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Reproduction animal selective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923416/charles-georges-thibault-1919-2003-inspirational-leader-in-french-reproductive-biology
#1
R H F Hunter
The contribution of Charles Thibault in creating and developing a major international centre of animal research at Jouy-en-Josas (near Versailles) in post Second World War France is recorded in detail. Not only did he select a team of gifted young chercheurs, but he stimulated and supported their research in diverse ways. The projects covered were not only primarily of significance to animal reproduction, but they also became relevant to human infertility studies and to IVF treatments. Members of the team in Physiologie Animale gained international research reputations and seasoned overseas researchers were attracted to Jouy-en-Josas for their sabbaticals...
December 7, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920383/effects-of-fragmentation-on-plant-adaptation-to-urban-environments
#2
Jonathan Dubois, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Urban ecosystems are relatively recent and heavily human-altered terrestrial ecosystems with a surprisingly high diversity of animals, plants and other organisms. Urban habitats are also strongly fragmented and subject to higher temperatures, providing a compelling model for studying adaptation to global change. Crepis sancta (Asteraceae), an annual Mediterranean wasteland weed, occupies fragmented urban environments as well as certain unfragmented landscapes in southern France. We tested for shifts in dispersal, reproductive traits and size across a rural-urban gradient to learn whether and how selection may be driving changes in life history in urban and fragmented habitats...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919288/variation-in-male-spermiation-response-to-exogenous-hormones-among-divergent-populations-of-red-eyed-treefrogs
#3
Leah E Jacobs, Jeanne M Robertson, Kristine Kaiser
BACKGROUND: The non-lethal collection of sperm from live males is an important component for multiple captive-breeding techniques, including assisted reproductive technology (ART) protocols, sperm cryopreservation and in vitro fertilization. However, in amphibians, the type and amount of hormone necessary to induce spermiation can be highly variable, even among closely related species. We are unaware of any studies that have examined the spermiation response to exogenous hormones across highly differentiated populations within a species...
December 5, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#4
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905513/whole-genome-scanning-for-the-litter-size-trait-associated-genes-and-snps-under-selection-in-dairy-goat-capra-hircus
#5
Fang-Nong Lai, Hong-Li Zhai, Ming Cheng, Jun-Yu Ma, Shun-Feng Cheng, Wei Ge, Guo-Liang Zhang, Jun-Jie Wang, Rui-Qian Zhang, Xue Wang, Ling-Jiang Min, Jiu-Zhou Song, Wei Shen
Dairy goats are one of the most utilized domesticated animals in China. Here, we selected extreme populations based on differential fecundity in two Laoshan dairy goat populations. Utilizing deep sequencing we have generated 68.7 and 57.8 giga base of sequencing data, and identified 12,458,711 and 12,423,128 SNPs in the low fecundity and high fecundity groups, respectively. Following selective sweep analyses, a number of loci and candidate genes in the two populations were scanned independently. The reproduction related genes CCNB2, AR, ADCY1, DNMT3B, SMAD2, AMHR2, ERBB2, FGFR1, MAP3K12 and THEM4 were specifically selected in the high fecundity group whereas KDM6A, TENM1, SWI5 and CYM were specifically selected in the low fecundity group...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902736/provisioning-the-ritual-neolithic-site-of-kfar-hahoresh-israel-at-the-dawn-of-animal-management
#6
Jacqueline S Meier, A Nigel Goring-Morris, Natalie D Munro
It is widely agreed that a pivotal shift from wild animal hunting to herd animal management, at least of goats, began in the southern Levant by the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (10,000-9,500 cal. BP) when evidence of ritual activities flourished in the region. As our knowledge of this critical change grows, sites that represent different functions and multiple time periods are needed to refine the timing, pace and character of changing human-animal relationships within the geographically variable southern Levant...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900850/hybridization-between-pollination-syndromes-as-an-ecological-and-evolutionary-resource
#7
Quentin Cronk, Ji Yong Yang
