because they lack experience in actual crisis situations. The purpose of this study was to prepare nursing and social work students to care for a patient undergoing an acute alcohol withdrawal process. Nine groups of 8-10 students participated in a 2.5-hour simulation event that included an alcohol withdrawal seizure, team meeting, and discharge of the patient...
July 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858891/recent-advances-on-bioactivities-of-black-rice
#9
Aécio L de S Dias, Barbara Pachikian, Yvan Larondelle, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. RECENT FINDINGS: Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852237/a-study-of-patterns-of-platelet-counts-in-alcohol-withdrawal
#10
Devavrat G Harshe, Harshal Thadasare, Sagar B Karia, Avinash De Sousa, Rashmin M Cholera, Sanjiv S Kale, Omkar S Mate, Nilesh Shah
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the patterns of platelet counts during the course of alcohol withdrawal and its relationship if any with liver enzymes. METHODOLOGY: Forty consecutive patients, with alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition, Text Revision criteria, willing for a 10-day inpatient detoxification program and presenting within 12 h of the last consumption of alcohol were recruited in the study...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844504/unsuspected-critical-illness-among-emergency-department-patients-presenting-for-acute-alcohol-intoxication
#11
Lauren R Klein, Jon B Cole, Brian E Driver, Christopher Battista, Ryan Jelinek, Marc L Martel
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits for acute alcohol intoxication are common, but this population is at risk for decompensation and occult critical illness. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence and predictors of unsuspected critical illness among patients with acute alcohol intoxication. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of ED patients from 2011 to 2016 with acute alcohol intoxication. The study cohort included patients presenting for alcohol intoxication, whose initial assessment was uncomplicated alcohol intoxication without any other active acute medical or traumatic complaints...
August 23, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836711/delirium-tremens-and-alcohol-withdrawal-nationally-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#12
David Thomas Moore, Brian Scott Fuehrlein, Robert Alan Rosenheck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol withdrawal-especially delirium tremens (DT)-is a potentially life-threatening condition. While short-term treatment regimens and factors that predispose to more severe symptomatology have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to the clinical epidemiology and long-term care of the chronic medical, addictive, psychiatric, and psychosocial problems faced by these patients. METHODS: National Veterans Health Administration data from fiscal year 2012 were examined to identify veterans diagnosed with DT; with withdrawal but not DT (WNDT); and with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) but neither DT nor WNDT...
August 24, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822350/baclofen-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#13
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753046/levetiracetam-in-toxic-seizures
#14
Ted Lee, Brandon J Warrick, Preeyaporn Sarangarm, Robert L Alunday, Silas Bussmann, Susan C Smolinske, Steven A Seifert
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The use of levetiracetam (LEV) in the management of drug-induced seizures has not been systematically investigated. Repetitive and continuous seizures that do not respond to benzodiazepines require second line therapy. Levetiracetam has a unique receptor binding site, rapid absorption, no known cardiac effects at therapeutic doses, and is theoretically a good candidate for use in drug-induced seizures. We evaluate the safety of LEV and its association with seizure cessation in this retrospective chart review of patients who received LEV as a control agent in drug-induced seizures...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736097/alcoholic-pellagra-as-a-cause-of-altered-mental-status-in-the-emergency-department
#15
Sarah Kyuragi Luthe, Ryota Sato
BACKGROUND: Pellagra, which is caused by a deficiency of niacin and tryptophan, the precursor of niacin, is a rare disease in developed countries where alcoholism is a major risk factor due to malnutrition and lack of B vitamins. Although pellagra involves treatable dementia and psychosis, it is often underdiagnosed, especially in developed countries. CASE REPORT: In Japan, a 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and seizures...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730283/blockade-of-alcohol-escalation-and-relapse-drinking-by-pharmacological-faah-inhibition-in-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#16
Yan Zhou, Benjamin I Schwartz, Joanna Giza, Steven S Gross, Francis S Lee, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND: Anandamide (AEA)-dependent signaling is regulated by the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that FAAH and AEA are involved in the behavioral effects of alcohol. Therefore, we investigated whether a selective FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-[aminocarbonyl]-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl ester), altered alcohol intake in mice in a voluntary alcohol drinking model. METHODS: Mice, subjected to 3 weeks of chronic intermittent access (IA) in a two-bottle choice paradigm with 24-h access every other day, developed rapid escalation of alcohol intake and high preference...
July 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729845/negative-affect-and-excessive-alcohol-intake-incubate-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-binge-drinking-in-adolescent-but-not-adult-mice
#17
Kaziya M Lee, Michal A Coehlo, Noah R Solton, Karen K Szumlinski
Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41) are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOH(adolescents)) influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test) and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714785/effects-of-alcohol-on-inhibitory-avoidance-learning-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#18
Ricardo Rodrigues Amorim, Priscila Fernandes Silva, Ana Carolina Luchiari
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used in studies addressing the effects of drugs on learning, memory, and anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effect of different alcohol treatments (chronic and acute) on the learning and anxiety response of zebrafish in an inhibitory avoidance paradigm. Zebrafish were initially exposed to different alcohol treatments and submitted to an inhibitory avoidance protocol, where an electroshock was applied to the fish as they swam from the white to the black side of a shuttle box tank (naturally preferred environment of zebrafish)...
July 17, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699947/fecal-occult-blood-testing-in-hospitalized-patients-with-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#19
Benji Mathews, Temple Ratcliffe, Raj Sehgal, James Abraham, Bradley Monash
A 47-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse, cirrhosis, and grade II esophageal varices is admitted for treatment of alcohol withdrawal. He reports having some dark-colored stools a week prior to admission, but his stools since then have been normal in color. A repeat hemoglobin is stable, but a fecal occult blood test is positive. What should be done next?
July 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699845/development-and-implementation-of-an-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-using-a-5-item-scale-the-brief-alcohol-withdrawal-scale-baws
#20
Darius A Rastegar, Dinah Applewhite, Anika A H Alvanzo, Christopher Welsh, Timothy Niessen, Edward S Chen
BACKGROUND: The standard of care for management of alcohol withdrawal is symptom-triggered treatment using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar). Many items of this 10-question scale rely on subjective assessments of withdrawal symptoms, making it time-consuming and cumbersome to use. Therefore, there is interest in shorter and more objective methods to assess alcohol withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: A 6-item withdrawal scale developed at another institution was piloted...
July 12, 2017: Substance Abuse
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