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Reproduction animal selective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097049/sharing-refuges-on-arid-islands-ecological-and-social-influence-on-aggregation-behaviour-of-wall-geckos
#1
Raquel Vasconcelos, Sara Rocha, Xavier Santos
BACKGROUND: The extent of social behaviour among reptiles is underappreciated. Two types of aggregations are recognized in lizards: ecological and social, i.e., related to the attraction to a site or to animals of the same species, respectively. As most lizards are territorial, aggregations increase the probability of aggressive interactions among individuals, a density-dependent behaviour. METHODS: After some spurious observations of aggregation behaviour in the endemic Cabo Verde nocturnal gecko Tarentola substituta, we conducted a field-based study in order to thoroughly characterize it...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096494/reproductive-performance-primarily-depends-on-the-female-genotype-in-a-two-factorial-breeding-experiment-using-high-fertility-mouse-lines
#2
Martina Langhammer, Marten Michaelis, Michaela F Hartmann, Stefan A Wudy, Alexander Sobczak, Gerd Nürnberg, Norbert Reinsch, Jennifer Schön, Joachim M Weitzel
Mouse models showing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described in the literature. In the present study, we further characterized two outbred mouse models that have been selected for the phenotype 'high fertility' for more than 177 generations (fertility lines (FL) 1 and 2). In order to delineate the impact of males and females on fertility parameters, we performed a two-factorial breeding experiment by mating males and females of the three different genotypes (FL1, FL2, unselected control (Ctrl)) in all 9 possible combinations...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095599/minerals-in-the-foods-and-diet-of-diademed-sifakas-are-they-nutritional-challenges
#3
Mitchell T Irwin, Jean-Luc Raharison, Colin A Chapman, Randall E Junge, Jessica M Rothman
: Minerals, though needed in small quantities, are essential to metabolic processes, and deficiencies can seriously threaten health, reproduction and survival. Despite this, few studies have measured mineral composition of wild primate foods and fewer have quantified mineral intake. Here we measured the concentration of nine minerals in 75 foods of diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema; five groups) in habitats with varying levels of disturbance at Tsinjoarivo and estimated daily intakes using focal-animal feeding data and intake rates over one year...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095328/an-integrated-proteomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-perivitelline-fluid-proteins-in-a-freshwater-gastropod-laying-aerial-eggs
#4
Huawei Mu, Jin Sun, Horacio Heras, Ka Hou Chu, Jian-Wen Qiu
: Proteins of the egg perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds the embryo are critical for embryonic development in many animals, but little is known about their identities. Using an integrated proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we identified 64 proteins from the PVF of Pomacea maculata - a freshwater snail adopting aerial oviposition. Proteins were classified into eight functional groups: major multifunctional perivitellin subunits, immune response, energy metabolism, protein degradation, oxidation-reduction, signaling and binding, transcription and translation, and others...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092229/decamethylcyclopentasiloxane-d5
#5
(no author information available yet)
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS No. 541-02-6) is a precursor in the production of siloxane polymers for industry and medicine and is a carrier ingredient in many toiletries and cosmetics. D5 has a relatively low order of toxicity following acute administration via the oral, dermal, and inhalation routes of exposure. It is not considered to be a dermal or eye irritant or a dermal sensitizer. There is no appreciable dermal absorption of D5 based on results from in vivo and in vitro studies. It has not been shown to be genotoxic/mutagenic when tested in a number of short-term in vitro and in vivo assays and did not cause reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats...
