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Reproduction animal selective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150984/how-the-environment-shapes-animal-signals-a-test-of-the-acoustic-adaptation-hypothesis-in-frogs
#1
Sandra Goutte, Alain Dubois, Samuel D Howard, Rafael Márquez, Jodi J L Rowley, J Maximilian Dehling, Philippe Grandcolas, Rongchuan Xiong, Frédéric Legendre
Long distance acoustic signals are widely used in animal communication systems and, in many cases, essential for reproduction. The Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis (AAH) implies that acoustic signals should be selected for further transmission and better content integrity under the acoustic constraints of the habitat in which they are produced. In the present study, we test predictions derived from the AAH in frogs. Specifically, we focus on the difference between torrent frogs and frogs calling in less noisy habitats...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145051/towards-stressor-specific-macroinvertebrate-indices-which-traits-and-taxonomic-groups-are-associated-with-vulnerable-and-tolerant-taxa
#2
Elisabeth Berger, Peter Haase, Ralf B Schäfer, Andrea Sundermann
Monitoring of macroinvertebrate communities is frequently used to define the ecological health status of rivers. Ideally, biomonitoring should also give an indication on the major stressors acting on the macroinvertebrate communities supporting the selection of appropriate management measures. However, most indices are affected by more than one stressor. Biological traits (e.g. size, generation time, reproduction) could potentially lead to more stressor-specific indices. However, such an approach has rarely been tested...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#3
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131842/positive-selection-and-comparative-molecular-evolution-of-reproductive-proteins-from-new-zealand-tree-weta-orthoptera-hemideina
#4
Victoria G Twort, Alice B Dennis, Duckchul Park, Kathryn F Lomas, Richard D Newcomb, Thomas R Buckley
Animal reproductive proteins, especially those in the seminal fluid, have been shown to have higher levels of divergence than non-reproductive proteins and are often evolving adaptively. Seminal fluid proteins have been implicated in the formation of reproductive barriers between diverging lineages, and hence represent interesting candidates underlying speciation. RNA-seq was used to generate the first male reproductive transcriptome for the New Zealand tree weta species Hemideina thoracica and H. crassidens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115819/whole-life-stage-characterization-in-the-basic-biology-of-daphnia-magna-and-effects-of-tdcipp-on-growth-reproduction-survival-and-transcription-of-genes
#5
Han Li, Siliang Yuan, Guanyong Su, Meng Li, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu, Robert J Letcher, Yufei Li, Zhihua Han, Chunsheng Liu
Toxicity tests of chemicals have mainly focused on the partial life-cycle evaluation of model animals. Limited information is available for the evaluation of effects of chemicals from a whole-life-stage exposure perspective. The objective of this study was to perform a whole-life-stage characterization in the basic biology of Daphnia magna (D. magna) and evaluate the effects of a known organophosphate ester (OPE) contaminant, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), on growth, reproduction, survival, and transcription of genes...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110348/evaporative-cooling-in-late-gestation-heat-stressed-murrah-buffaloes-increases-efficiency-of-next-reproductive-cycle
#6
O Aarif, A Aggarwal, A A Sheikh
Evaporative cooling during late gestation period improves post-partum reproductive performance in Murrah buffaloes. To prove this hypothesis, sixteen pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes at sixty days pre-partum were selected and divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group 1 of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling during dry period, whereas second group of buffaloes (non-cooled/NCL) remained without the provision of cooling. After parturition, all the animals were managed under evaporative cooling till the end of experimental period...
November 7, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096271/different-inflammatory-responses-of-bovine-oviductal-epithelial-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro-to-bacterial-species-with-distinct-pathogenicity-characteristics-and-passage-number
#7
S Danesh Mesgaran, M A Gärtner, K Wagener, M Drillich, M Ehling-Schulz, R Einspanier, C Gabler
The bovine oviduct provides the site for fertilization and early embryonic development. Modifications to this physiological environment, for instance the presence of pathogenic bacterial species, could diminish reproductive success at early stages of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inflammatory responses of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) to a pathogenic bacterial species (Trueperella pyogenes) and a potentially pathogenic bacterium (Bacillus pumilus). BOEC from four healthy animals were isolated, cultured in passage 0 (P0) and passaged until P3...
