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Nora D Volkow, Eric M Wargo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jonathan D Alpern, Thomas M Leventhal, Nathan C Bahr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Laura E Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M Farewell, Harriet D Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O Flynn, Alison M Kemp
Clinicians face unique challenges when assessing suspected child abuse cases. The majority of the literature exploring diagnostic decision-making in this field is anecdotal or survey-based and there is a lack of studies exploring decision-making around suspected abusive head trauma (AHT). We aimed to determine factors influencing decision-making and multidisciplinary collaboration in suspected AHT cases, amongst 56 child protection professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom...
June 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
D Rochman, A Vasiliev, H Ferroukhi, M Pecchia
In this paper, a new method is proposed to systematically calculate at the same time canister loading curves and radiation sources, based on the inventory information from an in-core fuel management system. As a demonstration, the isotopic contents of the assemblies come from a Swiss PWR, considering more than 6000 cases from 34 reactor cycles. The CS2 M approach consists in combining four codes: CASMO and SIMULATE to extract the assembly characteristics (based on validated models), the SNF code for source emission and MCNP for criticality calculations for specific canister loadings...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
M Horne, R Emsley, A Woodham, A Wearden, D A Skelton
OBJECTIVE: High prevalence of sedentary behaviour is seen in most immigrant groups in Western countries, particularly in those from the Indian subcontinent. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sociocognitive associations with intention to undertake physical activity (PA) among separate groups of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi older adults aged ≥60 years in the North West of England, UK. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey, informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), 138 of 964 South Asian (SA) older adults completed a mailed questionnaire that assessed self-reported PA and TPB variables...
June 15, 2018: Public Health
Robert D Ashford, Austin M Brown, Brenda Curtis
BACKGROUND: The general public, treatment professionals, and healthcare professionals have been found to exhibit an explicit negative bias towards substance use and individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD). Terms such as "substance abuser" and "opioid addict" have shown to elicit greater negative explicit bias. However, other common terms have yet to be empirically studied. METHODS: 1,288 participants were recruited from ResearchMatch...
June 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lisa Bartha-Doering, Astrid Novak, Kathrin Kollndorfer, Gregor Kasprian, Anna-Lisa Schuler, Madison M Berl, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, William D Gaillard, Johanna Alexopoulos, Daniela Prayer, Rainer Seidl
This study considered the involvement of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in language and verbal memory functions in healthy children and adolescents. We investigated 30 healthy, right-handed children and adolescents, aged 7-16, with a fMRI language paradigm and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. We found significant MTL activations during language fMRI in all participants; 63% of them had left lateralized MTL activations, 20% exhibited right MTL lateralization, and 17% showed bilateral MTL involvement during the fMRI language paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Language
Bruna Medeiros-Neves, Helder Ferreira Teixeira, Gilsane Lino von Poser
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Species of the genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) are used in different parts of the world for mainly to treat skin and liver diseases, as well as disorders of the respiratory system, among others. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to discuss the present state of the art concerning the ethnobotanical uses, secondary metabolites and biological effects of Pterocaulon species and their chemical components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The available information on the genus Pterocaulon was gathered from scientific databases (Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ChemSpider, SciFinder ACS Publications, Wiley Online Library)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Himanshu R Lukka, Stephanie L Pugh, Deborah W Bruner, Jean-Paul Bahary, Colleen A F Lawton, Jason A Efstathiou, Rajat J Kudchadker, Lee E Ponsky, Samantha A Seaward, Ian S Dayes, Darindra D Gopaul, Jeff M Michalski, Guila Delouya, Irving D Kaplan, Eric M Horwitz, Mack Roach, Wayne H Pinover, David C Beyer, John O Amanie, Howard M Sandler, Lisa A Kachnic
BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in very short (ultrahypofractionated) radiotherapy regimens to treat prostate cancer based on potential radiobiological advantages, patient convenience and resource allocation benefits. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that detectable changes in health related quality of life measured by the bowel and urinary domains of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-50) were not substantially worse than baseline. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: XXXX is a non-blinded randomized phase II study of NCCN low risk prostate cancer where each arm is compared to a historical control...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Wilrike J Pasman, Henk F J Hendriks, Mans M Minekus, Rianne A F de Ligt, Maarten J Scholtes-Timmerman, Nard D S Clabbers, Nynke M Leonards, Jodee Johnson, Susann Bellmann
