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Reproduction animal selective

Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Göran Arnqvist, David Berger
Sexual selection can increase rates of adaptation by imposing stronger selection in males, thereby allowing efficient purging of the mutation load on population fitness at a low demographic cost. Indeed, sexual selection tends to be male-biased throughout the animal kingdom, but little empirical work has explored the ecological sensitivity of this sex difference. In this study, we generated theoretical predictions of sex-specific strengths of selection, environmental sensitivities and genotype-by-environment interactions, and tested them in seed beetles by manipulating either larval host plant or rearing temperature...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Neila Marouani, Olfa Tebourbi, Donia Cherif, Dorsaf Hallegue, Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi, Mohsen Sakly, Moncef Benkhalifa, Khemais Ben Rhouma
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used worldwide in agriculture as a selective herbicide. It has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects on the health of both animals and humans from embryotoxicity and teratogenicity to neurotoxicity. In the present study, we have examined the effect of 2,4-D on male reproductive function of rats. Male Wistar rats received daily by force-feeding 100 or 200 mg of 2,4-D/kg body weight for 30 consecutive days. Rats exposed to 100 and 200 mg of 2,4-D/kg showed a significant decrease in body weights only after 24 days of treatment and in relative weights of testis, seminal vesicles and prostate at killing day, when compared with controls...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S Vinothraj, A Subramaniyan, R Venkataramanan, Cecilia Joseph, S N Sivaselvam
AIM: The present investigation was undertaken to study the reproduction performance and effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction performance of Jersey crossbred cows. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 355 Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Post-graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences, Kattupakkam, Tamil Nadu, distributed over 30 years (1985 to 2014). The effect of various non-genetic factors including the period of birth, season of birth, period of calving, season of calving and parity were analyzed through least-squares analyses using univariate general linear model...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Waleed F A Marei, D Claire Wathes, Kabir A Raheem, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Fataneh Ghafari, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta
An increasing number of reports suggests a role of hyaluronan (HA) in female reproduction and interest in its application in assisted reproduction is rising. However, there are contrasting data about the effectiveness of adding HA to the embryo-transfer medium on improving pregnancy rates. Using sheep as an experimental model, the studies reported here analysed the impact of HA infusion into the uterus on embryo attachment to uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and expression of selected markers of uterine receptivity...
October 11, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
A A Mandawala, S C Harvey, T K Roy, K E Fowler
In vitro fertilisation is an effective method of assisted reproductive technology in both humans and certain non-human animal species. In most species, specifically, in humans and livestock, high in vitro fertilisation success rates are achieved via the transfer of embryos with the highest implantation and subsequent developmental potential. In order to reduce the risk of multiple gestation, which could be a result of the transfer of several embryos per cycle, restrictive transfer policies and methods to improve single embryo selection have been implemented...
September 29, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
C A Bauman, H W Barkema, J Dubuc, G P Keefe, D F Kelton
The objective of this study was to identify the key management and disease issues affecting the Canadian dairy industry. An online questionnaire (FluidSurveys, was conducted between March 1 and May 31, 2014. A total of 1,025 responses were received from across Canada of which 68% (n = 698) of respondents were dairy producers, and the remaining respondents represented veterinarians, university researchers, government personnel, and other allied industries. Participants were asked to identify their top 3 management and disease priorities from 2 lists offered...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Glenn T Crossin, Tony D Williams
When successive stages in the life history of an animal directly overlap, physiological conflicts can arise resulting in carryover effects from one stage to another. The extreme egg-size dimorphism (ESD) of Eudyptes penguins, where the first-laid A-egg is approximately 18-57% smaller than the second-laid B-egg, has interested researchers for decades. Recent studies have linked variation in this trait to a carryover effect of migration that limits the physiology of yolk production and egg sizes. We assembled data on ESD and estimates of migration-reproduction overlap in penguin species and use phylogenetic methods to test the idea that migration-reproduction overlap explains variation in ESD...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Karen B Barnard-Kubow, Morgan A McCoy, Laura F Galloway
Although organelle inheritance is predominantly maternal across animals and plants, biparental chloroplast inheritance has arisen multiple times in the angiosperms. Biparental inheritance has the potential to impact the evolutionary dynamics of cytonuclear incompatibility, interactions between nuclear and organelle genomes that are proposed to be among the earliest types of genetic incompatibility to arise in speciation. We examine the interplay between biparental inheritance and cytonuclear incompatibility in Campanulastrum americanum, a plant species exhibiting both traits...
September 30, 2016: New Phytologist
Laurence Puillet, Denis Réale, Nicolas C Friggens
BACKGROUND: Feed efficiency of farm animals has greatly improved through genetic selection for production. Today, we are faced with the limits of our ability to predict the effect of selection on feed efficiency, partly because the relative importance of the components of this complex phenotype changes across environments. Thus, we developed a dairy cow model that incorporates the dynamic interplay between life functions and evaluated its behaviour with a global sensitivity analysis on two definitions of feed efficiency...
September 26, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Kenton A Buck, Claire W Varian-Ramos, Daniel A Cristol, John P Swaddle
Mercury is a ubiquitous metal contaminant that negatively impacts reproduction of wildlife and has many other sub-lethal effects. Songbirds are sensitive bioindicators of mercury toxicity and may suffer population declines as a result of mercury pollution. Current predictions of mercury accumulation and biomagnification often overlook possible genetic variation in mercury uptake and elimination within species and the potential for evolution in affected populations. We conducted a study of dietary mercury exposure in a model songbird species, maintaining a breeding population of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) on standardized diets ranging from 0...