October 5, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082661/the-ecology-of-pre-dispersal-insect-herbivory-on-tree-reproductive-structures-in-natural-forest-ecosystems
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Boivin, Violette Doublet, Jean-Noël Candau
Plant-insect interactions are key model systems to assess how some species affect the distribution, the abundance, and the evolution of others. Tree reproductive structures represent a critical resource for many insect species, which can be likely drivers of demography, spatial distribution, and trait diversification of plants. In this review, we present the ecological implications of pre-dispersal herbivory on tree reproductive structures by insects (PIHR) in forest ecosystems. Both insect's and tree's perspectives are addressed with an emphasis on how spatio-temporal variation and unpredictability in seed availability can shape such particular plant-animal interactions...
October 30, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080297/a-role-for-selective-contraception-of-individuals-in-conservation-management-programs
#9
REVIEW
Holly R Cope, Carolyn J Hogg, Peter J White, Catherine A Herbert
Contraception has an established role to play in managing overabundant populations and preventing undesirable breeding in zoos. We propose that it can also be used strategically and selectively in conservation management programs to increase the genetic and behavioural quality of the animals. In captive breeding programs, it is becoming increasingly important to maximise the retention of genetic diversity by managing the reproductive contribution of each individual, and preventing genetically suboptimal breeding, through the use of selective contraception...
October 28, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077845/direct-actions-of-androgen-estrogen-and-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-on-primate-secondary-follicle-development-in-the-absence-of-fsh-in-vitro
#10
T Baba, A Y Ting, O Tkachenko, J Xu, R L Stouffer
STUDY QUESTION: What are effects of androgen, estrogen and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), independent of FSH action, on the development and function of primate follicles from the preantral to small antral stage in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: Androgen and estrogen, but not AMH, promote follicle survival and growth in vitro, in the absence of FSH. However, their growth-promoting effects are limited to the preantral to early antral stage. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FSH supports primate preantral follicle development in vitro...
October 25, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065468/a-summary-of-new-findings-on-the-biological-effects-of-selenium-in-selected-animal-species-a-critical-review
#11
REVIEW
Bozena Hosnedlova, Marta Kepinska, Sylvie Skalickova, Carlos Fernandez, Branislav Ruttkay-Nedecky, Thembinkosi Donald Malevu, Jiri Sochor, Mojmir Baron, Magdalena Melcova, Jarmila Zidkova, Rene Kizek
Selenium is an essential trace element important for many physiological processes, especially for the functions of immune and reproductive systems, metabolism of thyroid hormones, as well as antioxidant defense. Selenium deficiency is usually manifested by an increased incidence of retention of placenta, metritis, mastitis, aborts, lowering fertility and increased susceptibility to infections. In calves, lambs and kids, the selenium deficiency demonstrates by WMD (white muscle disease), in foals and donkey foals, it is associated with incidence of WMD and yellow fat disease, and in pigs it causes VESD (vitamin E/selenium deficiency) syndrome...
October 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061899/cognitive-innovations-and-the-evolutionary-biology-of-expertise
#12
REVIEW
Reuven Dukas
Animal life can be perceived as the selective use of information for maximizing survival and reproduction. All organisms including bacteria and protists rely on genetic networks to build and modulate sophisticated structures and biochemical mechanisms for perceiving information and responding to environmental changes. Animals, however, have gone through a series of innovations that dramatically increased their capacity to acquire, retain and act upon information. Multicellularity was associated with the evolution of the nervous system, which took over many tasks of internal communication and coordination...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055050/an-evolutionary-framework-outlining-the-integration-of-individual-social-and-spatial-ecology
#13
REVIEW
Quinn M R Webber, Eric Vander Wal
1.Behaviour is the interface between an organism and its environment, and behavioural plasticity is important for organisms to cope with environmental change. Social behaviour is particularly important because sociality is a dynamic process, where environmental variation influences group dynamics and social plasticity can mediate resource acquisition. Heterogeneity in the ecological environment can therefore influence the social environment. The combination of the ecological and social environments may be interpreted collectively as the 'socioecological' environment', which could explain variation in fitness...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053852/genome-wide-scan-and-analysis-of-positive-selective-signatures-in-dwarf-brown-egg-layers-and-silky-fowl-chickens
#14
Mengmeng Zhang, Liu Yang, Zhencheng Su, Muzhen Zhu, Wenting Li, Keliang Wu, Xuemei Deng
