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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641219/comparison-of-brand-versus-generic-antiepileptic-drug-adverse-event-reporting-rates-in-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers
#1
Md Motiur Rahman, Yasser Alatawi, Ning Cheng, Jingjing Qian, Annya V Plotkina, Peggy L Peissig, Richard L Berg, David Page, Richard A Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Despite the cost saving role of generic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), debate exists as to whether generic substitution of branded AEDs may lead to therapeutic failure and increased toxicity. This study compared adverse event (AE) reporting rates for brand vs. authorized generic (AG) vs. generic AEDs. Since AGs are pharmaceutically identical to brand but perceived as generics, the generic vs. AG comparison minimized potential bias against generics. METHODS: Events reported to the U...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636433/immunogenicity-of-ags-004-dendritic-cell-therapy-in-patients-treated-during-acute-hiv-infection
#2
Cynthia L Gay, Mark A DeBenedette, Irina Y Tcherepanova, Alicia Gamble, Whitney E Lewis, Anna B Cope, JoAnn D Kuruc, Kara S McGee, Mary F Kearney, John M Coffin, Nancie M Archin, Charles B Hicks, Joseph J Eron, Charles A Nicolette, David M Margolis
AGS-004 consists of matured autologous dendritic cells co-electroporated with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding autologous HIV antigens. In an open-label, single arm sub-study of AGS-004-003, AGS-004 was administered monthly to suppressed participants who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection. HIV-1 specific T cell responses were measured by multicolor flow cytometry after 3-4 doses. The frequency of resting CD4(+) T-cell infection (RCI) was measured by quantitative viral outgrowth assay...
June 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630094/type-i-ifn-is-necessary-and-sufficient-for-inflammation-induced-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization-in-mice
#3
David R Gibb, Jingchun Liu, Prabitha Natarajan, Manjula Santhanakrishnan, David J Madrid, Stephanie C Eisenbarth, James C Zimring, Akiko Iwasaki, Jeanne E Hendrickson
During RBC transfusion, production of alloantibodies against RBC non-ABO Ags can cause hemolytic transfusion reactions and limit availability of compatible blood products, resulting in anemia-associated morbidity and mortality. Multiple studies have established that certain inflammatory disorders and inflammatory stimuli promote alloimmune responses to RBC Ags. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings are poorly understood. Type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) are induced in inflammatory conditions associated with increased alloimmunization...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628152/-relationship-between-macrophage-capping-protein-and-gastric-cancer-cell-s-proliferation-and-migration-ability
#4
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of macrophage-capping protein (CapG) on migration and proliferation of human gastric cancer cell line. METHODS: Real-time PCR method was used to detect the expression of CapG gene in four gastric cancer cell lines, and AGS cells with low expression and transfection were selected as the research objects. Specific primers were designed for CapG and recombinant plasmids synthesized. A lentivirus packaging system which could express CapG was constructed, and a cell line stably expressing CapG was established by infecting human gastric cancer cell line AGS cells...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627240/quercetin-has-antimetastatic-effects-on-gastric-cancer-cells-via-the-interruption-of-upa-upar-function-by-modulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pkc-%C3%AE-erk1-2-and-ampk%C3%AE
#5
Hai Li, Chen Chen
Gastric cancer (GC) is a malignancy with few effective treatment options after metastasis occurs. Quercetin (Qu) intake has been associated with reduced incidence and slow development of GC, probably due to its anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects, but it is unclear whether Qu can inhibit the metastatic activity. The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)/uPA receptor (uPAR) system plays an important role in cancer metastasis. In this study, we measured both uPA activity and uPAR expression in GC and pericarcinous tissues, and we investigated the correlation between uPAR expression and the migratory and invasive activities of various GC cell lines...
