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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235875/coalescence-induced-jumping-of-nanodroplets-on-textured-surfaces
#1
Shan Gao, Quanwen Liao, Wei Liu, Zhichun Liu
Conducting experimental studies on nanoscale droplets coalescence by traditional microscopes is a challenging research topic, and views differ as to whether or not the spontaneous removal can occur in the coalescing nanodroplets. Here, a molecular dynamics simulation is carried out to investigate the coalescence process of two equally sized nanodroplets. On the basis of atomic coordinates, we compute the liquid bridge radius for various cases, which is described a power law of spreading time, and these nanodroplets undergo coalescence in the inertially-limited-viscous regime...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235874/effect-of-wetting-on-drop-splashing-of-newtonian-fluids-and-blood
#2
Thijs C de Goede, Nick Laan, Karla de Bruin, Daniel Bonn
We investigate the impact velocity beyond which the ejection of smaller droplets from the main droplet (splashing) occurs for droplets of different liquids impacting different smooth surfaces. We examine its dependence on the surface wetting properties and droplet surface tension. We show that the splashing velocity is independent of the wetting properties of the surface, but increases roughly linearly with increasing surface tension of the liquid. A preexisting splashing model and simplification are considered that predicts the splashing velocity by incorporating the air viscosity...
December 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235289/-effects-of-drug-oil-properties-on-fabrication-of-drug-nanocrystalline-self-stabilizied-pickering-emulsions
#3
Fan Wang, Shuai Wang, Tao Yi, Ji-Fen Zhang
To investigate the effects of drug and oil properties on the formation and stability of drug nanocrystalline self-stabilizied Pickering emulsions (NSSPE). Three insoluble Chinese medicine components (puerarin, tanshinone ⅡA and ferulic acid) were selected as model drugs, and Capmul C8, Fabrafil M 1944 CS, isopropyl myristate, Pzechwan Lovage Rhizome oil, and olive oil were used as oil phase. NSSPEs were developed by high pressure homogenization method and were evaluated for their appearance, centrifugal stability, droplet size and drug content changes in emulsion layer after storing at room temperature for 14 d...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235179/snp-g-1007a-g-within-the-porcine-dnal4-gene-affects-sperm-motility-traits-and-percentage-of-midpiece-abnormalities
#4
I Wiedemann, A Maehlmeyer, S Jansen, A R Sharifi, C Knorr
The flagellar beating of a spermatozoa's axoneme is caused by the varying activation and inactivation of dynein molecules. Dynein, axonemal, light chain 4 (DNAL4) is a functional candidate gene for sperm motility as it encodes a small subunit of the dyneins. We resequenced the porcine DNAL4 using three artificial insemination (AI) boars each with high (>68%) or low (<60%) motility, and detected 23 SNP. These were then genotyped for 82 AI boars. Using spermatological records, significantly negative genetic correlations between ejaculate volume (VOL) and the further spermatological parameters concentration (CONC) (r = -...
December 12, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234760/fast-selective-trapping-and-release-of-picoliter-droplets-in-a-3d-microfluidic-pdms-multi-trap-system-with-bubbles
#5
Richard W Rambach, Preetika Biswas, Ashutosh Yadav, Piotr Garstecki, Thomas Franke
The selective manipulation and incubation of individual picoliter drops in high-throughput droplet based microfluidic devices still remains challenging. We used a surface acoustic wave (SAW) to induce a bubble in a 3D designed multi-trap polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device to manipulate multiple droplets and demonstrate the selection, incubation and on-demand release of aqueous droplets from a continuous oil flow. By controlling the position of the acoustic actuation, individual droplets are addressed and selectively released from a droplet stream of 460 drops per s...