In plants, pollination syndromes (the correlated presence of many features of relevance to pollination mode, for instance pollination by a particular animal clade) are a striking feature of plant biodiversity, providing great floral phenotypic diversity (Fenster et al. ). Adaptation to a particular animal pollinator provides an explanation for why recently diverged plants can have such extreme differentiation in floral form. One might expect such elaborate adaptations to provide a high degree of pollinator specificity and hence reproductive isolation, but there are many cases where substantial gene flow exists between extreme floral morphs (see Table 1), and the resulting hybrids may be highly fertile...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891665/spectral-summation-and-facilitation-in-on-and-off-responses-for-optimized-representation-of-communication-calls-in-mouse-inferior-colliculus
#8
Alexander G Akimov, Marina A Egorova, Günter Ehret
Selectivity for processing of species-specific vocalizations and communication sounds has often been associated with the auditory cortex. The midbrain inferior colliculus, however, is the first center in the auditory pathways of mammals integrating acoustic information processed in separate nuclei and channels in the brainstem and, therefore, could significantly contribute to enhance the perception of species' communication sounds. Here, we used natural wriggling calls of mouse pups, which communicate need for maternal care to adult females, and further 15 synthesized sounds to test the hypothesis that neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult females optimize their response rates for reproduction of the three main harmonics (formants) of wriggling calls...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891216/evolution-of-the-elaborate-male-intromittent-organ-of-xiphophorus-fishes
#9
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Anja Keller, Manfred Schartl, Axel Meyer
Internally fertilizing animals show a remarkable diversity in male genital morphology that is associated with sexual selection, and these traits are thought to be evolving particularly rapidly. Male fish in some internally fertilizing species have "gonopodia," highly modified anal fins that are putatively important for sexual selection. However, our understanding of the evolution of genital diversity remains incomplete. Contrary to the prediction that male genital traits evolve more rapidly than other traits, here we show that gonopodial traits and other nongonopodial traits exhibit similar evolutionary rates of trait change and also follow similar evolutionary models in an iconic genus of poeciliid fish (Xiphophorus spp...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888394/comparative-evaluation-of-hormonal-protocol-on-the-performance-of-crossbred-cattle
#10
J K Sahoo, S K Das, K Sethy, S K Mishra, R K Swain, P C Mishra, S P Sahoo
A total of 60 animals (38 cows, 22 heifers) were selected and were divided into three groups of 20 animals each (containing both anoestrus and repeat breeder) in which treatment was performed for 60 days. Group I: control (farmer practice), T1 group: group I + hormone (double synch), and T2 group: group I + hormone (Estra double synch). The growth performances were measured in terms of body weight and average daily gain (ADG). Blood collection was done at the start and end of the experiment for assessment of blood biochemical, hematological, and reproductive status of the animals...
November 25, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884439/genetic-parameters-for-tick-count-and-udder-health-in-commercial-and-indigenous-ewes-in-south-africa
#11
S W P Cloete, J J E Cloete, A J Scholtz
The genetics of tick infestation in sheep need study, as host resistance often forms part of integrated pest control programs. Repeated udder health scores, site-specific tick count, mating weight and reproduction records (N=879-1204) were recorded annually from 2010 to 2015 on ewes of the indigenous Namaqua Afrikaner (NA) fat-tailed breed, as well as the commercial Dorper and SA Mutton Merino (SAMM) breeds. Udders were scored subjectively on a 1-5 scale (1 - udder intact and 5 - udder damaged severely) and ticks were counted on three locations...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881765/improved-homeothermy-and-hypothermia-in-african-lions-during-gestation
#12
Paul D Trethowan, Tom Hart, Andrew J Loveridge, Anna Haw, Andrea Fuller, David W Macdonald
Mammals use endogenously produced heat to maintain a high and relatively constant core body temperature (Tb). How they regulate their Tb during reproduction might inform us as to what thermal conditions are necessary for optimal development of offspring. However, few studies have measured Tb in free-ranging animals for sufficient periods of time to encounter reproductive events. We measured Tb continuously in six free-ranging adult female African lions (Panthera leo) for approximately 1 year. Lions reduced the 24 h amplitude of Tb by about 25% during gestation and decreased mean 24 h Tb by 1...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869724/mosquito-oviposition-behavior-and-vector-control
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan F Day
The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation...
