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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926415/semantic-memory-in-the-clinical-progression-of-alzheimer-disease
#1
Christophe T Tchakoute, Kristin L Sainani, And Victor W Henderson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Semantic memory measures may be useful in tracking and predicting progression of Alzheimer disease. We investigated relationships among semantic memory tasks and their 1-year predictive value in women with Alzheimer disease. METHODS: We conducted secondary analyses of a randomized clinical trial of raloxifene in 42 women with late-onset mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease. We assessed semantic memory with tests of oral confrontation naming, category fluency, semantic recognition and semantic naming, and semantic density in written narrative discourse...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924394/getting-started-a-social-media-primer
#2
REVIEW
Dalya M Ferguson, Lillian S Kao
Social media use has increased both in the general public and in the surgical profession. A variety of social media platforms have been used, with Twitter being one of the most common and interactive platforms. Common uses by surgeons and scientists for social media include dissemination of information, information exchange, education, research recruitment, community consultation for clinical trials, and hospital or surgeon ratings. As social media use increases, a new language as well as metrics has been developed to track impact and reach of research incorporating social media platforms...
September 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922408/the-role-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-the-developmental-competence-of-bovine-oocytes
#3
Gabriella Mamede Andrade, Juliano Coelho da Silveira, Claudia Perrini, Maite Del Collado, Samuel Gebremedhn, Dawit Tesfaye, Flávio Vieira Meirelles, Felipe Perecin
The ovarian follicle encloses oocytes in a microenvironment throughout their growth and acquisition of competence. Evidence suggests a dynamic interplay among follicular cells and oocytes, since they are constantly exchanging "messages". We dissected bovine ovarian follicles and recovered follicular cells (FCs-granulosa and cumulus cells) and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) to investigate whether the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway impacted oocyte quality. Following follicle rupture, COCs were individually selected for in vitro cultures to track the follicular cells based on oocyte competence to reach the blastocyst stage after parthenogenetic activation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921992/a-mechanistic-understanding-of-the-synergistic-potential-of-azole-fungicides-in-the-aquatic-invertebrate-gammarus-pulex
#4
Andrea Rösch, Michele Gottardi, Caroline Vignet, Nina Cedergreen, Juliane Hollender
Azole fungicides are known inhibitors of the important enzyme class cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), thereby influencing the detoxification of co-occurring substances via biotransformation. This synergism in mixtures containing an azole has mostly been studied by effect measurements, while the underlying mechanism has been less well investigated. In this study, six azole fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, ketoconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole and tebuconazole) were selected to investigate their synergistic potential and their CYP inhibition strength in the aquatic invertebrate Gammarus pulex...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921742/processing-of-temporally-patterned-sounds-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-seba-s-short-tailed-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#5
Lisa M Martin, Francisco García-Rosales, M Jerome Beetz, Julio C Hechavarría
This article presents a characterization of cortical responses to artificial and natural temporally-patterned sounds in the bat species Carollia perspicillata, a species that produces vocalizations at rates above 50 Hz. Multi-unit activity was recorded in three different experiments. In the first experiment, amplitude modulated (AM) pure tones were used as stimuli to drive auditory cortex (AC) units. AC units of both ketamine-anesthetized and awake bats could lock their spikes to every cycle of the stimulus modulation envelope, but only if the modulation frequency was below 22 Hz...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920914/robust-visual-tracking-via-online-discriminative-and-low-rank-dictionary-learning
#6
Tao Zhou, Fanghui Liu, Harish Bhaskar, Jie Yang
In this paper, we propose a novel and robust tracking framework based on online discriminative and low-rank dictionary learning. The primary aim of this paper is to obtain compact and low-rank dictionaries that can provide good discriminative representations of both target and background. We accomplish this by exploiting the recovery ability of low-rank matrices. That is if we assume that the data from the same class are linearly correlated, then the corresponding basis vectors learned from the training set of each class shall render the dictionary to become approximately low-rank...
September 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920106/self-tracking-for-mental-wellness-understanding-expert-perspectives-and-student-experiences
#7
Christina Kelley, Bongshin Lee, Lauren Wilcox
Previous research suggests an important role for self-tracking in promoting mental wellness. Recent studies with college student populations have examined the feasibility of collecting everyday mood, activity, and social data. However, these studies do not account for students' experiences and challenges adopting self-tracking technologies to support mental wellness goals. We present two studies conducted to better understand self-tracking for stress management and mental wellness in student populations. First, focus groups and card sorting activities with 14 student health professionals reveal expert perspectives on the usefulness of tracking for three scenarios...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920077/mimicking-the-bioactivity-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-using-supramolecular-nanoribbons
#8
Charles M Rubert Pérez, Zaida Álvarez, Feng Chen, Taner Aytun, Samuel I Stupp
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is a multifunctional growth factor that has pleiotropic effects in different tissues and organs. In particular, FGF-2 has a special role in angiogenesis, an important process in development, wound healing, cell survival, and differentiation. Therefore, incorporating biological agents like FGF-2 within therapeutic biomaterials is a potential strategy to create angiogenic bioactivity for the repair of damaged tissue caused by trauma or complications that arise from age and/or disease...