January 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089514/reproductive-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-menopause-in-killer-whales
#6
Darren P Croft, Rufus A Johnstone, Samuel Ellis, Stuart Nattrass, Daniel W Franks, Lauren J N Brent, Sonia Mazzi, Kenneth C Balcomb, John K B Ford, Michael A Cant
Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9])...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070454/marine-turtles-are-not-fussy-nesters-a-novel-test-of-small-scale-nest-site-selection-using-structure-from-motion-beach-terrain-information
#7
Ilana Kelly, Javier X Leon, Ben L Gilby, Andrew D Olds, Thomas A Schlacher
BACKGROUND: Nest selection is widely regarded as a key process determining the fitness of individuals and viability of animal populations. For marine turtles that nest on beaches, this is particularly pivotal as the nesting environment can significantly control reproductive success.The aim of this study was to identify the environmental attributes of beaches (i.e., morphology, vegetation, urbanisation) that may be associated with successful oviposition in green and loggerhead turtle nests...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065296/patterns-and-drivers-of-egg-pigment-intensity-and-colour-diversity-in-the-ocean-a-meta-analysis-of-phylum-echinodermata
#8
E M Montgomery, J-F Hamel, A Mercier
Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056082/recovering-the-genetic-identity-of-an-extinct-in-the-wild-species-the-puzzling-case-of-the-alagoas-curassow
#9
Mariellen C Costa, Paulo R R Oliveira, Paulo V Davanço, Crisley de Camargo, Natasha M Laganaro, Roberto A Azeredo, James Simpson, Luis F Silveira, Mercival R Francisco
The conservation of many endangered taxa relies on hybrid identification, and when hybrids become morphologically indistinguishable from the parental species, the use of molecular markers can assign individual admixture levels. Here, we present the puzzling case of the extinct in the wild Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu), whose captive population descends from only three individuals. Hybridization with the Razor-billed Curassow (P. tuberosa) began more than eight generations ago, and admixture uncertainty affects the whole population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049829/glucocorticoid-receptor-in-t-cells-mediates-protection-from-autoimmunity-in-pregnancy
#10
Jan Broder Engler, Nina Kursawe, María Emilia Solano, Kostas Patas, Sabine Wehrmann, Nina Heckmann, Fred Lühder, Holger M Reichardt, Petra Clara Arck, Stefan M Gold, Manuel A Friese
Pregnancy is one of the strongest inducers of immunological tolerance. Disease activity of many autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) is temporarily suppressed by pregnancy, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the endocrine regulation of conventional and regulatory T cells (Tregs) during reproduction. In vitro, we found the pregnancy hormone progesterone to robustly increase Treg frequencies via promiscuous binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in T cells...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046186/principal-component-analysis-of-breeding-values-for-growth-and-reproductive-traits-and-genetic-association-with-adult-size-in-beef-cattle
#11
A A Boligon, I S Vicente, R Z Vaz, G S Campos, F R P Souza, R Carvalheiro, L G Albuquerque
Principal component analysis was applied to evaluate the variability and relationships among univariate breeding values predicted for 9 weaning and yearling traits, as well as suggest functions of the traits that would promote a particular breeding objective. Phenotypic and pedigree information from 600,132 Nelore animals was used. Genetic parameters and breeding values were obtained from univariate analyses of birth to weaning weight gain; weaning to yearling weight gain; conformation, finishing precocity, and muscling scores at weaning and at yearling; and yearling scrotal circumference...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028464/hairiness-the-missing-link-between-pollinators-and-pollination
#12
Jamie R Stavert, Gustavo Liñán-Cembrano, Jacqueline R Beggs, Brad G Howlett, David E Pattemore, Ignasi Bartomeus
BACKGROUND: Functional traits are the primary biotic component driving organism influence on ecosystem functions; in consequence, traits are widely used in ecological research. However, most animal trait-based studies use easy-to-measure characteristics of species that are at best only weakly associated with functions. Animal-mediated pollination is a key ecosystem function and is likely to be influenced by pollinator traits, but to date no one has identified functional traits that are simple to measure and have good predictive power...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007657/aging-and-estradiol-effects-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-posterodorsal-medial-amygdala-of-male-rats
#13
Victoria L Nutsch, Margaret R Bell, Ryan G Will, Weiling Yin, Andrew Wolfe, Ross Gillette, Juan M Dominguez, Andrea C Gore
Studies on the role of hormones in male reproductive aging have traditionally focused on testosterone, but estradiol (E2) also plays important roles in the control of masculine physiology and behavior. Our goal was to examine the effects of E2 on the expression of genes selected for E2-sensitivity, involvement in behavioral neuroendocrine functions, and impairments with aging. Mature adult (MAT, 5 mo) and aged (AG, 18 mo) Sprague-Dawley male rats were castrated, implanted with either vehicle or E2 subcutaneous capsules, and euthanized one month later...