December 13, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234690/the-dataset-describes-phenotypic-changes-induced-by-cholesterol-loading-in-smooth-muscle-cells-isolated-from-the-aortae-of-c57bl-6-mice
#6
Silvia Castiglioni, Matteo Monti, Giuditta Ainis Buscherini, Lorenzo Arnaboldi, Monica Canavesi, Alberto Corsini, Stefano Bellosta
The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled "ABCA1 and HDL3 are Required to Modulate Smooth Muscle Cells Phenotypic Switch after Cholesterol Loading" (Castiglioni et al., 2017) [1]. This data describes the characterization of the phenotypic changes induced by cholesterol loading in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) isolated from the aortae of C57BL/6 mice. Upon cholesterol loading, there is a significant and concentration-dependent decrease in the expression of Acta2 and a parallel increase in Mac-2, and ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters Abca1 and Abcg1...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234458/robust-genetic-transformation-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-using-differentiating-embryogenic-callus-induced-from-immature-embryos
#7
Srinivas Belide, Thomas Vanhercke, James Robertson Petrie, Surinder Pal Singh
Background: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is one of the world's most important cereal crops grown for multiple applications and has been identified as a potential biofuel crop. Despite several decades of study, sorghum has been widely considered as a recalcitrant major crop for transformation due to accumulation of phenolic compounds, lack of model genotypes, low regeneration frequency and loss of regeneration potential through sub-cultures. Among different explants used for genetic transformation of sorghum, immature embryos are ideal over other explants...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234310/modulation-of-lipid-droplet-metabolism-a-potential-target-for-therapeutic-intervention-in-flaviviridae-infections
#8
REVIEW
Jingshu Zhang, Yun Lan, Sumana Sanyal
Lipid droplets (LDs) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related dynamic organelles that store and regulate fatty acids and neutral lipids. They play a central role in cellular energy storage, lipid metabolism and cellular homeostasis. It has become evident that viruses have co-evolved in order to exploit host lipid metabolic pathways. This is especially characteristic of the Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) and several flaviviruses. Devoid of an appropriate lipid biosynthetic machinery of their own, these single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses can induce dramatic changes in host metabolic pathways to establish a favorable environment for viral multiplication and acquire essential components to facilitate their assembly and traffic...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233207/the-dynamic-pattern-of-plin3-in-pig-oocytes-and-cumulus-cells-during-in-vitro-maturation
#9
Mingzhu Xu, Yaqiong Zeng, Daming Chi, Linan Si, Xiao Qu, Juan Li
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the main energy resource for porcine preimplantation embryonic development. PLIN3 has been implicated in LD formation and regulation. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the dynamic pattern of PLIN3 in pig oocytes and cumulus cells (CC) during in vitro maturation (IVM), and to determine the relationship between PLIN3 and LD content. IVM with cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO), cumulus-denuded oocytes (DO) and the CCs denuded from the corresponding oocytes (DCC) was performed in porcine follicular fluid (PFF) or PFF-free optimized medium...
December 13, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232418/nano-emulsions-as-vehicles-for-topical-delivery-of-forskolin
#10
Małgorzata Miastkowska, Elżbieta Sikora, Elwira Lasoń, Maria Jose Garcia-Celma, Elvira Escribano-Ferrer, Conxita Solans, Meritxell Llinas
Two O/W forskolin-loaded nano-emulsions (0.075% wt.) based on medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and stabilized by a nonionic surfactant (Polysorbate 80 or Polysorbate 40) were studied as forskolin delivery systems. The nano-emulsions were prepared by the PIC method. The mean droplet size of the nano-emulsions with Polysorbate 80 and Polysorbate 40 with oil/surfactant (O/S) ratios of 20/80 and 80% water concentration, measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was of 118 nm and 111 nm, respectively. Stability of the formulations, as assessed by light backscattering for 24 h, showed that both nano-emulsions were stable at 25ºC...
December 13, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232304/rapid-braf-mutation-tests-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-comparison-of-immunohistochemistry-droplet-digital-pcr-and-the-idylla-mutation-platform
#11
Cornelis Bisschop, Arja Ter Elst, Lisette J Bosman, Inge Platteel, Mathilde Jalving, Anke van den Berg, Arjan Diepstra, Bettien van Hemel, Gilles F H Diercks, Geke A P Hospers, Ed Schuuring
BRAF mutational testing has become a common practice in the diagnostic process of patients with advanced melanoma. Although time-consuming, DNA sequencing techniques are the current gold standard for mutational testing. However, in certain clinical situations, a rapid test result is required. In this study, the performance of three rapid BRAF mutation tests was compared. Thirty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma tissue samples collected between 2007 and 2014 at a single center were included. These samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the anti-BRAF-V600E (VE1) mouse monocolonal antibody (BRAF-VE1 IHC), a V600E-specific Droplet Digital PCR Test, and the Idylla BRAF- Mutation Test (Idylla)...
December 11, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231959/causal-somatic-mutations-in-urine-dna-from-persons-with-the-cloves-subgroup-of-the-pik3ca-related-overgrowth-spectrum-pros
#12
M E Michel, D J Konczyk, K S Yeung, R Murillo, M P Vivero, A M Hall, D Zurakowski, D Adams, A Gupta, A Y Huang, B H Y Chung, M L Warman
Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth with Vascular, Epidermal, and Skeletal anomalies (CLOVES) and Klippel-Trenaunay (KTS) syndromes are caused by somatic gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CA, encoding a catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Affected tissue is needed to find mutations, since mutant alleles are not detectable in blood. Because some patients with CLOVES develop Wilms tumor, we tested urine as a source of DNA for mutation detection. We extracted DNA from the urine of 17 and 24 individuals with CLOVES and KTS, respectively, and screened 5 common PIK3CA mutation hotspots using droplet digital PCR...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231947/emulsion-stabilisation-by-complexes-of-oppositely-charged-synthetic-polyelectrolytes
#13
Ana Maria Bago Rodriguez, Bernard P Binks, Tomoko Sekine
We investigate the possibility of stabilising oil-water emulsions from the polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) obtained in mixtures of a strong cationic polyelectrolyte (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDADMAC) and a weak anionic one (poly(acrylic acid)sodium salt, PAANa). Unlike other previous work however, both polyelectrolytes (PEL) are chosen as they are completely water-soluble and possess no surface activity when present alone over nearly all the pH range. In water, the effects of PEL concentration, PEL mixing ratio and pH on the formation of PEC are studied in detail...