2016: PloS One
Xu Wang, María Aránzazu Martínez, Qinghua Wu, Irma Ares, María Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Arturo Anadón, Zonghui Yuan
Fipronil (FIP) is widely used across the world as a broad-spectrum phenylpyrazole insecticide and veterinary drug. FIP was the insecticide to act by targeting the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and has favorable selective toxicity towards insects rather than mammals. However, because of accidental exposure, incorrect use of FIP or widespread FIP use leading to the contamination of water and soil, there is increasing evidence that FIP could cause a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, reproductive, and cytotoxic effects on vertebrate and invertebrates...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Shenxuan Liang, Lei Yin, Kevin Shengyang Yu, Marie-Claude Hofmann, Xiaozhong Yu
Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting compound, was found to be a testicular toxicant in animal models. Bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were recently introduced to the market as alternatives to BPA. However, toxicological data of these compounds in the male reproductive system are still limited so far. This study developed and validated an automated multi-parametric high-content analysis (HCA) using the C18-4 spermatogonial cell line as a model. We applied these validated HCA, including nuclear morphology, DNA content, cell cycle progression, DNA synthesis, cytoskeleton integrity, and DNA damage responses, to characterize and compare the testicular toxicities of BPA and 3 selected commercial available BPA analogues, BPS, BPAF, and TBBPA...
September 14, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
C Lindstedt, E Schroderus, L Lindström, T Mappes, J Mappes
To predict evolutionary responses of warning signals under selection, we need to determine the inheritance pattern of the signals, and how they are genetically correlated with other traits contributing to fitness. Furthermore, protective coloration often undergoes remarkable changes within an individual's lifecycle, requiring us to quantify the genetic constraints of adaptive coloration across all the relevant life stages. Based on a 12 generation pedigree with > 11,000 individuals of the wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis), we show that high primary defense as a larva (large warning signal) results in weaker defenses as adult (less efficient warning color), due to the negative genetic correlation between the efficacy of larval and adult warning coloration...
October 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Madeleine Beekman, Bart Nieuwenhuis, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos, Jonathan P Evans
Darwin was the first to recognize that sexual selection is a strong evolutionary force. Exaggerated traits allow same-sex individuals to compete over access to mates and provide a mechanism by which mates are selected. It is relatively easy to appreciate how inter- and intrasexual selection work in organisms with the sensory capabilities to perceive physical or behavioural traits that signal mate quality or mate compatibility, and to assess the relative quality of competitors. It is therefore not surprising that most studies of sexual selection have focused on animals with separate sexes and obvious adaptations that function in the context of reproductive competition...
October 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Janek Urvik, Richard Meitern, Kalev Rattiste, Lauri Saks, Peeter Hõrak, Tuul Sepp
Age-related declines in life-history traits have been widely observed in free-living animals. Several theories link senescence to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure several widely used markers of oxidative and nutritional state in a long-lived seabird, the common gull (Larus canus), in order to assess the suitability of these markers for describing deterioration in physiological condition associated with chronological age and survival. Associations with longevity and individual consistency of these parameters over the years (repeatability) were also assessed...
September 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Veli-Matti Pakanen, Markku Orell, Emma Vatka, Seppo Rytkönen, Juli Broggi
Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation...
2016: PloS One
Ghader Mirzaghaderi, Elvira Hörandl
Meiosis is an ancestral, highly conserved process in eukaryotic life cycles, and for all eukaryotes the shared component of sexual reproduction. The benefits and functions of meiosis, however, are still under discussion, especially considering the costs of meiotic sex. To get a novel view on this old problem, we filter out the most conserved elements of meiosis itself by reviewing the various modifications and alterations of modes of reproduction. Our rationale is that the indispensable steps of meiosis for viability of offspring would be maintained by strong selection, while dispensable steps would be variable...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Christopher R von Rueden, Adrian V Jaeggi
Social status motivates much of human behavior. However, status may have been a relatively weak target of selection for much of human evolution if ancestral foragers tended to be more egalitarian. We test the "egalitarianism hypothesis" that status has a significantly smaller effect on reproductive success (RS) in foragers compared with nonforagers. We also test between alternative male reproductive strategies, in particular whether reproductive benefits of status are due to lower offspring mortality (parental investment) or increased fertility (mating effort)...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R Brian Langerhans, Christopher M Anderson, Justa L Heinen-Kay
The study of genital diversity has experienced rapidly burgeoning attention over the past few decades. This research has shown that male genitalia in internally fertilizing animals exhibit remarkably rapid and complex evolution. In recent years, a consensus has emerged that sexual selection is responsible for much of the observed genital diversity, with natural selection largely playing a subsidiary role. Despite enhanced understanding of the key proximate forms of selection responsible for genital evolution, we still have a poor grasp of the broader, ultimate causes and consequences of the striking diversity of genitalia...
October 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Donald L Mykles, Karen G Burnett, David S Durica, Jonathon H Stillman
Crustaceans, and decapods in particular (i.e., crabs, shrimp, and lobsters), are a diverse and ecologically and commercially important group of organisms. Understanding responses to abiotic and biotic factors is critical for developing best practices in aquaculture and assessing the effects of changing environments on the biology of these important animals. A relatively small number of decapod crustacean species have been intensively studied at the molecular level; the availability, experimental tractability, and economic relevance factor into the selection of a particular species as a model...
September 1, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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