November 18, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865414/association-between-polymorphisms-in-somatotropic-axis-genes-and-fertility-of-holstein-dairy-cows
#14
Lucas Teixeira Hax, Augusto Schneider, Carolina Bespalhok Jacometo, Patrícia Mattei, Thaís Casarin da Silva, Géssica Farina, Marcio Nunes Corrêa
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of growth hormone receptor (GHR) AluI, insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-I) SnaBI, and signal transducer and activator 5A (STAT5A) BstEII polymorphisms in the reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows and the frequency of this genotypes in cows managed in different systems. This work studied 381 and 506 Holstein cows from semiextensive and intensive systems, respectively. The frequency of genotypes GHRAluI (+/-), IGF-ISnaBI (-/-) and (+/-), and STAT5ABstEII (-/-) was higher in animals from semiextensive system, whereas the frequency of the genotypes GHRAluI (+/+) and IGF-ISnaBI (+/+) was higher in animals from intensive system (P < 0...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862550/can-alternative-mating-tactics-facilitate-introgression-across-a-hybrid-zone-by-circumventing-female-choice
#15
Kathryn A Stewart, Cameron M Hudson, Stephen C Lougheed
Reproductive barriers and divergence in species' mate recognition systems underlie major models of speciation. However, hybridization between divergent species is common, and classic mechanisms to explain permeable reproductive barriers rarely consider how an individual may attain reproductive success. Alternative mating tactics exist in various forms across animal taxa. Such tactics may allow poorer quality individuals to gain mating opportunities and facilitate introgression either through asymmetrical positive selection, or by circumventing female choice altogether in areas of secondary contact...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853717/amiata-donkey-milk-chain-animal-health-evaluation-and-milk-quality
#16
Giuseppe Ragona, Franco Corrias, Martina Benedetti, Maria Paladini, Federica Salari, Lolanda Altomonte, Mina Martini
This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1)...
June 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853585/domestication-and-tameness-brain-gene-expression-in-red-junglefowl-selected-for-less-fear-of-humans-suggests-effects-on-reproduction-and-immunology
#17
Johan Bélteky, Beatrix Agnvall, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Per Jensen
The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypic modifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiology and reproduction, which are consistent across a range of species. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes could have evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness, an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting from an outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of all domestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or low fear of humans for five generations...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836039/an-elaborated-sir-model-for-haemonchosis-in-sheep-in-south-africa-under-a-targeted-selective-anthelmintic-treatment-regime
#18
Nlingisisi D Babayani, Jan A van Wyk, Eric R Morgan
Infection with the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus is responsible for considerable production loss in small ruminants globally, and especially in warm, summer-rainfall regions. Previous attempts to predict infection levels have followed the traditional framework for macroparasite models, i.e. tracking parasite population sizes as a function of host and climatic factors. Targeted treatment strategies, in which patho-physiological indices are used to identify the individuals most affected by parasites, could provide a foundation for alternative, incidence-based epidemiological models...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835067/effect-of-the-lipid-regulator-gemfibrozil-in-the-cladocera-daphnia-magna-at-different-temperatures
#19
Beatriz Salesa, María D Ferrando, María J Villarroel, Encarna Sancho
In the present study, an ecotoxicological approach to the evaluation of Gemfibrozil (GEM) as an emerging organic pollutant was done. In order to assess its toxicity, tests were conducted using the cladocera Daphnia magna. Experiments were carried out at 22°C and 28°C. EC50, feeding behavior, and chronic toxicity tests (21 days) were evaluated in D. magna exposed to GEM as well as cholesterol levels at 21-day chronic exposure. D. magna GEM EC50 values (24 h) in our experimental conditions were 148.75 and 116...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829375/selection-of-performance-tested-young-bulls-and-indirect-responses-in-commercial-beef-cattle-herds-on-pasture-and-in-feedlots
#20
Fernanda S S Raidan, Dalinne C C Santos, Mariana M Moraes, Andresa E M Araújo, Henrique T Ventura, José A G Bergmann, Eduardo M Turra, Fabio L B Toral
BACKGROUND: Central testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots. METHODS: Records on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were estimated...
November 9, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
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