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Reproduction animal selective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788126/characterizing-the-acute-heat-stress-response-in-gilts-ii-assessing-repeatability-and-association-with-fertility
#1
Kody L Graves, Jacob T Seibert, Aileen F Keating, Lance H Baumgard, Jason W Ross
Mitigating heat stress (HS) in swine production is important as it detrimentally affects multiple aspects of overall animal production efficiency. Study objectives were to determine if gilts characterized as tolerant (TOL) or susceptible (SUS) in response to HS maintain that phenotype later in life and if that phenotype influences reproductive ability during HS. Individual gilts identified as TOL (n = 50) or SUS (n = 50) from a prepubertal HS challenge were selected based on their rectal temperature (TR) during acute HS...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788049/evidence-that-divergent-selection-shapes-a-developmental-cline-in-a-forest-tree-species-complex
#2
João Costa E Silva, Peter A Harrison, Robert Wiltshire, Brad M Potts
Background and Aims: Evolutionary change in developmental trajectories (heterochrony) is a major mechanism of adaptation in plants and animals. However, there are few detailed studies of the variation in the timing of developmental events among wild populations. We here aimed to identify the climatic drivers and measure selection shaping a genetic-based developmental cline among populations of an endemic tree species complex on the island of Tasmania. Methods: Seed lots from 38 native provenances encompassing the clinal transition from the heteroblastic Eucalyptus tenuiramis to the homoblastic Eucalyptus risdonii were grown in a common-garden field trial in southern Tasmania for 20 years...
May 19, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783136/occurrence-and-estrogenic-activity-of-steroid-hormones-in-chinese-streams-a-nationwide-study-based-on-a-combination-of-chemical-and-biological-tools
#3
Bo Yao, Rui Li, Shuwen Yan, Shen-An Chan, Weihua Song
Steroid hormones (SHs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment through various pathways after being excreted by humans and animals, interfere with the normal function of the endocrine system and may affect the physiology and reproduction of exposed aquatic life. To conduct a nationwide investigation of the occurrence and biological effects of SHs in surface river/steam water in China, we quantitated 27 selected SHs in 217 surface water samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) tandem LC-MS/MS and used a recombinant yeast estrogen assay to screen extracts of the water samples for estrogenic activities...
May 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782138/testosterone-and-testicular-changes-in-f1-offspring-of-wistar-rats-maternally-exposed-to-nicotine-during-gestation
#4
Ibukun P Oyeyipo, Damilare H Adeyemi, Temilade R Abe
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the effect of intrauterine exposure to nicotine in the first fourteen days of gestation on the testicular function of male Wistar rats. METHODS: Pups of both control and nicotine-treated groups were selected and sacrificed on day 60 after birth. Birth weight, weight of reproductive organs, hormonal profile, and histopathology were determined in the first filial (F1) generation. RESULTS: Significant decreases in birth weight and litter size were found in the pups treated with nicotine when compared with the animals in the control group...
May 21, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779582/animal-models-of-endocrine-disruption
#5
REVIEW
Heather B Patisaul, Suzanne E Fenton, David Aylor
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that alter the structure and function of the endocrine system and may be contributing to disorders of the reproductive, metabolic, neuroendocrine and other complex systems. Typically, these outcomes cannot be modeled in cell-based or other simple systems necessitating the use of animal testing. Appropriate animal model selection is required to effectively recapitulate the human experience, including relevant dosing and windows of exposure, and ensure translational utility and reproducibility...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779500/review-understanding-the-causes-of-variation-in-reproductive-wastage-among-bulls
#6
S Fair, P Lonergan
The ability to predict the fertility of bulls before semen is released into the field has been a long-term objective of the animal breeding industry. However, the recent shift in the dairy industry towards the intensive use of young genomically selected bulls has increased its urgency. Such bulls, which are often in the highest demand, are frequently only used intensively for one season and consequently there is limited time to track their field fertility. A more pressing issue is that they produce fewer sperm per ejaculate than mature bulls and therefore there is a need to reduce the sperm number per straw to the minimum required without a concomitant reduction in fertility...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768122/long-term-trait-consistency-in-mice-selected-for-swim-induced-high-aerobic-capacity
#7
Julita Sadowska, Andrzej K Gębczyński, Marek Konarzewski
The majority of studies show that metabolic rates are usually repeatable at the individual level, although their repeatabilities tend to decline with time and to be strongly affected by physiological changes. Changes in individual repeatabilities may therefore affect putative differences between experimental groups or populations. This problem is particularly relevant to artificial selection experiments that apply the selection protocol at early life stages, running the risk of a poor correlation of the trait with itself throughout the life cycle of individuals...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764960/a-genomic-region-containing-rec8-and-rnf212b-is-associated-with-individual-recombination-rate-variation-in-a-wild-population-of-red-deer-cervus-elaphus
#8
Susan E Johnston, Jisca Huisman, Josephine M Pemberton
Recombination is a fundamental feature of sexual reproduction, ensuring proper disjunction, preventing mutation accumulation and generating new allelic combinations upon which selection can act. However it is also mutagenic, and breaks up favourable allelic combinations previously built up by selection. Identifying the genetic drivers of recombination rate variation is a key step in understanding the causes and consequences of this variation, how loci associated with recombination are evolving and how they affect the potential of a population to respond to selection...