Chinese domestic chickens have been routinely subjected to artificial selection for the production of meats and eggs. Selection results in distinctive signatures in the genome that can reveal the genes underlying phenotypes of interest to breeders. In this study, we used the Chicken60K SNP chip to analyze DNA from Dwarf Brown-egg Layers (DB, n = 203) and Silky Fowls (SF, n = 181) and then examined the relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) and fixation index (FST) to detect selection signatures. Since population structure analysis showed that SF was stratified into 2 subpopulations (SF1 and SF2), we removed the 20 SF1 chickens, and the remaining individuals (DB and SF2) were scanned for genome-wide selection signatures...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053679/measuring-the-effect-of-chemicals-on-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
So Young Lee, Kyungsu Kang
Toxicological evaluation is crucial for understanding the effects of chemicals on living organisms in basic and applied biological science fields. A non-mammalian soil round worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a valuable model organism for toxicology studies due to its convenience and lack of animal ethics issues compared with mammalian animal systems. In this protocol, a detailed procedure of toxicological evaluation of chemicals in C. elegans is described. A clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which targets human topoisomerase II and inhibits DNA replication of human cancer cells, was selected as a model testing chemical...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047335/candidate-lethal-haplotypes-and-causal-mutations-in-angus-cattle
#16
Jesse L Hoff, Jared E Decker, Robert D Schnabel, Jeremy F Taylor
BACKGROUND: If unmanaged, high rates of inbreeding in livestock populations adversely impact their reproductive fitness. In beef cattle, historical selection strategies have increased the frequency of several segregating fatal autosomal recessive polymorphisms. Selective breeding has also decreased the extent of haplotypic diversity genome-wide. By identifying haplotypes for which homozygotes are not observed but would be expected based on their frequency, candidates for developmentally lethal recessive loci can be localized...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041900/mutual-maintenance-of-di-and-triploid-pelophylax-esculentus-hybrids-in-r-e-systems-results-from-artificial-crossings-experiments
#17
Dmitry Dedukh, Spartak Litvinchuk, Juriy Rosanov, Dmitry Shabanov, Alla Krasikova
BACKGROUND: Interspecies animal hybrids can employ clonal or hemiclonal reproduction modes where one or all parental genomes are transmitted to the progeny without recombination. Nevertheless, some interspecies hybrids retain strong connection with the parental species needed for successful reproduction. Appearance of polyploid hybrid animals may play an important role in the substitution of parental species and in the speciation process. RESULTS: To establish the mechanisms that enable parental species, diploid and polyploid hybrids coexist we have performed artificial crossing experiments of water frogs of Pelophylax esculentus complex...
October 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040879/influence-of-sexual-behavior-of-dorper-rams-treated-with-glutamate-and-or-testosterone-on-reproductive-performance-of-anovulatory-ewes
#18
Guadalupe Calderón-Leyva, Cesar A Meza-Herrera, Rafael Rodriguez-Martinez, Oscar Angel-García, Raymundo Rivas-Muñoz, Juan V Delgado-Bermejo, Francisco G Véliz-Deras
The aim of this study was to determine if exogenous administration of glutamate and (or) testosterone to male rams during the season of reproductive arrest is able to re-activate male sexual behavior and, later on, to promote through the male effect, both sexual and reproductive competence of anovulatory nulliparous ewes. Therefore, an experiment was performed under long-day photoperiods (spring; photo-reproductive arrest, 26°N). Dorper rams were randomly divided into four homogeneous experimental groups (n = 5 males each) regarding live weight (LW), body condition score (BCS), scrotal circumference (SC) and odor intensity (OI)...
October 9, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028072/vitamin-d-in-human-reproduction-the-more-the-better-an-evidence-based-critical-appraisal
#19
A S Laganà, S G Vitale, H Ban Frangež, E Vrtačnik-Bokal, R D'Anna
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone that regulates calcium, magnesium, and phosphate homeostasis and plays a pivotal role as antiproliferative and immunomodulatory mediator. Considering the different sources of synthesis and dietary intake as well as the pleiotropic actions in extremely diverse (micro)environments of the body, the supplementation of this Vitamin should be carefully evaluated taking into account the several pathways that it regulates. In the current brief review, we aimed to summarize the available evidence about the topic, in order to suggest the best evidence-based supplementation strategy for human reproduction, avoiding the unuseful (and sometimes hazardous) empiric supplementation...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026980/evolution-of-the-androgen-induced-male-phenotype
#20
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Barney A Schlinger
The masculine reproductive phenotype varies significantly across vertebrates. As a result, biologists have long recognized that many of the mechanisms that support these phenotypes-particularly the androgenic system-is evolutionarily labile, and thus susceptible to the effects of selection for different traits. However, exactly how androgenic signaling systems vary in a way which results in dramatically different functional outputs, remain largely unclear. We explore this topic here by outlining four key-but non-mutually exclusive-hypotheses that propose how the mechanisms of androgenic signaling might change over time to potentiate the emergence of phenotypical variation in masculine behavior and physiology...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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