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Reproduction animal selective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352501/predictors-of-beef-calf-temperament-at-weaning-and-its-impact-on-temperament-at-breeding-and-reproductive-performance
#1
V R Kasimanickam, R L Abdel Aziz, H M Williams, R K Kasimanickam
Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) factors influencing calf temperament at weaning, (ii) association between heifer-calf temperament at weaning and temperament at breeding and (iii) effect of heifer-calf temperament on pregnancy rate per artificial insemination (P/AI). In experiment 1, beef cows and their calves (n = 285) from three farms were used. Sire docility estimated progeny difference (EPD) score, birth type (normal or assisted), calf gender, calf behaviour (during 1st 4 weeks) and calf health status (until weaning) were recorded...
January 19, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347954/a-reverse-vaccinology-approach-to-the-identification-and-characterization-of-ctenocephalides-felis-candidate-protective-antigens-for-the-control-of-cat-flea-infestations
#2
Marinela Contreras, Margarita Villar, Sara Artigas-Jerónimo, Lidiia Kornieieva, Sergіі Mуtrofanov, José de la Fuente
BACKGROUND: Despite the abundance of the domestic cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835) and disease risks associated with them, flea control is difficult and requires the development of new control interventions such as vaccines. In this study, a reverse vaccinology approach was designed to achieve a rational selection of cat flea candidate protective antigens. METHODS: Based on transcriptomics and proteomics data from unfed adult fleas it was possible to select more specific candidate protective antigens based on highly represented and functionally relevant proteins present in the predicted exoproteome...
January 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346437/tissue-specific-transcriptome-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-gpcr-signalling-in-adult-schistosoma-mansoni
#3
REVIEW
Steffen Hahnel, Nic Wheeler, Zhigang Lu, Arporn Wangwiwatsin, Paul McVeigh, Aaron Maule, Matthew Berriman, Timothy Day, Paula Ribeiro, Christoph G Grevelding
Schistosomes are blood-dwelling trematodes with global impact on human and animal health. Because medical treatment is currently based on a single drug, praziquantel, there is urgent need for the development of alternative control strategies. The Schistosoma mansoni genome project provides a platform to study and connect the genetic repertoire of schistosomes to specific biological functions essential for successful parasitism. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest superfamily of transmembrane receptors throughout the Eumetazoan phyla, including platyhelminths...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337356/stabilizing-selection-on-sperm-number-revealed-by-artificial-selection-and-experimental-evolution
#4
Silvia Cattelan, Andrea Di Nisio, Andrea Pilastro
Sperm competition is taxonomically widespread in animals and is usually associated with large sperm production, being the number of sperm in the competing pool the prime predictor of fertilization success. Despite the strong postcopulatory selection acting directionally on sperm production, its genetic variance is often very high. This can be explained by trade-offs between sperm production and traits associated with mate acquisition or survival, that may contribute to generate an overall stabilizing selection...
January 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334660/global-proteomic-analysis-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-saliva-at-different-stages-of-estrous-cycle-using-high-throughput-mass-spectrometry
#5
N G Shashikumar, R K Baithalu, S Bathla, S A Ali, P Rawat, A Kumaresan, S Kumar, B R Maharana, G Singh, D S Puneeth Kumar, S K Singh, S S Lathwal, L Jaiswal, T K Mohanty, A K Mohanty
Accurate and efficient detection of estrus is one of the major constraints for exploitation of the production potential of buffalo owing to its poor manifestation of estrus signs, seasonal differences in expression and higher incidences of silent estrus (29%). The current study focused on identification of estrus specific candidate proteins in saliva of buffaloes. Estrus was detected based on behavioral signs in response to the teaser and changes in reproductive organs and confirmed by per-rectal examination, trans-rectal USG of reproductive organs, cervico-vaginal mucus characteristics and blood serum progesterone estimation...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318021/linking-seasonal-home-range-size-with-habitat-selection-and-movement-in-a-mountain-ungulate
#6
Duarte S Viana, José Enrique Granados, Paulino Fandos, Jesús M Pérez, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Daniel Burón, Guillermo Fandos, María Ángeles Párraga Aguado, Jordi Figuerola, Ramón C Soriguer
Background: Space use by animals is determined by the interplay between movement and the environment, and is thus mediated by habitat selection, biotic interactions and intrinsic factors of moving individuals. These processes ultimately determine home range size, but their relative contributions and dynamic nature remain less explored. We investigated the role of habitat selection, movement unrelated to habitat selection and intrinsic factors related to sex in driving space use and home range size in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica...