May 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763383/eb-2017-article-soy-protein-isolate-feeding-does-not-result-in-reproductive-toxicity-in-the-pre-pubertal-rat-testis
#9
Martin Jj Ronis, Horacio Gomez-Acevedo, Kartik Shankar, Neha Sharma, Michael Blackburn, Rohit Singhal, Kelly E Mercer, Thomas M Badger
The isoflavone phytoestrogens found in the soy protein isolate used in soy infant formulas have been shown to have estrogenic actions in the developing male reproductive tract resulting in reproductive toxicity. However, few studies have examined potential estrogenicity of soy protein isolate as opposed to that of pure isoflavones. In this study, we fed weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats a semi-purified diet with casein or soy protein isolate as the sole protein source from postnatal day 21 to 33. Additional groups were fed casein or soy protein isolate and treated s...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760884/habitat-constraints-on-carotenoid-based-coloration-in-a-small-euryhaline-teleost
#10
Francesco Cavraro, Giulia Gheno, Renzo Ganzerla, Matteo Zucchetta, Piero Franzoi, Stefano Malavasi
Display of bright and striking color patterns is a widespread way of communication in many animal species. Carotenoid-based coloration accounts for most of the bright yellow, orange, and red displays in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, being widely considered a signal of individual health. This type of coloration is under the influence of several factors, such as sexual selection, predator pressure, pigment availability, and light transmission. Fish offer numerous examples of visual communication by means of color patterns...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757965/nutrition-of-six-selected-neo-tropical-mammals-in-trinidad-and-tobago-with-the-potential-for-domestication
#11
REVIEW
Kavita Ranjeeta Lall, Kegan Romelle Jones, Gary Wayne Garcia
This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication-the agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina / D. aguti ), lappe ( Agouti paca ), capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ), manicou/opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis insularis ), collared peccary ( Peccary tajucu ) and the red brokcet deer ( Mazama americana ). Over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. The earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. The references used in this review were synthesized to give a detailed look of the dentition, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and type of feed these animals consume...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750837/subordinate-females-in-the-cooperatively-breeding-seychelles-warbler-obtain-direct-benefits-by-joining-unrelated-groups
#12
Frank Groenewoud, Sjouke A Kingma, Martijn Hammers, Hannah L Dugdale, Terry Burke, David S Richardson, Jan Komdeur
1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750563/how-life-history-shapes-optimal-patterns-of-senescence-implications-from-individuals-to-societies
#13
Natalie J Lemanski, Nina H Fefferman
One evolutionary view of aging, the disposable soma theory, suggests that an organism's rate of senescence depends on the amount of energy invested in somatic maintenance. Since organisms have limited energy to allocate among growth, maintenance, and reproduction, the optimal amount of energy to invest in maintenance is influenced by the probability of death from extrinsic causes and the effect of somatic investment on survival. In eusocial animals, the disposable soma theory can be used to explain colonies' energy investment in the longevity of workers, who act as the somatic elements of a superorganism...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727988/effects-of-waterborne-antidepressants-on-non-target-animals-living-in-the-aquatic-environment-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Pavla Sehonova, Zdenka Svobodova, Petra Dolezelova, Petra Vosmerova, Caterina Faggio
After application, antidepressants, like other pharmaceuticals, are excreted from human body in their native form or as metabolites and enter the aquatic environment via different pathways. As concentrations of antidepressant residues in water continue to increase, their effects on non-target animals are being discussed. The aim of this study is to summarize current knowledge about the effects of wateborne antidepressants on non-target animals living in surface waters - invertebrates, fish and amphibians. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram have been found to effect behavior, reproduction, and development in both invertebrates and vertebrates...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726960/genetic-and-phenotypic-parameters-for-litter-size-survival-rate-gestation-length-and-litter-weight-traits-in-american-mink
#15