March 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623226/entraining-to-the-polar-day-circadian-rhythms-in-arctic-ground-squirrels
#6
Cory T Williams, Brian M Barnes, Lily Yan, C Loren Buck
Circadian systems are principally entrained to 24h light/dark cycles, but this cue is seasonally absent in polar environments. Although some resident polar vertebrates have weak circadian clocks and are seasonally arrhythmic, the arctic ground squirrel (AGS) maintains daily rhythms of physiology and behavior throughout the summer, which includes six weeks of constant daylight. Here, we show that persistent daily rhythms in AGS are maintained through a circadian system that readily entrains to the polar day yet remains insensitive to entrainment by rapid light-dark transitions, which AGS generate naturally due to their semi-fossorial behavior...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620453/parallel-pathways-in-the-biosynthesis-of-aminoglycoside-antibiotics
#7
REVIEW
Yi Yu, Qi Zhang, Zixin Deng
Despite their inherent toxicity and the global spread of bacterial resistance, aminoglycosides (AGs), an old class of microbial drugs, remain a valuable component of the antibiotic arsenal. Recent studies have continued to reveal the fascinating biochemistry of AG biosynthesis and the rich potential in their pathway engineering. In particular, parallel pathways have been shown to be common and widespread in AG biosynthesis, highlighting nature's ingenuity in accessing diverse natural products from a limited set of genes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618940/association-of-wnt1-inducible-signaling-pathway-protein-1-with-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#8
Shuqin Jia, Tingting Qu, Mengmeng Feng, Ke Ji, Ziyu Li, Wenguo Jiang, Jiafu Ji
Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN family, which has been implicated in mediating the occurrence and progression through distinct molecular mechanisms in several tumor types. However, the association of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 with gastric cancer and the related molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the biological role of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 in the proliferation, migration, and invasion in gastric cancer cells and further investigated the associated molecular mechanism on these biological functions...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617871/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-plays-roles-in-epstein-barr-virus-s-natural-life-cycle-and-tumorigenesis-by-inducing-lytic-infection-through-direct-binding-to-the-immediate-early-bzlf1-gene-promoter
#9
Richard J Kraus, Xianming Yu, Blue-Leaf A Cordes, Saraniya Sathiamoorthi, Tawin Iempridee, Dhananjay M Nawandar, Shidong Ma, James C Romero-Masters, Kyle G McChesney, Zhen Lin, Kathleen R Makielski, Denis L Lee, Paul F Lambert, Eric C Johannsen, Shannon C Kenney, Janet E Mertz
When confronted with poor oxygenation, cells adapt by activating survival signaling pathways, including the oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulators called hypoxia-inducible factor alphas (HIF-αs). We report here that HIF-1α also regulates the life cycle of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Incubation of EBV-positive gastric carcinoma AGS-Akata and SNU-719 and Burkitt lymphoma Sal and KemIII cell lines with a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, L-mimosine or deferoxamine, or the NEDDylation inhibitor MLN4924 promoted rapid and sustained accumulation of both HIF-1α and lytic EBV antigens...
June 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615419/dimeric-fc%C3%AE-receptor-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-to-study-hiv-specific-antibodies-a-new-look-into-breadth-of-fc%C3%AE-receptor-antibodies-induced-by-the-rv144-vaccine-trial
#10
Milla R McLean, Vijaya Madhavi, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Amy W Chung, Stephen J Kent
Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses are of growing interest in the HIV vaccine field but current cell-based assays are usually difficult to reproduce across laboratories. We developed an ELISA and multiplex assay to model the cross-linking of Fcγ receptors (FcγR) by Abs, which is required to initiate an ADCC response. Our FcγR dimer ELISA readily detected Abs in samples from two separate cohorts of the partially efficacious Thai RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial. The FcγR dimer-binding Abs induced by the RV144 regimen correlated well with a functional measure of ADCC as well as IgG subclasses...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615415/cutting-edge-the-aging-immune-system-reveals-the-biological-impact-of-direct-antigen-presentation-on-cd8-t-cell-responses