2018: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306096/embryotoxic-cytokines-potential-roles-in-embryo-loss-and-fetal-programming
#7
REVIEW
Sarah A Robertson, Peck-Yin Chin, Joseph G Femia, Hannah M Brown
Cytokines in the reproductive tract environment at conception mediate a dialogue between the embryo and maternal tissues to profoundly influence embryo development and implantation success. Through effects on gene expression and the cell stress response, cytokines elicit an epigenetic impact with consequences for placental development and fetal growth, which in turn affect metabolic phenotype and long-term health of offspring. There is substantial evidence demonstrating that pro-survival cytokines, such as GM-CSF, CSF1, LIF, HB-EGF and IGFII, support embryos to develop optimally...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289779/screening-of-organic-pollutants-in-pet-hair-samples-and-the-significance-of-environmental-factors
#8
Xiana González-Gómez, Noelia Cambeiro-Pérez, Elena Martínez-Carballo, Jesús Simal-Gándara
Organic pollutants (OPs) represent a wide range of chemicals that are potentially harmful for human and wildlife health. Many of these pollutants have been identified as endocrine disruptors that can alter hormonal balance producing adverse biological effects such as neurotoxicity, reproductive disorders, carcinogenicity and hepatotoxicity. For years, hair has been selected as a non-invasive source to assess levels of animal contamination. In the present study, a multiclass screening method for determining about 60 organic pollutants in pet hair was designed and validated for qualitative and quantitative purposes...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289354/the-role-of-seasonal-migration-in-population-divergence-and-reproductive-isolation
#9
REVIEW
Sheela P Turbek, Elizabeth S C Scordato, Rebecca J Safran
Seasonal journeys between breeding and non-breeding habitat are undertaken by a diverse array of animals. Parallel developments in tracking and genomic methods are enabling finer resolution of these movements and their role in the evolutionary process. Evidence from allopatric and co-occurring breeding populations indicates that variation in migratory behavior is often associated with genetic differentiation. While assortative mating and selection against hybrids due to divergent migratory phenotypes can contribute to reproductive isolation, the details of these mechanisms remain unclear...
December 27, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279199/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-antral-follicle-count-afc-external-morphometrics-and-fertility-in-tabapu%C3%A3-cows
#10
Renata Maculan, Tássia Louregiani Carvalho Pinto, Gabriel Miranda Moreira, Gisvani Lopes de Vasconcelos, Jesus Afonso Sanches, Ricardo Garcia Rosa, Rafael Ribeiro Bonfim, Tarcisio de Moraes Gonçalves, José Camisão de Souza
The intense selection of characteristics related to animal performance may affect the reproductive efficiency of beef cows negatively. Selection for fertility along with production traits is, therefore, readily justifiable. The objective of the present study was to evaluate possible relationships among AFC, serum AMH concentrations and external morphometrics with reproductive efficiency in Tabapuã (a Brazilian Bos indicus beef breed) females. Antral follicle counts and external morphometrics were measured in nulliparous (n = 162), primiparous (n = 80) and multiparous (n = 351) cows, from four farms...
December 23, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275156/aripiprazole-use-during-pregnancy-peripartum-and-lactation-a-systematic-literature-search-and-review-to-inform-clinical-practice
#11
REVIEW
A Cuomo, A Goracci, A Fagiolini
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole is used relatively frequently in women with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in childbearing years, owing to its efficacy and relatively favorable side effect profile. As is the case for other psychotropic medications, for ethical reasons, no prospective randomized placebo controlled trial to assess aripiprazole safety during pregnancy has ever been conducted. However, animal data are available and the amount of exposure and outcome data for human fetuses and infants has recently increased, providing published prospective safety data in relatively large numbers of pregnant women treated with aripiprazole...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274186/slow-evolution-of-sex-biased-genes-in-the-reproductive-tissue-of-the-dioecious-plant-salix-viminalis
#12
Iulia Darolti, Alison E Wright, Pascal Pucholt, Sofia Berlin, Judith E Mank
The relative rate of evolution for sex-biased genes has often been used as a measure of the strength of sex-specific selection. In contrast to studies in a wide variety of animals, far less is known about the molecular evolution of sex-biased genes in plants, particularly in dioecious angiosperms. Here, we investigate the gene expression patterns and evolution of sex-biased genes in the dioecious plant Salix viminalis. We observe lower rates of sequence evolution for male-biased genes expressed in the reproductive tissue compared to unbiased and female-biased genes...