K Karimi, M Sargolzaei, G S Plastow, Z Wang, Y Miar
The economic efficiency of mink production is greatly influenced by reproductive performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for reproduction traits including total number of kits born (TB), number of live kits at birth (LB), number of live kits at weaning (LW), survival rate at birth (SB), survival rate at weaning (SW), gestation length (GL), average kit weight per litter at birth (AWB), average kit weight per litter at week three (AW3) and average kit weight per litter at weaning (AWW) in American mink...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721805/leptospirosis-is-strongly-associated-to-estrus-repetition-on-cattle
#16
H A Libonati, G B Santos, G N Souza, F Z Brandão, W Lilenbaum
Although prevalent, the exact impact of infectious diseases on reproductive failures remains to be determined. Among them, leptospirosis has commonly been reported as cause of abortions on outbreaks. Nevertheless, the majority of the animals present a chronic, silent form of the disease, which is characterized by low reproductive efficiency and is frequently neglected. In that context, we conducted a study that aims to estimate the impact of chronic leptospirosis on reproductive disorders on cattle. A total of 25 different dairy herds with history of reproductive losses from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were selected...
May 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721804/effects-of-supplementing-barodon-bacillus-subtilis-and-ampbio-on-growth-performance-biochemical-metabolites-and-hormone-levels-in-korean-native-heifers
#17
Tae-Il Kim, Dong-Hyun Lim, Sun-Sik Jang, Sang-Bum Kim, Seong-Min Park, Ji-Hoo Park, Kwang-Seok Ki, Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing feed additives of Barodon®, effective microorganism® (Bacillus (B.) subtilis), and Ampbio® on the growth performance, blood metabolites, stress, and reproductive hormone levels of Korean native heifers. A total of 48 Korean native heifers were assigned to four groups with 6 heifers in each group. The groups were control, Barodon (0.2%), beneficial microorganism (1%), and Ampbio (1%). Animals in all groups were fed a basal diet composed of selected feed additives and water ad libitum for 99 days...
May 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718594/pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-studies-and-prostatic-tissue-distribution-of-fosfomycin-tromethamine-in-bacterial-prostatitis-or-normal-rats
#18
L Fan, X Shang, J Zhu, B Ma, Q Zhang
In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of fosfomycin tromethamine (FT) in a bacterial prostatitis (BP) rat model. The BP model was induced by Escherichia coli and was demonstrated after 7 days microbiologically and histologically. Then, 25 BP rats selected were randomly divided into five treatment groups: model group, positive group, FT-3 day group, FT-7 day group and FT-14 day group. Ventral lobes of prostate from all animals were removed, and the serum samples were collected at the end of the experiments...
May 2, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715633/the-detoxification-effect-of-vitamin-c-on-zearalenone-toxicity-in-piglets
#19
Yang Su, Yuchen Sun, Daxin Ju, Siying Chang, Baoming Shi, Anshan Shan
Zearalenone (ZEN), one of the more virulent mycotoxins occurred in various cereals and feed during recent decades and made serious health hazards to plants, animals and humans. Vitamin C (Vc) has been shown to be an effective antidote to zearalenone. In this paper, the effects of diets containing zearalenone on the growth performance, genital organ and immunoglobulin of weaning piglets and the toxicity alleviation of vitamin C were studied. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age and 32 healthy female hybrid weaning piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large white) with a mean weight of 12...
April 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706148/fluoxetine-treatment-of-prepubertal-male-rats-uniformly-diminishes-sex-hormone-levels-and-in-a-subpopulation-of-animals-negatively-affects-sperm-quality
#20
María E Ayala, Ayari Gonzáles, Rodrigo M Olivarez, Andrés Aragón-Martínez
Fluoxetine (Flx) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that alters the male reproductive system when administered at the adult stage or after maternal exposure. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Flx administration on reproductive parameters during juvenile-peripubertal development when treated male rats reached adulthood. Groups of rats were treated daily with Flx (5mgkg-1, i.p.) or saline (0.9% NaCl), or were left untreated. Rats were treated between 30 and 53 days of age and were killed at 65 days of age...
April 30, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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