BACKGROUND: Appetite regulating properties of foods are usually investigated under laboratory conditions, whereas in real life, foods are consumed under at home conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the acute effects of breakfasts when tested in a laboratory condition and in an at home condition. Appetite regulating properties of two bread breakfasts and two cereal breakfasts were also compared. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this randomized cross-over trial balanced for laboratory and at home test conditions, thirty-two women consumed five breakfasts, i...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Albert van der Vliet, Tobias P Dick, Steve D Aust, Willem H Koppenol, Fulvio Ursini, Antony J Kettle, Joseph S Beckman, Valerie O'Donnell, Victor Darley-Usmar, Jack Lancaster, Neil Hogg, Kelvin J A Davies, Henry Jay Forman, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger
Since 1981, Gordon Research Conferences have been held on the topic of Oxygen Radicals on a biennial basis, to highlight and discuss the latest cutting edge research in this area. Since the first meeting, one special feature of this conference has been the awarding of the so-called Iron Bolt, an award that started in jest but has gained increasing reputation over the years. Since no written documentation exists for this Iron Bolt award, this perspective serves to overview the history of this unusual award, and highlights various experiences of previous winners of this "prestigious" award and other interesting anecdotes...
June 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
M L Carrito, P Bem-Haja, C F Silva, D I Perrett, I M Santos
Sexual dimorphism has been proposed as one of the facial traits to have evolved through sexual selection and to affect attractiveness perception. Even with numerous studies documenting its effect on attractiveness and mate choice, the neurophysiological correlates of the perception of sexual dimorphism are not yet fully understood. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during visualisation of faces that had been previously transformed in shape to appear more masculine or more feminine...
June 15, 2018: Biological Psychology
Christopher D Lopez, Jonathan M Bekisz, Carmen Corciulo, Aranzazu Mediero, Paulo G Coelho, Lukasz Witek, Roberto L Flores, Bruce N Cronstein
Adenosine receptor activation has been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach to heal bone. Bone has enhanced regenerative potential when influenced by either direct or indirect adenosine receptor agonism. As investigators continue to elucidate how adenosine influences bone cell homeostasis at the cellular and molecular levels, a small but growing body of literature has reported successful in vivo applications of adenosine delivery. This review summarizes the role adenosine receptor ligation plays in osteoblast and osteoclast biology and remodeling/regeneration...
June 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
P Andrew Chong, Robert M Vernon, Julie D Forman-Kay
RGG/RG motifs are RNA binding segments found in many proteins that can partition into membraneless organelles. They occur in the context of low complexity disordered regions and often in multiple copies. Although short RGG/RG-containing regions can sometimes form high affinity interactions with RNA structures, multiple RGG/RG repeats are generally required for high-affinity binding, suggestive of the dynamic, multivalent interactions that are suspected to underlie phase separation in formation of cellular membraneless organelles...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Eric P Raffin, Kristina L Penniston, Jodi A Antonelli, Davis P Viprakasit, Timothy D Averch, Vincent G Bird, Ben H Chew, Sri Sivalingam, Roger L Sur, Stephen Y Nakada, Vernon M Pais
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether benefits of medical management of urolithiasis outweigh potential side effects of utilized medications including potassium citrate (Kcit) and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the relationship between Kcit or thiazides and overall stone-related health related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from stone forming enrollees in the North American Stone Quality of Life Consortium, we used the Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire (WISQOL) to compare HRQOL between patients treated and not treated with Kcit or thiazide type diuretics...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Urology
R David Hayward, Mary M Fessler, Joseph Buck, Richard D Fessler
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown an increased risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for individuals who suffer an initial TBI. The current study hypothesized that individuals with recurrent neurotrauma would originate from populations considered 'vulnerable', i.e. low income and/or with psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS: Data from the Michigan State Inpatient Database from 2006 to 2014 for the Detroit metropolitan area enlisted a study population of 50 744 patients with neurotrauma...
