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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427044/on-the-reverse-micelle-effect-in-liquid-scintillation-counting
#1
Youcef Nedjadi, Jean-Pascal Laedermann, François Bochud, Claude Bailat
This work looks into the tracks of electrons in nanoemulsive scintillating media using the Monte Carlo Geant4-DNA code which simulates event-by-event interactions of electrons in liquid water down to the eV, without resorting to the condensed history method. It demonstrates that the average number of micelles in which electrons deposit energy is quite large, increasing with their emission energy, decreasing with micelle size, and rising with micelle concentration. The probability of an electron ending its track in a micelle is found to be rather large and micelle size-dependent below 1keV, and approximating the aqueous fraction at higher energies...
April 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426239/performance-of-an-artificial-pancreas-system-for-young-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#2
Mark D DeBoer, Marc D Breton, Christian Wakeman, Elaine M Schertz, Emma G Emory, Jessica L Robic, Laura L Kollar, Boris P Kovatchev, Daniel R Cherñavvsky
BACKGROUND: Young children 5-8 years old with type 1 diabetes (T1D) exhibit clear needs for improved glycemic control but may be limited in their ability to safely interact with an artificial pancreas system. Our goal was to evaluate the safety and performance of an artificial pancreas (AP) system among young children with T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a randomized, crossover trial, children with T1D age 5-8 years were enrolled to receive on separate study periods (in random order) either the UVa AP using the DiAs Control Platform software with child-resistant lock-out screens (followed as an out-patient admission) or their usual insulin pump+continuous glucose monitor (CGM) care at home...
April 20, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425483/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-six-novel-risk-loci-for-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#3
Fang Qiu, Ruqi Tang, Xianbo Zuo, Xingjuan Shi, Yiran Wei, Xiaodong Zheng, Yaping Dai, Yuhua Gong, Lan Wang, Ping Xu, Xiang Zhu, Jian Wu, Chongxu Han, Yueqiu Gao, Kui Zhang, Yuzhang Jiang, Jianbo Zhou, Youlin Shao, Zhigang Hu, Ye Tian, Haiyan Zhang, Na Dai, Lei Liu, Xudong Wu, Weifeng Zhao, Xiaomin Zhang, Zhidong Zang, Jinshan Nie, Weihao Sun, Yi Zhao, Yuan Mao, Po Jiang, Hualiang Ji, Qing Dong, Junming Li, Zhenzhong Li, Xinli Bai, Li Li, Maosong Lin, Ming Dong, Jinxin Li, Ping Zhu, Chan Wang, Yanqiu Zhang, Peng Jiang, Yujue Wang, Rohil Jawed, Jing Xu, Yu Zhang, Qixia Wang, Yue Yang, Fan Yang, Min Lian, Xiang Jiang, Xiao Xiao, Yanmei Li, Jingyuan Fang, Dekai Qiu, Zhen Zhu, Hong Qiu, Jianqiong Zhang, Wenyan Tian, Sufang Chen, Ling Jiang, Bing Ji, Ping Li, Guochang Chen, Tianxue Wu, Yan Sun, Jianjiang Yu, Huijun Tang, Michun He, Min Xia, Hao Pei, Lihua Huang, Zhuye Qing, Jianfang Wu, Qinghai Huang, Junhai Han, Wei Xie, Zhongsheng Sun, Jian Guo, Gengsheng He, M Eric Gershwin, Zhexiong Lian, Xiang Liu, Michael F Seldin, Xiangdong Liu, Weichang Chen, Xiong Ma
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease with a strong hereditary component. Here, we report a genome-wide association study that included 1,122 PBC cases and 4,036 controls of Han Chinese descent, with subsequent replication in a separate cohort of 907 PBC cases and 2,127 controls. Our results show genome-wide association of 14 PBC risk loci including previously identified 6p21 (HLA-DRA and DPB1), 17q12 (ORMDL3), 3q13.33 (CD80), 2q32.3 (STAT1/STAT4), 3q25.33 (IL12A), 4q24 (NF-κB) and 22q13...
April 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424847/characterization-of-microtubule-buckling-in-living-cells
#4
Carla Pallavicini, Alejandro Monastra, Nicolás González Bardeci, Diana Wetzler, Valeria Levi, Luciana Bruno
Microtubules are filamentous biopolymers involved in essential biological processes. They form key structures in eukaryotic cells, and thus it is very important to determine the mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of the microtubule network. Microtubule bucklings are transient and localized events commonly observed in living cells and characterized by a fast bending and its posterior relaxation. Active forces provided by molecular motors have been indicated as responsible for most of these rapid deformations...
