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Reproduction animal selective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432701/ovarian-follicle-development-and-genital-tract-characteristics-in-different-birthweight-gilts-at-150%C3%A2-days-of-age
#1
Frcl Almeida, Aln Alvarenga Dias, L P Moreira, Atl Fiúza, H Chiarini-Garcia
In the last decades, selection for improved prolificacy has resulted in higher litter sizes and has thereby increased the proportion of low birthweight (LW) piglets. It is well documented that LW piglets have lower growth performance, muscle accretion and poor carcass quality. However, little is known about the relations of birthweight with subsequent reproductive performance in gilts. This study investigated the effects of birthweight on reproductive tract and ovarian follicle development in 150-day-old gilts...
April 22, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431764/seasonal-monitoring-of-blue-mussel-mytilus-spp-populations-in-a-harbor-area-a-focus-on-responses-to-environmental-factors-and-chronic-contamination
#2
C Lacroix, E Duvieilbourg, N Guillou, J Guyomarch, C Bassoulet, D Moraga, G Chapalain, M Auffret
Coastal waters corresponding to macrotidal systems are among the most variable marine biotopes. Sessile animals as bivalve mollusks may however be found forming intertidal beds at high densities, as allowed by full adaptation to local conditions. A better knowledge of adaptive responses to environmental factors is required to foresee possible adverse effects of global change. At the sub-cellular level, transcriptional responses are among the earliest signals of environmental disturbances and they can reveal subtle and meaningful changes in organism exposed to stress...
April 12, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428805/edible-dormice-glis-glis-avoid-areas-with-a-high-density-of-their-preferred-food-plant-the-european-beech
#3
Jessica S Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Birgit Rotter, Claudia Bieber, Thomas Ruf
BACKGROUND: Numerous species, especially among rodents, are strongly affected by the availability of pulsed resources. The intermittent production of large seed crops in northern hemisphere tree species (e.g., beech Fagus spec.,oak Quercus spec., pine trees Pinus spec.) are prime examples of these resource pulses. Adult edible dormice are highly dependent on high energy seeds to maximize their reproductive output. For juvenile dormice the energy rich food is important to grow and fatten in a very short time period prior to hibernation...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422140/the-evolutionary-history-of-bears-is-characterized-by-gene-flow-across-species
#4
Vikas Kumar, Fritjof Lammers, Tobias Bidon, Markus Pfenninger, Lydia Kolter, Maria A Nilsson, Axel Janke
Bears are iconic mammals with a complex evolutionary history. Natural bear hybrids and studies of few nuclear genes indicate that gene flow among bears may be more common than expected and not limited to polar and brown bears. Here we present a genome analysis of the bear family with representatives of all living species. Phylogenomic analyses of 869 mega base pairs divided into 18,621 genome fragments yielded a well-resolved coalescent species tree despite signals for extensive gene flow across species. However, genome analyses using different statistical methods show that gene flow is not limited to closely related species pairs...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414086/deadbeats-or-losers-discretionary-male-parental-investment-can-make-females-less-choosy
#5
Frazer Meacham, Thomas Getty
Two of the most important reproductive decisions that animals face are how to choose mates and how to invest in offspring. In species where both males and females provide offspring care, these selection pressures will often be reciprocally intertwined: mate preferences may depend on parental investment patterns while parental investment patterns may depend on mate preferences. We describe and analyze a mathematical model of this interaction, in which females can choose amongst males who have high attractiveness or low attractiveness, while males can decide whether to provide offspring care...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411469/primary-hepatocytes-from-arctic-char-salvelinus-alpinus-as-a-relevant-arctic-in-vitro-model-for-screening-contaminants-and-environmental-extracts
#6
Karina Petersen, Maria T Hultman, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Contaminants find their way to the Arctic through long-range atmospheric transport, transport via ocean currents, and through increased anthropogenic activity. Some of the typical pollutants reaching the Arctic (PAHs, PCBs) are known to induce cytochrome P450 1a (CYP1A) protein expression and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In addition, some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as estrogen mimics (xenoestrogens) have been documented in Arctic areas and they may interfere with natural sexual development and reproduction...