September 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919288/control-of-unstable-processes-with-time-delays-via-adrc
#9
Caifen Fu, Wen Tan
Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) treats the external disturbance and internal uncertainties as a general disturbance, and uses an extended state observer (ESO) to estimate it in real-time and feeds it back in the control loop, thus can achieve good disturbance rejection performance. However, ADRC is not quite suitable for unstable delayed processes due to its inherent structure. In this paper, a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control structure is proposed for unstable time- delayed systems. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection are separated in this structure and ADRC is solely responsible for disturbance rejection...
September 14, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919287/active-fault-tolerant-control-based-on-interval-type-2-fuzzy-sliding-mode-controller-and-non-linear-adaptive-observer-for-3-dof-laboratory-helicopter
#10
Samir Zeghlache, Tarak Benslimane, Abderrahmen Bouguerra
In this paper, a robust controller for a three degree of freedom (3 DOF) helicopter control is proposed in presence of actuator and sensor faults. For this purpose, Interval type-2 fuzzy logic control approach (IT2FLC) and sliding mode control (SMC) technique are used to design a controller, named active fault tolerant interval type-2 Fuzzy Sliding mode controller (AFTIT2FSMC) based on non-linear adaptive observer to estimate and detect the system faults for each subsystem of the 3-DOF helicopter. The proposed control scheme allows avoiding difficult modeling, attenuating the chattering effect of the SMC, reducing the rules number of the fuzzy controller...
September 14, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919018/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-the-calanoid-copepod-neocalanus-flemingeri-a-new-resource-for-emergence-from-diapause
#11
Vittoria Roncalli, Matthew C Cieslak, Stephanie A Sommer, Russell R Hopcroft, Petra H Lenz
Copepods, small planktonic crustaceans, are key links between primary producers and upper trophic levels, including many economically important fishes. In the subarctic North Pacific, the life cycle of copepods like Neocalanus flemingeri includes an ontogenetic migration to depth followed by a period of diapause (a type of dormancy) characterized by arrested development and low metabolic activity. The end of diapause is marked by the production of the first brood of eggs. Recent temperature anomalies in the North Pacific have raised concerns about potential negative effects on N...
September 14, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918950/power-transfer-to-a-human-during-an-electric-eel-s-shocking-leap
#12
Kenneth C Catania
Electric eels have been the subject of investigation and curiosity for centuries [1]. They use high voltage to track [2] and control [3] prey, as well as to exhaust prey by causing involuntary fatigue through remote activation of prey muscles [4]. But their most astonishing behavior is the leaping attack, during which eels emerge from the water to directly electrify a threat [5, 6]. This unique defense has reportedly been used against both horses [7] and humans [8]. Yet the dynamics of the circuit that develops when a living animal is contacted and the electrical power transmitted to the target have not been directly investigated...
September 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918547/adaptive-step-goals-and-rewards-a-longitudinal-growth-model-of-daily-steps-for-a-smartphone-based-walking-intervention
#13
Elizabeth V Korinek, Sayali S Phatak, Cesar A Martin, Mohammad T Freigoun, Daniel E Rivera, Marc A Adams, Pedja Klasnja, Matthew P Buman, Eric B Hekler
Adaptive interventions are an emerging class of behavioral interventions that allow for individualized tailoring of intervention components over time to a person's evolving needs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adaptive step goal + reward intervention, grounded in Social Cognitive Theory delivered via a smartphone application (Just Walk), using a mixed modeling approach. Participants (N = 20) were overweight (mean BMI = 33.8 ± 6.82 kg/m(2)), sedentary adults (90% female) interested in participating in a 14-week walking intervention...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918349/inhibition-of-anaerobic-digestion-processes-applications-of-molecular-tools
#14
REVIEW
Yamrot M Amha, Muhammad Zohaib Anwar, Andrew Brower, Carsten S Jacobsen, Lauren B Stadler, Tara M Webster, Adam L Smith
Inhibition of anaerobic digestion (AD) due to perturbation caused by substrate composition and/or operating conditions can significantly reduce performance. Such perturbations could be limited by elucidating microbial community response to inhibitors and devising strategies to increase community resilience. To this end, advanced molecular methods are increasingly being applied to study the AD microbiome, a diverse community of microbial populations with complex interactions. This literature review of AD inhibition studies indicates that inhibitory concentrations are highly variable, likely stemming from differences in community structure or activity profile and previous exposure to inhibitors...