#11
Jennifer L Uhrlaub, Megan J Smithey, Janko Nikolich-Žugich
The vertebrate immune system uses multiple, sometimes redundant, mechanisms to contain pathogenic microorganisms that are always evolving to evade host defenses. Thus, the cowpox virus (CPXV) uses genes encoding CPXV12 and CPXV203 to prevent direct MHC class I presentation of viral peptides by infected cells. However, CD8 T cells are effectively primed against CPXV by cross-presentation of viral Ags in young mice. Old mice accumulate defects in both CD8 T cell activation and cross-presentation. Using a double-deletion mutant (∆12∆203) of CPXV, we show that direct priming of CD8 T cells in old mice yields superior recall responses, establishing a key contribution of this mechanism to host antipoxvirus responses and enhancing our fundamental understanding of how viral manipulation of direct presentation impacts pathogenesis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607115/surface-lamp-2-is-an-endocytic-receptor-that-diverts-antigen-internalized-by-human-dendritic-cells-into-highly-immunogenic-exosomes
#12
Dario Armando Leone, Andrea Peschel, Markus Brown, Helga Schachner, Miriam J Ball, Marianna Gyuraszova, Ulrike Salzer-Muhar, Minoru Fukuda, Caterina Vizzardelli, Barbara Bohle, Andrew J Rees, Renate Kain
The lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) family includes the dendritic cell endocytic receptors DC-LAMP and CD68, as well as LAMP-1 and LAMP-2. In this study we identify LAMP-1 (CD107a) and LAMP-2 (CD107b) on the surface of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) and show only LAMP-2 is internalized after ligation by specific Abs, including H4B4, and traffics rapidly but transiently to the MHC class II loading compartment, as does Ag conjugated to H4B4. However, pulsing MoDC with conjugates of primary (keyhole limpet hemocyanin; KLH) and recall (Bet v 1) Ags (H4B4*KLH and H4B4*Bet v 1) induced significantly less CD4 cell proliferation than pulsing with native Ag or Ag conjugated to control mAb (ISO*KLH and ISO*Bet v 1)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598306/determinants-of-the-regulation-of-helicobacter-pylori-adhesins-include-repeat-sequences-in-both-promoter-and-coding-regions-as-well-as-the-two-component-system-arsrs
#13
Catherine R Acio-Pizzarello, Abigail A Acio, Edward J Choi, Kimberly Bond, June Kim, Anna C Kenan, Jiajia Chen, Mark H Forsyth
PURPOSE: We investigated the transcription of adhesin-encoding genes sabA, hopZ and labA in Helicobacter pylori strain J99. Each possesses a repeating homopolymeric nucleotide tract within their promoter regions, and sabA and hopZ possess repeats within their 5' coding regions. METHODOLOGY: We altered the repeat lengths associated with the adhesin genes and quantified mRNA levels by real-time quantitative PCR. Using adherence to AGS cells and IL-8 assays, we examined the effects of altered transcript levels...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594907/gastrointestinal-cancer-cells-treatment-with-bevacizumab-activates-a-vegf-autoregulatory-mechanism-involving-telomerase-catalytic-subunit-htert-via-pi3k-akt-hif-1%C3%AE-and-vegf-receptors
#14
Nadine Mahfouz, Roula Tahtouh, Nada Alaaeddine, Joelle El Hajj, Riad Sarkis, Ray Hachem, Issam Raad, George Hilal
BACKGROUND: Targeting angiogenesis has been considered a promising treatment of choice for a large number of malignancies, including gastrointestinal cancers. Bevacizumab is an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) being used for this purpose. However, treatment efficacy is largely questioned. Telomerase activity, responsible for cancer cell immortality, is detected in 85-95% of human cancers and is considered a potential regulator of VEGF. The aim of our study was to investigate the interrelationship between VEGF and hTERT in gastrointestinal cancers and to explore cell response to a combined inhibition of telomerase and VEGF...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592426/a-nonadjuvanted-igg2a-monoclonal-antibody-against-nucleosomes-elicits-potent-t-cell-dependent-idiotype-specific-igg1-responses-and-glomerular-igg1-igg2a-deposits-in-normal-mice
#15
Kristian Hannestad, Helge Scott
