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"Alcohol Withdrawal"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317849/is-medical-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-a-stag-hunt-challenges-and-opportunities-in-managing-risk-and-uncertainty-in-addiction-cessation
#1
Roger Lee Mendoza
Purpose: While the individual and social costs of alcoholism or alcohol use disorder are well established, few are aware that medical problems can arise during detoxification, some of which can be life-threatening. This study determines if sustained treatment for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) might be based on the strategic choices and expectations of patients and health care providers alike, as well as the risk mitigation options available to them. Design/approach: AWS was modeled as a Stag Hunt to explain both risk and decision-making in medical treatments for detoxification, since it can deduce a set of equilibrium strategies available to both patient and provider...
2018: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286538/effect-of-gabapentin-on-sleep-and-event-related-oscillations-eros-in-rats-exposed-to-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-vapor-and-protracted-withdrawal
#2
Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Derek N Wills, Leslie Amodeo, Cindy L Ehlers
Disturbances in sleep architecture, especially reductions in slow wave sleep (SWS), are symptoms commonly observed in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that the anticonvulsant and analgesic drug Gabapentin may have therapeutic value in normalizing sleep quality in recovering alcoholics. However, the brain mechanisms underlying this improvement in sleep following Gabapentin treatment remain unknown METHODS: In the present study, adult Wistar rats were exposed to 8 weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol vapor (CIE) (blood ethanol concentrations averaged 128...
December 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281047/symptom-triggered-detoxification-using-the-alcohol-withdrawal-scale-reduces-risks-and-healthcare-costs
#3
Leila M Soravia, Alexander Wopfner, Luzius Pfiffner, Sophie Bétrisey, Franz Moggi
Aims: As there are only a few existing experimental studies on symptom-triggered therapy for patients with alcohol withdrawal, we investigated the effectiveness of symptom-triggered detoxification regarding the use and dosage of benzodiazepine and withdrawal complications in a naturalistic clinical setting of a specialized treatment center for alcohol use disorder. Methods: In total, 301 charts of patients who entered residential treatment for alcohol withdrawal were included in the retrospective analysis...
January 1, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277284/alcohol-withdrawal-upregulates-mrna-encoding-for-cav2-1-%C3%AE-1-subunit-in-the-rat-inferior-colliculus
#4
Jamila Newton, Shubhankar Suman, Luli R Akinfiresoye, Kamal Datta, David M Lovinger, Prosper N'Gouemo
We previously reported increased current density through P-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons during alcohol withdrawal. However, the molecular correlate of this increased P-type channel current is currently unknown. Here, we probe changes in mRNA and protein expression of the pore-forming CaV2.1-α1 (P/Q-type) subunits in IC neurons during the course of alcohol withdrawal-induced seizures (AWSs). Rats received three daily doses of ethanol or the vehicle every 8 h for 4 consecutive days...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276297/patient-outcomes-associated-with-phenobarbital-use-with-or-without-benzodiazepines-for-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#5
Drayton A Hammond, Jordan M Rowe, Adrian Wong, Tessa L Wiley, Kristen C Lee, Sandra L Kane-Gill
Purpose: Benzodiazepines are the drug of choice for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS); however, phenobarbital is an alternative agent used with or without concomitant benzodiazepine therapy. In this systematic review, we evaluate patient outcomes with phenobarbital for AWS. Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched from 1950 through February 2017 for controlled trials and observational studies using ["phenobarbital" or "barbiturate"] and ["alcohol withdrawal" or "delirium tremens."] Risk of bias was assessed using tools recommended by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...
October 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274671/incidence-rates-of-admissions-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-spain-analysis-of-minimum-basic-data-set-1999-2010
#6
Raquel Gómez-Méndez, Rafael Monte-Secades, Pablo Ventura-Valcárcel, Ramón Rabuñal-Rey, Héctor Guerrero-Sande, Antonio J Chamorro-Fernández, Sonia Pértega-Díaz
BACKGROUND: There are no data on the incidence of admissions associated with alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) or about its trend over time in Spain. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics, incidence rates and trends over time of hospital admissions associated with AWS in Spanish public hospitals. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Analysis from the Spanish public hospitals minimum basic data set of hospital admissions with AWS (CIE9-MC 291.81), alcohol withdrawal delirium (CIE9-MC 291...