December 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231937/microfluidic-formation-of-proteinosomes
#14
Martina Ugrinic, Adrian Zambrano, Simon Berger, Stephen Mann, T-Y Dora Tang, Andrew deMello
Herein we describe a novel microfluidic method for the generation of proteinosome micro-droplets, based on bovine serum albumin and glucose oxidase conjugated to PNIPAAm chains. The size of such water-in-oil droplets is regulated via control of the input reagent flow rate, with generated proteinosome populations exhibiting narrower size distributions than those observed when using standard bulk methodologies. Importantly, proteinosomes transferred from an oil to an aqueous-environment remain intact, become fully hydrated and exhibit an increase in average size...
December 12, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231744/microfluidic-generation-of-particle-stabilized-water-in-water-emulsions
#15
Niki Abbasi, Maryam Navi, Scott S H Tsai
Herein, we present a microfluidic platform that generates particle-stabilized water-in-water emulsions. The water-in-water system that we use is based on an aqueous two-phase system of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran (DEX). DEX droplets are formed passively, in the continuous phase of PEG and carboxylated particle suspension, at a flow focusing junction inside a microfluidic device. As DEX droplets travel downstream inside the microchannel, carboxylated particles that are in the continuous phase partition to the interface of the DEX droplets, due to their affinity to the interface of PEG and DEX...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231224/controllable-one-step-double-emulsion-formation-via-phase-inversion
#16
Subeen Kim, KyuHan Kim, Siyoung Q Choi
Double emulsions, the simplest form of multiple emulsion, have been intensively utilized in various industries as well as in fundamental research. A variety of strategies to effectively form double emulsions have been developed, but no simple yet controlled and scalable technique has been achieved yet. Herein, we examine the mechanism of the entire process of double emulsion formation by phase inversion, and we propose a universal one-step strategy for the formation of an oil/water/oil double emulsion using oil soluble polymers and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles...
December 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231220/plug-and-actuate-on-demand-multimodal-individual-addressability-of-microarray-plates-using-modular-hybrid-acoustic-wave-technology
#17
Amgad R Rezk, Shwathy Ramesan, Leslie Y Yeo
The microarray titre plate remains a fundamental workhorse in genomic, proteomic and cellomic analyses that underpin the drug discovery process. Nevertheless, liquid handling technologies for sample dispensing, processing and transfer have not progressed significantly beyond conventional robotic micropipetting techniques, which are not only at their fundamental sample size limit, but are also prone to mechanical failure and contamination. This is because alternative technologies to date suffer from a number of constraints, mainly their limitation to carry out only a single liquid operation such as dispensing or mixing at a given time, and their inability to address individual wells, particularly at high throughput...
December 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230900/expression-of-a-carotenoid-modifying-gene-and-evolution-of-red-colouration-in-weaverbirds-ploceidae
#18
Hanlu Twyman, Maria Prager, Nicholas I Mundy, Staffan Andersson
Red carotenoid colours in birds are widely assumed to be sexually selected quality indicators, but this rests on a very incomplete understanding of genetic mechanisms and honesty-mediating costs. Recent progress was made by the implication of the gene CYP2J19 as an avian carotenoid ketolase, catalysing the synthesis of red C4-ketocarotenoids from yellow dietary precursors, and potentially a major mechanism behind red coloration in birds. Here we investigate the role of CYP2J19 in the spectacular colour diversification of African weaverbirds (Ploceidae), represented by five genera and 16 species; eight red, seven yellow, and one without carotenoid coloration...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230863/characterization-of-a-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-brummer-gene-and-analysis-of-its-role-in-lipid-metabolism
#19
Jinming Zhou, Jing Yan, Keke You, Xia Chen, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou, Kai Lu
The brummer (bmm) genes encode the lipid storage droplet-associated triacylglycerols (TAG) lipases, which belong to the Brummer/Nutrin subfamily. These enzymes hydrolyze the ester bonds in TAG in lipid metabolism and act in insect energy homeostasis. Exposure to some agricultural chemicals leads to increased fecundity, which necessarily involves lipid metabolism, in some planthopper species. However, the biological roles of bmm in planthopper lipid storage and mobilization have not been investigated. Here, the open reading frame (ORF) of bmm (Nlbmm) was cloned and sequenced from the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens)...
December 12, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230854/adjuvant-potential-of-virgin-coconut-oil-extract-on-antiretroviral-therapy-induced-testicular-toxicity-an-ultrastructural-study
#20
O O Ogedengbe, A I Jegede, I O Onanuga, U Offor, A I Peter, E N Akang, E C S Naidu, O O Azu
The effects of Virgin coconut oil as an adjuvant to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were investigated on the testicular ultrastructure and biochemical markers in rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153-169 g were divided into four groups and treated as follows: control A (distilled water), B (HAART), C (HAART+Virgin coconut oil 10 ml/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil [VCO] 10 ml/kg). Testicular segments were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Serum was assayed for testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testicular tissue for malondialdehyde and glutathione...
December 12, 2017: Andrologia
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