Idiotypes (Ids) are unique epitopes of Ab V regions and can trigger anti-Id immune responses, but immunization with several nonadjuvanted isologous IgG mAbs has induced tolerance to their Ids. We immunized non-lupus-prone mice with 11 allotype "a" of IgG2a (IgG2a(a)) and 4 IgG2c nonadjuvanted, isologous mAbs purified from serum-free medium. Of five IgG2a(a) mAbs with specificity for nucleosomes, the repeating histone-DNA subunit of chromatin, four elicited an IgG1 anti-mAb response and one mAb was nonimmunogenic...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587343/alteration-of-stomach-microbiota-compositions-in-the-progression-of-gastritis-induces-nitric-oxide-in-gastric-cell
#16
Tianyi Dong, Qiang Feng, Fengyan Liu, Lap Kam Chang, Xiangyu Zhou, Mingyong Han, Xingsong Tian, Ning Zhong, Shili Liu
Atrophic gastritis is considered to be an antecedent to intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. A previous study identified that Helicobacter pylori was absent at the severe atrophic gastritis stage, and alterations in the gastric microbial composition resembled those in gastric cancer. To explore the role of the bacteria absence of H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis, in the current study, we compared the microbiota of clinically collected H. pylori-free gastric fluids from 30 patients with non-atrophic gastritis (N) and 22 patients with severe atrophic gastritis (S)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586004/cox-2-regulates-snail-expression-in-gastric-cancer-via-the-notch1-signaling-pathway
#17
Yuwei Ye, Min Liu, Hao Yuan, Shupeng Ning, Yuping Wang, Zhaofeng Chen, Rui Ji, Qinghong Guo, Qiang Li, Yongning Zhou
The conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 contributes to the biological properties of malignant tumours. During the initiation and development of various tumours, the Notch family plays a key role. However, the association between COX‑2 and the Notch family in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms through which COX‑2 participates in the pathogenesis of GC. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Notch family members and COX‑2 in human GC and paracancerous tissues, GES‑1 cells and GC cell lines (AGS, SGC‑7901, BGC‑823, and MGC‑803) treated with or without celecoxib, prostaglandin E2 and small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585613/-immunotherapy-of-renal-cell-cancer
#18
Lajos Géczi, Krisztián Nagyiványi, Anikó Maráz
The authors briefly highlight the results of targeted therapy and present new solutions in kidney cancer immunotherapy. The important checkpoint inhibitors (anti-CTLA-4, -PD-1 and -PD-L1/2) and their combinations, together with the combinations of targeted drugs and immunotherapy are discussed. The newest checkpoint agents, vaccination and pegylated interleukin-2 are also presented. The most promising clinical trials (CheckMate-025, AGS-003, IMA 901) and the on-going first line phase III trials are shown in metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma...
June 6, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583322/ocular-findings-in-patients-with-cholestatic-disorders-of-infancy-a-single-centre-experience
#19
Hanaa El-Karaksy, Dalia Hamed, Hanan Fouad, Engy Mogahed, Heba Helmy, Fotouh Hasanain
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Neonatal cholestasis can be associated with ocular findings that might aid in its diagnosis, e.g., Alagille syndrome (AGS) and Niemann Pick disease (NPD). We aimed to investigate the frequency of ocular manifestations in infants with cholestasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included cholestatic infants presenting to the Paediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Paediatric Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. All infants underwent examination of lid, ocular motility, anterior and posterior segments and measurement of intraocular pressure, cycloplegic refraction, ocular ultrasonography and vision...
June 2, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582847/mir-133b-inhibits-proliferation-and-invasion-of-gastric-cancer-cells-by-up-regulating-fbn1-expression
#20
Deying Yang, Deqin Zhao, Xinrui Chen
We aimed to investigate the influence of miR-133b/fibrillin 1 (FBN1) on proliferation and invasion of human gastric cancer (GC) cells. Carcinomatous and adjacent tissues of 43 GC patients, normal gastric mucosa cell line GES-1 and GC cell lines including AGS, HGC-27, KATO III, NCI-N87, SGC-7901, MKN-45 and MGC-803 were collected. Then, the expressions of miR-133b and FBN1 were detected by qRT-PCR. The dual luciferase reporter gene assay was conducted to determine the targeting relationship between miR-133b and FBN1...
May 19, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
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