December 20, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241365/gabapentin-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#7
Barbara J Mason, Susan Quello, Farhad Shadan
Alcohol misuse is the fifth leading risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide. Fewer than 10% of afflicted Americans receive pharmacological treatment for alcohol use disorder. Gabapentin is a calcium channel GABAergic modulator that is widely used for pain. Studies showing reduced drinking and decreased craving and alcohol-related disturbances in sleep and affect in the months following alcohol cessation suggest therapeutic potential for alcohol use disorder. Areas covered: Human laboratory and clinical studies assessing gabapentin for alcohol use disorder are reviewed...
January 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236941/taq1a1-allele-of-the-drd2-gene-region-contribute-to-shorter-survival-time-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-when-controlling-for-the-influence-of-age-and-gender-a-follow-up-study-of-18-years
#8
Jan Balldin, Kristina J Berglund, Ulf Berggren, Peter Wennberg, Claudia Fahlke
Aims: To investigate the influence of the A1 allele of the TAQ1A polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene region on mortality in adult individuals with alcohol dependence. Methods: The study sample consisted of 359 alcohol-dependent individuals treated for severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms in 1997. Years of survival was studied in an 18-year follow-up. In the analyses, gender and age were controlled for. Results: At the 18-year follow-up, 53% individuals had deceased...
December 11, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224234/an-observational-study-of-benzodiazepine-prescription-during-inpatient-alcohol-detoxification-for-patients-with-versus-without-chronic-pretreatment-with-high-dosage-baclofen
#9
Laura Martinez, Florence Vorspan, Xavier Declèves, Julien Azuar, Maeva Fortias, Franck Questel, Alexandra Dereux, Leslie Grichy, Hélène Barreteau, Frank Bellivier, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Vanessa Bloch
High dose baclofen is prescribed as a maintenance treatment to reduce alcohol use in patients with alcohol use disorder. Nevertheless, some patients still have massive alcohol intakes and require inpatient alcohol withdrawal. AIM: to compare the oral dose of benzodiazepine prescribed to manage alcohol withdrawal symptoms in patients with versus without steady state pre-treatment with high dose baclofen. METHODS: Retrospective chart review study. Prescribed benzodiazepine dose expressed in diazepam-equivalent was compared between groups...
December 10, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219048/sodium-oxybate-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-and-the-maintenance-of-alcohol-abstinence
#10
Carmen Mannucci, Simona Pichini, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Fabrizio Calapai, Sebastiano Gangemi, Michele Navarra, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or sodium oxybate) is both an exogenous and endogenous molecule with neuromodulator properties. In the United States, GHB is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults. In some European Union countries, sodium oxybate is applied for the treatment of opioid and alcohol withdrawal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to describe the state of art of the pre-clinical research and the clinical evidence related to GHB used alone or in combination with other treatments in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and alcohol abstinence maintenance...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200055/the-addition-of-dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-benzodiazepine-use-in-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-a-literature-review
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200045/the-addition-of-dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-benzodiazepine-use-in-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-a-literature-review
#12
Tarenne A Ferenchak
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is commonly encountered in the intensive care unit population. Currently, the mainstay treatment for AWS is the use of benzodiazepines. However, some patients are refractory to benzodiazepine treatment due to heavy alcohol abuse. In addition, escalating doses of benzodiazepines can lead to respiratory depression, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Intubation and mechanical ventilation increase both intensive care unit and hospital length of stay. The addition of pharmacological agents to reduce the amount of benzodiazepine use in AWS has recently been studied...
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191394/medications-for-alcohol-use-disorders-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Mohammed Akbar, Mark Egli, Young-Eun Cho, Byoung-Joon Song, Antonio Noronha
Patients who suffer from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) usually go through various socio-behavioral and pathophysiological changes that take place in the brain and other organs. Recently, consumption of unhealthy food and excess alcohol along with a sedentary lifestyle has become a norm in both developed and developing countries. Despite the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption, chronic and/or excessive alcohol intake is reported to negatively affect the brain, liver and other organs, resulting in cell death, organ damage/failure and death...