June 18, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Corinne D Wilkerson, Shane P Mahoney, Steven M Carr
Post-glacial origins of Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp) on the island of Newfoundland and their relationship to mainland populations have been uncertain. Sequence analysis of 2,223 bp of the mitochondrial DNA Control Region and Cytochrome b gene from 233 Newfoundland caribou identified 32 haplotypes in four major clades. Comparison with other Nearctic caribou confirms a closer affinity of the basal Clade A with animals from the mainland, and as an outgroup to Clades B, C, & D that are endemic to the island...
June 18, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Charles S Carrier, Kirsten D Garvey, Emily M Brook, Elizabeth G Matzkin
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of nonopioid pain management following arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and/or chondroplasty and to assess patients' attitudes regarding their need for opioid pain medication following these procedures. Patients who underwent a knee arthroscopy procedure for either partial meniscectomy and/or chondroplasty from July 2016 to January 2017 by a single surgeon at a single institution were included. Medical records were reviewed, and demographics were recorded...
June 18, 2018: Orthopedics
Mary F Feitosa, Aldi T Kraja, Daniel I Chasman, Yun J Sung, Thomas W Winkler, Ioanna Ntalla, Xiuqing Guo, Nora Franceschini, Ching-Yu Cheng, Xueling Sim, Dina Vojinovic, Jonathan Marten, Solomon K Musani, Changwei Li, Amy R Bentley, Michael R Brown, Karen Schwander, Melissa A Richard, Raymond Noordam, Hugues Aschard, Traci M Bartz, Lawrence F Bielak, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Virginia Fisher, Fernando P Hartwig, Andrea R V R Horimoto, Kurt K Lohman, Alisa K Manning, Tuomo Rankinen, Albert V Smith, Salman M Tajuddin, Mary K Wojczynski, Maris Alver, Mathilde Boissel, Qiuyin Cai, Archie Campbell, Jin Fang Chai, Xu Chen, Jasmin Divers, Chuan Gao, Anuj Goel, Yanick Hagemeijer, Sarah E Harris, Meian He, Fang-Chi Hsu, Anne U Jackson, Mika Kähönen, Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Pirjo Komulainen, Brigitte Kühnel, Federica Laguzzi, Jian'an Luan, Nana Matoba, Ilja M Nolte, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Muhammad Riaz, Rico Rueedi, Antonietta Robino, M Abdullah Said, Robert A Scott, Tamar Sofer, Alena Stančáková, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Bamidele O Tayo, Peter J van der Most, Tibor V Varga, Veronique Vitart, Yajuan Wang, Erin B Ware, Helen R Warren, Stefan Weiss, Wanqing Wen, Lisa R Yanek, Weihua Zhang, Jing Hua Zhao, Saima Afaq, Najaf Amin, Marzyeh Amini, Dan E Arking, Tin Aung, Eric Boerwinkle, Ingrid Borecki, Ulrich Broeckel, Morris Brown, Marco Brumat, Gregory L Burke, Mickaël Canouil, Aravinda Chakravarti, Sabanayagam Charumathi, Yii-Der Ida Chen, John M Connell, Adolfo Correa, Lisa de Las Fuentes, Renée de Mutsert, H Janaka de Silva, Xuan Deng, Jingzhong Ding, Qing Duan, Charles B Eaton, Georg Ehret, Ruben N Eppinga, Evangelos Evangelou, Jessica D Faul, Stephan B Felix, Nita G Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Oscar H Franco, Yechiel Friedlander, Ilaria Gandin, He Gao, Mohsen Ghanbari, Bruna Gigante, C Charles Gu, Dongfeng Gu, Saskia P Hagenaars, Göran Hallmans, Tamara B Harris, Jiang He, Sami Heikkinen, Chew-Kiat Heng, Makoto Hirata, Barbara V Howard, M Arfan Ikram, Ulrich John, Tomohiro Katsuya, Chiea Chuen Khor, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Woon-Puay Koh, José E Krieger, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Michiaki