December 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238553/understanding-predation-risk-and-individual-variation-in-risk-avoidance-for-threatened-boreal-caribou
#13
Matthew A Mumma, Michael P Gillingham, Chris J Johnson, Katherine L Parker
Predation risk is a driver of species' distributions. Animals can increase risk avoidance in response to fluctuations in predation risk, but questions remain regarding individual variability and the capacity to respond to changes in spatial risk across human-altered landscapes. In northeast British Columbia, Canada, boreal caribou populations declined as roads and seismic lines have increased, which are theorized to increase gray wolf predation. Our goal was to model risk and to evaluate individual variability and the development of risk perception by examining individual risk avoidance in response to reproductive status and age...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238547/temporal-constraints-on-the-potential-role-of-fry-odors-as-cues-of-past-reproductive-success-for-spawning-lake-trout
#14
Tyler J Buchinger, J Ellen Marsden, Thomas R Binder, Mar Huertas, Ugo Bussy, Ke Li, James E Hanson, Charles C Krueger, Weiming Li, Nicholas S Johnson
Deciding where to reproduce is a major challenge for most animals. Many select habitats based upon cues of successful reproduction by conspecifics, such as the presence of offspring from past reproductive events. For example, some fishes select spawning habitat following odors released by juveniles whose rearing habitat overlaps with spawning habitat. However, juveniles may emigrate before adults begin to search for spawning habitat; hence, the efficacy of juvenile cues could be constrained by degradation or dissipation rates...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235117/greater-pollination-generalization-is-not-associated-with-reduced-constraints-on-corolla-shape-in-antillean-plants
#15
Simon Joly, François Lambert, Hermine Alexandre, Julien Clavel, Étienne Léveillé-Bourret, John L Clark
Flowers show important structural variation as reproductive organs but the evolutionary forces underlying this diversity are still poorly understood. In animal-pollinated species, flower shape is strongly fashioned by selection imposed by pollinators, which is expected to vary according to guilds of effective pollinators. Using the Antillean subtribe Gesneriinae (Gesneriaceae), we tested the hypothesis that pollination specialists pollinated by one functional type of pollinator have maintained more similar corolla shapes through time due to more constant and stronger selection constraints compared to species with more generalist pollination strategies...
December 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235115/the-mechanistic-basis-of-demographic-allee-effects-the-search-for-mates
#16
Anna Kuparinen
In Focus: Berec, L., Kremer, A.M., Bernhauverova, V., & Drake, J.M. (2017). Density-dependent selection on mate-finding Allee effects. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 24-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12662 In Focus: Shaw, A.K., Kokko, H., & Neubert, M.G. (2017). Details of mate finding drive dynamics of sex structured invasions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 36-46. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12658 Lowered population growth ability at low abundances is called the demographic Allee effect. The difficulty of finding mates in a sparse population is the best documented pathway through which a demographic Allee effect might arise...
January 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225044/fear-extinction-in-an-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-animal-model-influence-of-sex-and-estrous-cycle
#17
Adriano Edgar Reimer, Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira, Juliana Belo Diniz, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Mohammed Ragib Milad, Marcus Lira Brandão
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that affects men and women equally, but with a sexually dimorphic pattern of development. Reproductive cycle events can influence symptom severity of OCD in females, indicating that ovarian hormones or their interaction with distinct neurotransmitter systems may play a role in OCD pathophysiology. Clinical studies and animal models have confirmed the importance of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Accordingly, the non-selective 5-HT2c agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), exacerbates symptoms in untreated OCD patients...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224577/long-term-implications-of-feed-energy-source-in-different-genetic-types-of-reproductive-rabbit-females-ii-immunologic-status
#18
M Penadés, A Arnau-Bonachera, A García-Quirós, D Viana, L Selva, J M Corpa, J J Pascual
Genetic selection and nutrition management have played a central role in the development of commercial rabbitry industry over the last few decades, being able to affect productive and immunological traits of the animals. However, the implication of different energy sources in animals from diverse genetic lines achieving such evolutionary success remains still unknown. Therefore, in this work, 203 female rabbits housed and bred in the same conditions were used from their first artificial insemination until their fifth weaning...
December 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218224/coping-with-differences-in-snow-cover-the-impact-on-the-condition-physiology-and-fitness-of-an-arctic-hibernator
#19
Michael J Sheriff, Rudy Boonstra, Rupert Palme, C Loren Buck, Brian M Barnes
The Earth's climate is changing at an unprecedented rate and, as ecologists, we are challenged with the difficult task of predicting how individuals and populations will respond to climate-induced changes to local and global ecosystems. Although we are beginning to understand some of the responses to changing seasonality, the physiological mechanisms that may drive these responses remain unknown. Using long-term data comparing two nearby populations (<20 km apart) of free-living arctic ground squirrels in northern Alaska, we have previously shown that the timing of spring snowmelt greatly influences their phenology of hibernation and reproduction in a population and site-specific manner...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212729/condition-dependent-female-preference-for-male-genitalia-length-is-based-on-male-reproductive-tactics
#20
Armando Hernandez-Jimenez, Oscar Rios-Cardenas
There is extensive morphological variation of male genitalia across animals with internal fertilization, even among closely related species. Most studies attempting to explain this extraordinary diversity have focused on processes that occur post-copula (e.g. sperm competition, cryptic female choice). Only a few studies have focused on the pre-copula process of female preference. In addition, the extent to which this variation could be associated with the use of different reproductive tactics has yet to be explored...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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