September 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918264/past-matrix-stiffness-primes-epithelial-cells-and-regulates-their-future-collective-migration-through-a-mechanical-memory
#15
Samila Nasrollahi, Christopher Walter, Andrew J Loza, Gregory V Schimizzi, Gregory D Longmore, Amit Pathak
During morphogenesis and cancer metastasis, grouped cells migrate through tissues of dissimilar stiffness. Although the influence of matrix stiffness on cellular mechanosensitivity and motility are well-recognized, it remains unknown whether these matrix-dependent cellular features persist after cells move to a new microenvironment. Here, we interrogate whether priming of epithelial cells by a given matrix stiffness influences their future collective migration on a different matrix - a property we refer to as the 'mechanical memory' of migratory cells...
September 8, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917592/prefrontal-versus-motor-cortex-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-effects-on-post-surgical-opioid-use
#16
Jeffrey J Borckardt, Scott T Reeves, Cole Milliken, Brittan Carter, Thomas I Epperson, Ryan J Gunselman, Alok Madan, H Del Schutte, Harry A Demos, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Pain is often a complaint that precedes total knee arthroplasty (TKA), however the procedure itself is associated with considerable post-operative pain lasting days to weeks which can predict longer-term surgical outcomes. Previously, we reported significant opioid-sparing effects of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation from a single-blind trial. In the present study, we used double-blind methodology to compare motor cortex tDCS and prefrontal cortex tDCS to both sham and active-control (active electrodes over non-pain modulating brain areas) tDCS...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916555/first-person-seth-zimmerman
#17
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Seth Zimmerman is the first author on 'Cells lay their own tracks - optogenetic Cdc42 activation stimulates fibronectin deposition supporting directed migration', published in Journal of Cell Science. Seth completed the work in this article as a PhD student under the supervision of Jim Bear and Brian Kuhlman at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916400/assessing-changes-in-the-activity-levels-of-breast-cancer-patients-during-radiation-therapy
#18
Colin E Champ, Nitin Ohri, Rainer J Klement, Matthew Cantor, Sushil Beriwal, Scott M Glaser, Ryan P Smith
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy (RT) is often delivered after lumpectomy for women with breast cancer. A common perceived side effect of RT is fatigue, yet its exact effect on activity levels and sleep is unknown. In this study we analyzed the change in activity levels and sleep using an activity tracking device before, during, and after RT for women with early stage breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ who underwent adjuvant RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After institutional review board approval, activity levels were quantified before, during, and after RT with measurements of steps, miles walked, calories burned, and sleep metrics in 10 women fitted with activity trackers...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916148/chemokine-receptor-directed-imaging-and-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Andreas K Buck, Antje Stolzenburg, Heribert Hänscheid, Andreas Schirbel, Katharina Lückerath, Margret Schottelius, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Constantin Lapa
The C - X - C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its natural ligand CXCL12 are key factors in the process of cell migration, homing of hematopoietic stem cells to the bone marrow, and represent important mediators of angiogenesis and cell proliferation. The CXCR4/CXCL12 interplay can be disrupted by CXCR4 antagonists such as Plerixafor which are already in daily clinical use, i.e. for mobilization and subsequent harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells and stem cell transplantation. In a pathological condition, involvement in the process of metastasis and homing of cancer cells to a protective niche has been described, making CXCR4 an attractive target for imaging and treatment of malignant diseases...
September 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914522/nanozyme-mediated-dual-immunoassay-integrated-with-smartphone-for-use-in-simultaneous-detection-of-pathogens
#20
Nan Cheng, Yang Song, Mohamed Maarouf Ali Zeinhom, Yu-Chung Chang, Lina Sheng, Haolin Li, Dan Du, Lei Li, Meijun Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Wentao Xu, Yuehe Lin
Nanozymes are an excellent class of optical reporters for the development of sensitive biosensors for widespread applications. In this study, platinum-palladium (Pt-Pd) nanoparticles were applied as signal amplifier in a dual-lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) and integrated with a smartphone-based device for use in simultaneous detection of Salmonella Enteritidis and E. coli O157:H7. After optimization, the LODs were calculated to be ∼20 CFU/mL for Salmonella Enteritidis and ∼34 CFU/mL for E. coli O157:H7, respectively...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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