April 19, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424464/-18-f-tetrafluoroborate-pet-ct-enables-sensitive-tumor-and-metastasis-in-vivo-imaging-in-a-sodium-iodide-symporter-expressing-tumor-model
#5
S Diocou, A Volpe, M Jauregui-Osoro, M Boudjemeline, K Chuamsaamarkkee, F Man, P J Blower, T Ng, G E D Mullen, G O Fruhwirth
Cancer cell metastasis is responsible for most cancer deaths. Non-invasive in vivo cancer cell tracking in spontaneously metastasizing tumor models still poses a challenge requiring highest sensitivity and excellent contrast. The goal of this study was to evaluate if the recently introduced PET radiotracer [(18)F]tetrafluoroborate ([(18)F]BF4(-)) is useful for sensitive and specific metastasis detection in an orthotopic xenograft breast cancer model expressing the human sodium iodide symporter (NIS) as a reporter...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424313/reduction-in-activity-by-noxious-chemical-stimulation-is-ameliorated-by-immersion-in-analgesic-drugs-in-zebrafish
#6
Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Lynne U Sneddon
Research has recently demonstrated that larval zebrafish show similar molecular responses to nociception to those of adults. Our study explored whether unprotected larval zebrafish exhibited altered behaviour after exposure to noxious chemicals and screened a range of analgesic drugs to determine their efficacy to reduce these responses. This approach aimed to validate larval zebrafish as a reliable replacement for adults as well as providing a high-throughput means of analysing behavioural responses. Zebrafish at 5 days post-fertilization were exposed to known noxious stimuli: acetic acid (0...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423321/hepatocellular-carcinomas-originate-predominantly-from-hepatocytes-and-benign-lesions-from-hepatic-progenitor-cells
#7
Krishna S Tummala, Marta Brandt, Ana Teijeiro, Osvaldo Graña, Robert F Schwabe, Cristian Perna, Nabil Djouder
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive primary liver cancer. However, its origin remains a debated question. Using human data and various hepatocarcinogenesis mouse models, we show that, in early stages, transformed hepatocytes, independent of their proliferation status, activate hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) expansion. Genetic lineage tracing of HPCs and hepatocytes reveals that, in all models, HCC originates from hepatocytes. However, whereas in various models tumors do not emanate from HPCs, tracking of progenitors in a model mimicking human hepatocarcinogenesis indicates that HPCs can generate benign lesions (regenerative nodules and adenomas) and aggressive HCCs...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422641/supporting-stroke-motor-recovery-through-a-mobile-application-a-pilot-study
#8
Sonia Lawson, Ziying Tang, Jinjuan Feng
Neuroplasticity and motor learning are promoted with repetitive movement, appropriate challenge, and performance feedback. ARMStrokes, a smartphone application, incorporates these qualities to support motor recovery. Engaging exercises are easily accessible for improved compliance. In a multiple-case, mixed-methods pilot study, the potential of this technology for stroke motor recovery was examined. Exercises calibrated to the participant's skill level targeted forearm, elbow, and shoulder motions for a 6-wk protocol...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422583/game-simulation-drill-design-alters-the-speed-profiles-of-wheelchair-rugby-players
#9
James M Rhodes, Barry S Mason, Thomas A W Paulson, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey
PURPOSE: This study examined the speed profiles of elite wheelchair rugby (WCR) players during game-simulation training drills of differing player number and shot-clock regulations. A secondary aim was to determine whether the profiles were further influenced by players classification. METHODS: Eight elite WCR players (low-point n = 3; high-point n = 5) were monitored using a radio-frequency based, indoor tracking system during training sessions over a 5-month period...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421428/how-has-cder-prepared-for-the-nano-revolution-a-review-of-risk-assessment-regulatory-research-and-guidance-activities
#10
Katherine M Tyner, Nan Zheng, Stephanie Choi, Xiaoming Xu, Peng Zou, Wenlei Jiang, Changning Guo, Celia N Cruz
The Nanotechnology Risk Assessment Working Group in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was established to assess the potential impact of nanotechnology on drug products. One of the working group's major initiatives has been to conduct a comprehensive risk management exercise regarding the potential impact of nanomaterial pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients on drug product quality, safety, and efficacy. This exercise concluded that current review practices and regulatory guidance are capable of detecting and managing the potential risks to quality, safety, and efficacy when a drug product incorporates a nanomaterial...