Kubo, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A Lakka, Carl D Langefeld, Claudia Langenberg, Lenore J Launer, Benjamin Lehne, Cora E Lewis, Yize Li, Shiow Lin, Jianjun Liu, Jingmin Liu, Marie Loh, Tin Louie, Reedik Mägi, Colin A McKenzie, Thomas Meitinger, Andres Metspalu, Yuri Milaneschi, Lili Milani, Karen L Mohlke, Yukihide Momozawa, Mike A Nalls, Christopher P Nelson, Nona Sotoodehnia, Jill M Norris, Jeff R O'Connell, Nicholette D Palmer, Thomas Perls, Nancy L Pedersen, Annette Peters, Patricia A Peyser, Neil Poulter, Leslie J Raffel, Olli T Raitakari, Kathryn Roll, Lynda M Rose, Frits R Rosendaal, Jerome I Rotter, Carsten O Schmidt, Pamela J Schreiner, Nicole Schupf, William R Scott, Peter S Sever, Yuan Shi, Stephen Sidney, Mario Sims, Colleen M Sitlani, Jennifer A Smith, Harold Snieder, John M Starr, Konstantin Strauch, Heather M Stringham, Nicholas Y Q Tan, Hua Tang, Kent D Taylor, Yik Ying Teo, Yih Chung Tham, Stephen T Turner, André G Uitterlinden, Peter Vollenweider, Melanie Waldenberger, Lihua Wang, Ya Xing Wang, Wen Bin Wei, Christine Williams, Jie Yao, Caizheng Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Wei Zhao, Alan B Zonderman, Diane M Becker, Michael Boehnke, Donald W Bowden, John C Chambers, Ian J Deary, Tõnu Esko, Martin Farrall, Paul W Franks, Barry I Freedman, Philippe Froguel, Paolo Gasparini, Christian Gieger, Jost Bruno Jonas, Yoichiro Kamatani, Norihiro Kato, Jaspal S Kooner, Zoltán Kutalik, Markku Laakso, Cathy C Laurie, Karin Leander, Terho Lehtimäki, Lifelines Cohort Study, Patrik K E Magnusson, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Brenda W J H Penninx, Ozren Polasek, David J Porteous, Rainer Rauramaa, Nilesh J Samani, James Scott, Xiao-Ou Shu, Pim van der Harst, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, David R Weir, Ananda R Wickremasinghe, Tangchun Wu, Wei Zheng, Claude Bouchard, Kaare Christensen, Michele K Evans, Vilmundur Gudnason, Bernardo L Horta, Sharon L R Kardia, Yongmei Liu, Alexandre C Pereira, Bruce M Psaty, Paul M Ridker, Rob M van Dam, W James Gauderman, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Myriam Fornage, Charles N Rotimi, L Adrienne Cupples, Tanika N Kelly, Ervin R Fox, Caroline Hayward, Cornelia M van Duijn, E Shyong Tai, Tien Yin Wong, Charles Kooperberg, Walter Palmas, Kenneth Rice, Alanna C Morrison, Paul Elliott, Mark J Caulfield, Patricia B Munroe, Dabeeru C Rao, Michael A Province, Daniel Levy
Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional BP loci and contribute to the understanding of alcohol-related BP regulation. We conducted a large two-stage investigation incorporating joint testing of main genetic effects and single nucleotide variant (SNV)-alcohol consumption interactions...
2018: PloS One
Tulaci Bhakti, Fernando Goulart, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo, Yasmine Antonini
Consequences of habitat fragmentation for species occurrence are amongst the most important issues in landscape and conservation ecology. Empirical and theoretical studies have demonstrated that the total amount of habitat, patch size and connectivity have nonlinear effects on species survival on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, population models need to incorporate multiple scales, which can be extremely valuable to prioritizing conservation efforts in these changing landscapes. We tested how the amount and configuration of habitat affect understory bird species occurrence using fine to broad-scale habitat features...
2018: PloS One
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