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Christopher J Lambert, Briana C Freshner, Arlen Chung, Tamara J Stevenson, D Miranda Bowles, Raheel Samuel, Bruce K Gale, Joshua L Bonkowsky
Zebrafish are a valuable model organism in biomedical research. Their rapid development, ability to model human diseases, utility for testing genetic variants identified from next-generation sequencing, amenity to CRISPR mutagenesis, and potential for therapeutic compound screening, has led to their wide-spread adoption in diverse fields of study. However, their power for large-scale screens is limited by the absence of automated genotyping tools for live animals. This constrains potential drug screen options, limits analysis of embryonic and larval phenotypes, and requires raising additional animals to adulthood to ensure obtaining an animal of the desired genotype...
2018: PloS One
Melissa H Bellin, Angelica Newsome, Cassie Lewis-Land, Joan Kub, Shawna S Mudd, Rachel Margolis, Arlene M Butz
INTRODUCTION: Low-income caregiver perspectives on asthma management are understudied but may illuminate strategies to improve care delivery and child outcomes. METHOD: Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit 15 caregivers of children with frequent asthma emergency department visits. Interviews explored how poverty and stress affect asthma management. Grounded theory coding techniques were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Participants were the biological mother (100%) and were poor (75% had mean annual income ≤ $30,000)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Peter T Sage, Frank A Schildberg, Raymond A Sobel, Vijay K Kuchroo, Gordon J Freeman, Arlene H Sharpe
The programmed death (PD)-1 coinhibitory receptor regulates the balance between T cell activation and tolerance. Although the PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are expressed on a variety of cell types, the cell type-specific functions of PD-1 ligands in inducing signals through PD-1 are unknown. In this study, we use PD-L1 conditional knockout mice to investigate the cell type-specific functions of PD-L1. We demonstrate that PD-L1 expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), and to a lesser extent on B cells, attenuates the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and inhibits naive and effector T cells...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
John Haldon, Lee Mordechai, Timothy P Newfield, Arlen F Chase, Adam Izdebski, Piotr Guzowski, Inga Labuhn, Neil Roberts
History and archaeology have a well-established engagement with issues of premodern societal development and the interaction between physical and cultural environments; together, they offer a holistic view that can generate insights into the nature of cultural resilience and adaptation, as well as responses to catastrophe. Grasping the challenges that climate change presents and evolving appropriate policies that promote and support mitigation and adaptation requires not only an understanding of the science and the contemporary politics, but also an understanding of the history of the societies affected and in particular of their cultural logic...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Robert M Van Haren, Reza J Mehran, Arlene M Correa, Mara B Antonoff, Carla M Baker, Ta Charra Woodard, Wayne L Hofstetter, Gabriel E Mena, Jack A Roth, Boris Sepesi, Stephen G Swisher, Ara A Vaporciyan, Garrett L Walsh, David C Rice
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways aim to improve postoperative recovery through evidence-based practices including early ambulation, multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia, and reduction of surgical stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes following implementation of ERAS in patients undergoing resection for pulmonary malignancy. METHODS: A retrospective review compared outcomes for patients undergoing pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Molly A Hartzler, Matthew P Abdel, Peter K Sculco, Michael J Taunton, Mark W Pagnano, Arlen D Hanssen
BACKGROUND: Dislocation is one of the most common complications after revision THA. Dual-mobility constructs and large femoral heads (ie, 40 mm) are two contemporary, nonconstrained bearing options used in revision THA to minimize the risk of dislocation; however, it is not currently established if there is a clear benefit to using dual-mobility constructs over large femoral heads in the revision setting. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to determine if dual-mobility constructs would provide a reduction in dislocation, rerevision for dislocation, and reoperation or other complications as compared with large femoral heads in revision THA...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Arlene A Schmid, Karen E Atler, Matthew P Malcolm, Laura A Grimm, Tara C Klinedinst, David R Marchant, Tasha P Marchant, Jennifer Dickman Portz
OBJECTIVE: Assess pre to-post outcomes for people with chronic pain and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) randomized to an 8-week yoga intervention or usual care. METHODS: Participants were included if they self-reported: chronic pain; T2DM; >18 years old; no exercise restrictions or consistent yoga; and consented to the study. RESULTS: After yoga, there were significant improvements in: Brief Pain Inventory pain interference (49 ± 15...