April 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407853/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-reproductive-performance-and-quantity-and-morphology-of-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-obtained-from-rattus-norvegicus
#7
Joana Fisch, Iáskara Vieira de Oliveira, Juliana Fank, Lia Mara Gomes Paim, Marília Remuzzi Zandoná, Eliana Franco Lopes, Fernanda Bastos de Mello, Alexandre Tavares Duarte de Oliveira
Several researchers have observed that environmental enrichment (EE) can be effective in reducing stressful conditions and abnormal behavior and may provide better reproductive performance in rodents. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the reproductive performance of Wistar rats reared in three different housing conditions. Animals were separated into breeding pairs, one pair per cage and pairs randomly assigned to three experimental groups (ten couples per group): control group were provided cages without any environmental enrichment; PVC group with PVC pipe; and cardboard roll group with a commercially available cardboard tube...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404823/noise-affects-resource-assessment-in-an-invertebrate
#8
Erin P Walsh, Gareth Arnott, Hansjoerg P Kunc
Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating it, and entered it faster...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404209/investigation-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-semen-testicle-and-epididymis-tissues-of-primo-infected-cats-felis-catus
#9
Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira, Maria Eduarda Gonçalves Tozato, Julia Cestari Pierucci, Giovana Pavão Vital, André Cayeiro Cruz, Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes, Marina Suzuki Cursino, Samea Fernandes Joaquim, Vando Edésio Soares, Helio Langoni, Kátia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Alvimar José da Costa
This study aimed to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in semen, testicle and epididymis tissues of cats experimentally infected by this coccidium. A total of 12 male felines without a definite breed that were of reproductive age and serologically negative for T. gondii were selected and distributed to the following three experimental groups: GI, inoculated with 600 tissue cysts of the P strain of T. gondii (isolate III); GII, inoculated with 2×10(5) tachyzoites of the RH strain (isolate I); and GIII, not inoculated (control group)...
April 3, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403200/identification-of-potential-biomarkers-in-donor-cows-for-in-vitro-embryo-production-by-granulosa-cell-transcriptomics
#10
Gianluca Mazzoni, Suraya M Salleh, Kristine Freude, Hanne S Pedersen, Lotte Stroebech, Henrik Callesen, Poul Hyttel, Haja N Kadarmideen
The Ovum Pick Up-In vitro Production (OPU-IVP) of embryos is an advanced reproductive technology used in cattle production but the complex biological mechanisms behind IVP outcomes are not fully understood. In this study we sequenced RNA of granulosa cells collected from Holstein cows at oocyte aspiration prior to IVP, to identify candidate genes and biological mechanisms for favourable IVP-related traits in donor cows where IVP was performed separately for each animal. We identified 56 genes significantly associated with IVP scores (BL rate, kinetic and morphology)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398632/prenatal-and-postnatal-assessment-in-rabbits-with-evacetrapib-a-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitor
#11
William J Breslin, Kim G Hilbish, Ellen A Cannady, Tammy L Edwards
BACKGROUND: Evacetrapib, a potent and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), was under development for the treatment of cardiovascular (CV) disease. The purpose of this pre-postnatal study in rabbits was to evaluate the effects of evacetrapib on pregnancy, parturition, and lactation of the maternal animals and on the growth, viability, development, and reproductive performance of the first filial (F1) offspring. The rabbit is considered a relevant species for toxicity testing with evacetrapib as it demonstrates significant CETP expression, whereas mice and rats do not express significant levels of CETP...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398618/fertility-and-embryo-fetal-development-assessment-in-rats-and-rabbits-with-evacetrapib-a-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitor
#12
William J Breslin, Kim G Hilbish, Ellen A Cannady, Tammy L Edwards
BACKGROUND: The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of evacetrapib on male and female fertility and on embryo-fetal development (EFD). METHODS: Evacetrapib, a potent and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), was administered daily by oral gavage starting 2 weeks (for female) or 4 weeks (for male) before mating, during cohabitation, and until necropsy in the male rat fertility study or through gestation day (GD) 17 in the female rat combined fertility/EFD study...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389546/high-levels-of-the-xenorhabdus-nematophila-transcription-factor-lrp-promote-mutualism-with-steinernema-carpocapsae-nematode-hosts
#13
Mengyi Cao, Tilak Patel, Tara Rickman, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Elizabeth A Hussa
Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria are mutualistic symbionts of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and pathogens of insects. The X. nematophila global regulator Lrp controls expression of many genes involved in both mutualism and pathogenic activities, suggesting a role in the transition between the two host organisms. We previously reported that natural populations of X. nematophila exhibit variable levels of Lrp expression, and that cells expressing relatively low levels of Lrp are optimized for virulence in the insect Manduca sexta...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381586/asexual-but-not-clonal-evolutionary-processes-in-automictic-populations
#14
Jan Engelstädter
Many parthenogenetically reproducing animals produce offspring not clonally but through different mechanisms collectively referred to as automixis. Here, meiosis proceeds normally but is followed by a fusion of meiotic products that restores diploidy. This mechanism typically leads to a reduction in heterozygosity among the offspring compared to the mother. Following a derivation of the rate at which heterozygosity is lost at one and two loci, depending on the number of crossovers between loci and centromere, a number of models are developed to gain a better understanding of basic evolutionary processes in automictic populations...