April 18, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420989/fda-facilitated-regulatory-pathways-visualizing-their-characteristics-development-and-authorization-timelines
#11
Lawrence Liberti, Magda Bujar, Alasdair Breckenridge, Jarno Hoekman, Neil McAuslane, Pieter Stolk, Hubert Leufkens
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has four facilitated regulatory pathways (FRPs): Fast Track (FT), Breakthrough Therapy (BTD), Priority Review (PR), and Accelerated Approval (AA). Only PR specifies an expedited review timeline (6 months). We sought to determine to what extent the combination of two or more FRPs influenced development and approval times. We developed a "metro map" to illustrate FRP elements and their influence on review times. We assessed 125 new active substances (approved January 2013 to December 2015) 74 of which used one or more FRPs...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420066/disease-evolution-in-late-onset-and-early-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
R Aljohani, D D Gladman, J Su, M B Urowitz
Objective The objective of this study was to compare clinical features, disease activity, and outcome in late-onset versus early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) over 5 years of follow up Method Patients with SLE since 1970 were followed prospectively according to standard protocol and tracked on a computerized database. Patients entering the cohort within one year of diagnosis constitute the inception cohort. Patients with late-onset (age at diagnosis ≥50) disease were identified and matched 1:2 based on gender and first clinic visit (±5) years with patients with early-onset disease (age at diagnosis 18-40 years)...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#13
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419607/subjective-and-objective-sleep-quality-modulate-emotion-regulatory-brain-function-in-anxiety-and-depression
#14
Heide Klumpp, Julia Roberts, Mary C Kapella, Amy E Kennedy, Anand Kumar, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in emotion regulation and sleep are shared across anxiety and mood disorders. Poor sleep has been shown to impair cognitive processes which may undermine cognitive regulatory function. However, it remains unknown if sleep quality impacts regulatory mechanisms in clinical anxiety and depression. METHODS: During fMRI, 78 patients with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or major depressive disorder completed a validated emotion regulation task, which involved reappraisal (i...
April 18, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417834/adaptive-changes-in-the-perception-of-fast-and-slow-movement-at-different-head-positions
#15
Roberto Panichi, Chiara Occhigrossi, Aldo Ferraresi, Mario Faralli, Marco Lucertini, Vito E Pettorossi
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. METHODS: Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration)...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417357/quantitative-kinetic-characterization-of-glycoside-hydrolases-using-high-performance-anion-exchange-chromatography-hpaec
#16
Nicholas McGregor, Gregory Arnal, Harry Brumer
High-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled to pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) is a powerful analytical technique enabling the high-resolution separation and sensitive quantification of oligosaccharides. Here, we describe a general method for the determination of glycoside hydrolase kinetics that harnesses the intrinsic power of HPAEC-PAD to simultaneously monitor the release of multiple products under conditions of low substrate conversion. Thus, the ability to track product release under initial-rate conditions with substrate concentrations as low as 5 μM enables the determination of Michaelis-Menten kinetics for glycosidase activities, including hydrolysis and transglycosylation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417324/current-remote-sensing-approaches-to-monitoring-forest-degradation-in-support-of-countries-measurement-reporting-and-verification-mrv-systems-for-redd
#17
REVIEW
Anthea L Mitchell, Ake Rosenqvist, Brice Mora
Forest degradation is a global phenomenon and while being an important indicator and precursor to further forest loss, carbon emissions due to degradation should also be accounted for in national reporting within the frame of UN REDD+. At regional to country scales, methods have been progressively developed to detect and map forest degradation, with these based on multi-resolution optical, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and/or LiDAR data. However, there is no one single method that can be applied to monitor forest degradation, largely due to the specific nature of the degradation type or process and the timeframe over which it is observed...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events-a prominent motor cortical oscillation-may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414608/mechanobehavioral-scores-in-women-with-and-without-tmj-disc-displacement
#19
L R Iwasaki, Y M Gonzalez, Y Liu, H Liu, M Markova, L M Gallo, J C Nickel
Cartilage fatigue may be a factor in the precocious development of degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This cross-sectional study estimated potential for cartilage fatigue via TMJ energy densities (ED) and jaw muscle duty factors (DF), which were combined to calculate mechanobehavioral scores (MBS) in women with (+) and without (-) bilateral TMJ disc displacement (DD). All subjects gave informed consent to participate and were examined using Diagnostic Criteria (DC) for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414407/medical-student-teaching-and-recruiting-50-years-of-balancing-two-educational-aims
#20
Benjamin N Schneider, Alexander Chessman, William Toffler, Lara Handler, Beat Steiner, Frances Emily Biagioli
Family medicine (FM) undergraduate medical educators have had two distinct missions, to increase the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of all students while also striving to attract students to the field of family medicine. A five decade literature search was conducted gathering FM curricular innovations and the parallel trends in FM medical student interest. Student interest in FM had a rapid first-decade rise to 14%, a second 1990's surge, followed by a drop to the current plateau of 8-9%. This falls far short of the 30-50% generalist benchmark needed to fill the country's health care needs...
April 2017: Family Medicine
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