December 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003519/a-trade-off-between-reproductive-investment-and-maternal-cerebellum-size-in-a-precocial-bird
#14
Christina Ebneter, Joel L Pick, Barbara Tschirren
Natural selection favours increased investment in reproduction, yet considerable variation in parental investment is observed in natural populations. Life-history theory predicts that this variation is maintained by a trade-off between the benefits of increased reproductive investment and its associated costs for the parents. The nature of these costs of reproduction, however, remains poorly understood. The brain is an energetically highly expensive organ and increased reproductive investment may, therefore, negatively affect brain maintenance...
December 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002603/association-of-growth-factor-receptor-bound-protein-10-gene-polymorphism-with-superovulation-traits-in-changbaishan-black-cattle
#15
Y Wu, Z Zhang, J B Zhang, Q Deng
The application of assisted reproductive technology in animal production benefits the economy and conservation of biological resources. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) was used as predictive markers for breeding and reproduction. In the present study, we examined the association between a SNP of the grb10 gene and superovulation traits in cattle. Sequencing results indicated a point mutation and statistical analysis showed a significant association of the mutation with superovulation traits. The high number of embryos collected from the heterozygotes suggested that the mutation in the grb10 gene exerted a significant effect on the number of embryos recovered although the quality was not affected...
December 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989878/aphrodisiac-and-spermatogenic-potential-of-alkaloidal-fraction-of-hygrophila-spinosa-t-ander-in-rats
#16
Niraj Y Vyas, Manan A Raval
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Seeds of Hygrophila spinosa T. Ander (Acanthaceae) are traditionally used as aphrodisiac and spermatogenic in Indian System of medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: Preliminary phytochemical screening of plant revealed the presence of alkaloids in seeds. As, alkaloidal fractions of several plants showed aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential, set of experiments were designed to assess alkaloid enriched fraction of seeds of the plant for spermatogenic and aphrodisiac activity using in vitro and in vivo methods...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966746/polymorphisms-in-the-leptin-gene-promoter-in-brazilian-beef-herds
#17
R C Guimarães, J S N Azevedo, S C Corrêa, J E G Campelo, E M Barbosa, E C Gonçalves, E Silva Filho
Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it...
December 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965970/relevance-of-indirect-transmission-for-wildlife-disease-surveillance
#18
Martin Lange, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt, Hans-Hermann Thulke
Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design, and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modeling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission (IT) through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934963/experimental-evidence-for-chemical-mate-guarding-in-a-moth
#19
Seyed Ali Hosseini, Michiel van Wijk, Gao Ke, Seyed Hossein Goldansaz, Coby Schal, Astrid T Groot
In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent forms of chemical mate guarding. In moths, more long-range female sex pheromones have been identified than in any other animal group, and males often display with close-range sex pheromones, yet odor-based post-copulatory mate guarding has not been described in moths so far...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923416/charles-georges-thibault-1919-2003-inspirational-leader-in-french-reproductive-biology
#20
R H F Hunter
The contribution of Charles Thibault in creating and developing a major international centre of animal research at Jouy-en-Josas (near Versailles) in post Second World War France is recorded in detail. Not only did he select a team of gifted young chercheurs, but he stimulated and supported their research in diverse ways. The projects covered were not only primarily of significance to animal reproduction, but they also became relevant to human infertility studies and to IVF treatments. Members of the team in Physiologie Animale gained international research reputations and seasoned overseas researchers were attracted to Jouy-en-Josas for their sabbaticals...
February 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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