April 4, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380001/changes-in-circulating-microrna-levels-can-be-identified-as-early-as-day-8-of-pregnancy-in-cattle
#15
Jason Ioannidis, F Xavier Donadeu
Poor reproductive performance remains a major issue in the dairy industry, with low conception rates having a significant impact on milk production through extended calving intervals. A major limiting factor is the lack of reliable methods for early pregnancy diagnosis. Identification of animals within a herd that fail to conceive within 3 weeks after insemination would allow early re-insemination and shorten calving intervals. In a previous study, we found an increase in plasma miR-26a levels in Day 16-pregnant relative to non-pregnant heifers, however changes in miRNA levels that early during pregnancy were very small which likely prevented the identification of robust biomarkers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379593/flutamide-induced-hepatotoxicity-ethical-and-scientific-issues
#16
R Giorgetti, M di Muzio, A Giorgetti, D Girolami, L Borgia, A Tagliabracci
OBJECTIVE: Flutamide (FLU) is a non-steroidal antiandrogen drug approved for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. While this indication limits the use to male patients, FLU is widely prescribed to women, off-label, for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (POCS) related hirsutism and acne. According to the literature, its assumption is associated with a higher incidence of adverse events in women than in male patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted in main databases targeting unwilling FLU effects in hepatic and reproductive function...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372535/klf11-is-an-epigenetic-mediator-of-drd2-dopaminergic-signaling-in-endometriosis
#17
Elliott G Richards, Ye Zheng, Chandra C Shenoy, Alessandra J Ainsworth, Abigail A Delaney, Tiffanny L Jones, Zaraq Khan, Gaurang S Daftary
Endometriosis is a heterogeneous, recalcitrant disease that affects 10% of reproductive-age women. Resistance to conventional therapy critically raises the need for novel treatment options that target specific, dysregulated underlying molecular mechanisms. Dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2) has been shown to be associated with vascularity and fibrosis in endometriosis. Transcription factor KLF11 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human endocrine and reproductive tract diseases including endometriosis...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365120/estimating-variance-components-and-breeding-values-for-number-of-oocytes-and-number-of-embryos-in-dairy-cattle-using-a-single-step-genomic-evaluation
#18
M A M C Cornelissen, E Mullaart, C Van der Linde, H A Mulder
Reproductive technologies such as multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and ovum pick-up (OPU) accelerate genetic improvement in dairy breeding schemes. To enhance the efficiency of embryo production, breeding values for traits such as number of oocytes (NoO) and number of MOET embryos (NoM) can help in selection of donors with high MOET or OPU efficiency. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate variance components and (genomic) breeding values for NoO and NoM based on Dutch Holstein data. Furthermore, a 10-fold cross-validation was carried out to assess the accuracy of pedigree and genomic breeding values for NoO and NoM...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360127/mitochondrial-replacement-therapy-are-mito-nuclear-interactions-likely-to-be-a-problem
#19
REVIEW
Adam Eyre-Walker
It has been suggested that deleterious interactions between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes could pose a problem for mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT). This is because the mitochondrial genome is placed in a novel nuclear environment using this technique. In contrast, it is inherited with half the mother's genome during normal reproduction, a genome that it is relatively compatible with, since the mother is alive. Here, I review the evidence of whether mito-nuclear interactions are likely to pose a problem for MRT...
April 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343269/neophobia-is-negatively-related-to-reversal-learning-ability-in-females-of-a-generalist-bird-of-prey-the-chimango-caracara-milvago-chimango
#20
Jorgelina María Guido, Laura Marina Biondi, Aldo Ivan Vasallo, Rubén Nestor Muzio
In an ever-changing environment, the ability to adapt choices to new conditions is essential for daily living and ultimately, for survival. Behavioural flexibility allows animals to maximise survival and reproduction in novel settings by adjusting their behaviour based on specific information and feedback acquired in their current environments. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that an individual's personality type can limit the extent to which the individual might behave flexibly, by influencing the way an individual pays attention to novelty and how much information it collects and stores, which in turn affects the individual's decision-making and learning process...
March 25, 2017: Animal Cognition
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