February 15, 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Sonal Singh, Caitrin W McDonough, Yan Gong, Wael A Alghamdi, Meghan J Arwood, Salma A Bargal, Leanne Dumeny, Wen-Yi Li, Mai Mehanna, Bradley Stockard, Guang Yang, Felipe A de Oliveira, Natalie C Fredette, Mohamed H Shahin, Kent R Bailey, Amber L Beitelshees, Eric Boerwinkle, Arlene B Chapman, John G Gums, Stephen T Turner, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Julie A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are first-line medications for treating uncomplicated hypertension. However, their use has been associated with adverse metabolic events, including hyperglycemia and incident diabetes mellitus, with incompletely understood mechanisms. Our goal was to identify genomic variants associated with thiazide-like diuretic/chlorthalidone-induced glucose change. METHODS AND RESULTS: Genome-wide analysis of glucose change after treatment with chlorthalidone was performed by race among the white (n=175) and black (n=135) participants from the PEAR-2 (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses-2)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Virginia Miraldi Utz, Wanda Pfeifer, Susannah Q Longmuir, Richard John Olson, Kai Wang, Arlene V Drack
Importance: Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) implies a stable condition, with the major symptom being nyctalopia present at birth. Pediatric clinical presentation and the course of different genetic subtypes of CSNB have not, to our knowledge, been well described in the era of molecular genetic diagnosis. Objective: To describe the presentation and longitudinal clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with molecularly confirmed TRPM1-associated complete CSNB (cCSNB)...
March 8, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Elizabeth A Ashley, Judith Recht, Arlene Chua, David Dance, Mehul Dhorda, Nigel V Thomas, Nisha Ranganathan, Paul Turner, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P Day
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shoulder the bulk of the global burden of infectious diseases and drug resistance. We searched for supranational networks performing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in LMICs and assessed their organization, methodology, impacts and challenges. Since 2000, 72 supranational networks for AMR surveillance in bacteria, fungi, HIV, TB and malaria have been created that have involved LMICs, of which 34 are ongoing. The median (range) duration of the networks was 6 years (1-70) and the number of LMICs included was 8 (1-67)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jacob E Kurlander, Mark Kolbe, Joel H Rubenstein, Caroline R Richardson, Michele Heisler, Arlene Weissman, Raymond De Vries, Sameer D Saini
Background: Observational studies have linked proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with serious adverse effects. The study aimed to evaluate internists' perceptions of PPI harms and effects on prescribing. Methods: This was an online survey of a representative sample of the American College of Physicians in 2013. We queried familiarity with and concern about PPI adverse effects (1 - 7 Likert-type scales, anchored by "not at all" and "extremely"). We also asked how frequently (often, sometimes, rarely, or never) participants used any of three "de-escalation" strategies to stop or reduce PPIs because of concern about adverse effects: reducing patients' PPI dose, switching to H2 blocker, or discontinuing PPI...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Christina Founta, Emmanouil Papagiannakis, Nithya Ratnavelu, Arlene Feusi, Stavros Natsis, Melissa Bradbury, Ann Fisher, Raj Naik
After treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), in the UK women who are cytology-negative, high-risk (HR) human papilloma virus (HPV) positive are referred to colposcopy. This pilot study assessed the incidence of residual/recurrent CIN and the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy with dynamic spectral imaging (DSI) mapping in their detection.This was a prospective service evaluation carried out in a UK National Health Service (NHS) colposcopy clinic. All women, referred with negative cytology/HR-HPV positive result following treatment for CIN from March 2013 until November 2014, who were examined with the DSI digital colposcope were included...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Emily F Moore, Jennifer Pak, Christa Jefferis-Kirk, Arlene Armatage, Richard A Kronmal, Jack C Salerno, Matthew D Files
Heparin is used to decrease the risk of thromboembolic complications during electrophysiology studies (EPS); however, there is wide practice variation and minimal evidence to guide heparin dosing, particularly in pediatric patients. This study retrospectively analyzed heparin dosing and response, measured via activated clotting time (ACT), in patients undergoing EPS and used these data (pre-protocol cohort, n = 40), as well as guidance from available literature to implement a standardized heparin protocol (phase 1, n = 43)...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Sharan Bobbala, Blake Gibson, Allan B Gamble, Arlene McDowell, Sarah Hook
Sustained release vaccine delivery systems may enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and reduce the need for multiple vaccinations. The aim of this study was to develop a thermoresponsive hydrogel using poloxamer 407-chitosan (CP) grafted copolymer as a delivery system for single-shot sustained release vaccines. The CP copolymer was synthesized using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. The CP copolymer was a free flowing solution at ambient temperature and transformed rapidly into a gel at body temperature...