November 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174758/a-proactive-approach-to-high-risk-delirium-patients-undergoing-total-joint-arthroplasty
#14
Andres F Duque, Zachary D Post, Fabio R Orozco, Rex W Lutz, Alvin C Ong
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common complication among elderly patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Its incidence has been reported from 4% to 53%. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services consider delirium following TJA a "never-event." The purpose of this study is to evaluate a simple perioperative protocol used to identify delirium risk patients and prevent its incidence following TJA. METHODS: Our group developed a protocol to identify and prevent delirium in patients undergoing TJA...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164160/use-of-phenobarbital-in-delirium-tremens
#15
Jeffrey Fujimoto, Jerry J Lou, Antonio M Pessegueiro
The standard of care for alcohol withdrawal centers on the use of escalating doses of benzodiazepines until clinical improvement is achieved. However, there is no established standard in the care of patients with severe alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens that is refractory to benzodiazepine therapy. One potential therapy that is gaining traction is the use of phenobarbital, which may be mechanistically superior to benzodiazepines in treating delirium tremens because of its effects on GABA and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160944/ketogenic-diet-suppresses-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-rats
#16
Ditte Dencker, Anna Molander, Morgane Thomsen, Chantal Schlumberger, Gitta Wortwein, Pia Weikop, Helene Benveniste, Nora D Volkow, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is under-diagnosed and under-treated, and up to 50% of alcohol abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate was recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls...
November 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145545/treatment-of-alcohol-induced-psychotic-disorder-alcoholic-hallucinosis-a-systematic-review
#17
Barkat Masood, Peter Lepping, Dmitry Romanov, Rob Poole
Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of evidence based treatments for alcohol-induced psychotic disorder (AIPD) as described by ICD-10 and DSM-5, a condition that is distinct from schizophrenia and has a close relationship with alcohol withdrawal states. Method: Systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Results: Of 6205 abstracts found, fifteen studies and ten case reports met criteria and were examined. Larger studies examined the use of first-generation antipsychotic drugs, reporting full or partial remission in most patients...
November 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135112/symptom-triggered-alcohol-vapor-inhalation-for-postoperative-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-carcinoma
#18
Fengwei Kong, Miao Zhang, Heng Wang, Dong Liu, Ying Wu, Ning Chai, Wenbin Wu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of alcohol vapor inhalation during fasting time for cancer patients with alcohol withdrawal symptoms (AWS) after surgery. METHODS: The data of 51 patients after esophagectomy or gastrectomy for gastroesophageal carcinoma in two hospitals from January 2011 to December 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. These patients were diagnosed with AWS with Clinic Institute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome Scale (CIWA-Ar) score ≥ 9 in two hospitals during fasting time from January 2011 to December 2016, and they were accordingly divided into alcohol vapor group (n=25) and diazepam group (n=26)...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132075/alcohol-induced-disinhibition-is-associated-with-impulsivity-depression-and-suicide-attempt-a-nationwide-community-sample-of-korean-adults
#19
Kwan Woo Choi, Eun Jin Na, Jin Pyo Hong, Maeng Je Cho, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Hana Cho, Hong Jin Jeon
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced disinhibition (AID) is defined as a "loss of restraint over some form of behavior after drinking alcohol regardless of its amount". Although many previous studies have investigated on alcohol use disorder and suicide attempt, few studies have focused on AID and suicide. METHODS: A total of 9461 adults who had a history of drinking completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) with the Suicide Module, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128307/rescue-of-glutamate-transport-in-the-lateral-habenula-alleviates-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-ethanol-withdrawn-rats
#20
Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcoholism and psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety are often comorbid. Although the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are unclear, emerging evidence suggests that maladaptation of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 may play a role. Findings from animal and human studies have linked aversive states, including those related to drugs of abuse and depression, to aberrant activity in the lateral habenula (LHb). The relationship between GLT-1 maladaptation, LHb activity, and abnormal behaviors related to alcohol withdrawal, however, remains unknown...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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