March 2, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Kelly K Anderson, Ross Norman, Arlene MacDougall, Jordan Edwards, Lena Palaniyappan, Cindy Lau, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Early psychosis intervention (EPI) programs improve clinical and functional outcomes for people with first-episode psychosis. Less is known about the impact of these programs on the larger health care system. The authors sought to compare indicators of health service use, self-harm, suicide, and mortality between people with first-episode psychosis who were using EPI services and a propensity-matched group of concurrent control subjects who were not accessing EPI services. METHOD: A retrospective cohort of incident cases of nonaffective psychosis in the catchment area of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, between 1997 and 2013 was constructed using health administrative data...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Arlene J George, Yarely C Hoffiz, Antoinette J Charles, Ying Zhu, Angela M Mabb
Protein ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that plays an integral part in mediating diverse cellular functions. The process of protein ubiquitination requires an enzymatic cascade that consists of a ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) and an E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3). There are an estimated 600-700 E3 ligase genes representing ~5% of the human genome. Not surprisingly, mutations in E3 ligase genes have been observed in multiple neurological conditions. We constructed a comprehensive atlas of disrupted E3 ligase genes in common (CND) and rare neurological diseases (RND)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kristen A Klement, Jonathan S Black, Michael J Vanlue, Arlen D Denny
A unilateral deficit in velopharyngeal closure during speech production is an unusual presentation of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) and few solutions have been described for this problem. This report details the long-term outcomes using this technique. We performed a retrospective chart review of all the patients who underwent a unilateral Orticochea pharyngoplasty for VPD. The authors identified 10 patients treated with 11 unilateral pharyngoplasty at a single tertiary care institutional setting. The mean age at repair was 8...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Malke Asaad, Samita Goyal, Kristen A Klement, Arlen D Denny
Crouzon syndrome (CS) is one of the craniosynostosis syndromes that leads to early fusion of cranial sutures and increased intracranial pressure. Intracranial hypertension is a serious complication that may lead to vision loss and cognitive impairment. Early detection and management are necessary to prevent complications. The authors present a patient with CS who underwent posterior cranial vault reconstruction with internal distraction after multiple episodes of headache and papilledema. The patient was unaware of any loss of color vision before the surgery; however, he noted an improvement in his color vision after the surgery...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Mohamed H Shahin, Daniela J Conrado, Daniel Gonzalez, Yan Gong, Maximilian T Lobmeyer, Amber L Beitelshees, Eric Boerwinkle, John G Gums, Arlene Chapman, Stephen T Turner, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Julie A Johnson
BACKGROUND: For many indications, the negative chronotropic effect of β-blockers is important to their efficacy, yet the heart rate (HR) response to β-blockers varies. Herein, we sought to use a genome-wide association approach to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with HR response to β-blockers. METHODS AND RESULTS: We first performed 4 genome-wide association analyses for HR response to atenolol (a β1-adrenergic receptor blocker) as: (1) monotherapy or (2) add-on therapy, in 426 whites and 273 blacks separately from the PEAR (Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses) study...
February 24, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Ruan Zhang, Peter T Sage, Kelsey Finn, Alexandria Huynh, Bruce R Blazar, Francesco Marangoni, Thorsten R Mempel, Arlene H Sharpe, Laurence A Turka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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