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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040343/spherical-nematic-shells-with-a-prolate-ellipsoidal-core
#1
Monirosadat Sadati, Ye Zhou, Drew Melchert, Ashley Guo, Jose A Martinez-Gonzalez, Tyler F Roberts, Rui Zhang, Juan J de Pablo
Liquid crystal shells have attracted considerable attention in recent years. In such systems, a combination of confinement and curvature generates topological defect structures that do not exist in the bulk. Past studies, however, have largely focused on perfectly spherical shells, and little attention has been devoted to the impact of core geometry on the configuration and arrangement of topological defects. In this work, a microfluidic glass capillary device is used to encapsulate spherical and prolate ellipsoidal particles in nematic liquid crystal (LC) droplets dispersed in aqueous media...
October 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036318/dimm-sc-a-dirichlet-mixture-model-for-clustering-droplet-based-single-cell-transcriptomic-data
#2
Zhe Sun, Ting Wang, Ke Deng, Xiao-Feng Wang, Robert Lafyatis, Ying Ding, Ming Hu, Wei Chen
Motivation: Single cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-Seq) has become a revolutionary tool to study cellular and molecular processes at single cell resolution. Among existing technologies, the recently developed droplet-based platform enables efficient parallel processing of thousands of single cells with direct counting of transcript copies using Unique Molecular Identifier (UMI). Despite the technology advances, statistical methods and computational tools are still lacking for analyzing droplet-based scRNA-Seq data...
August 2, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035830/hypolipemiant-and-antioxidant-effects-of-eugenia-brasiliensis-in-an-animal-model-of-coconut-oil-induced-hypertriglyceridemia
#3
Aline Barbosa Lima, Daniela Delwing-de Lima, Mariana Ramos Vieira, Marina Zordan Poletto, Débora Delwing-Dal Magro, Sara Cristiane Barauna, Michele Debiasi Alberton, Eduardo Manoel Pereira, Nariana Regina Pereira, Eloise Mariane Salamaia, Diogo Alexandre Siebert
We investigated the effects of chronic administration of crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and crude acetone extract (CAE) obtained from leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis species on hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress caused by the chronic administration of coconut oil. Rats received CHE or CAE (50, 100 or 150mg/kg, orally) for 30days, plus coconut oil (2mL, orally) or saline for 15th. Triglyceride levels, liver cell lipid accumulation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS), total sulfhydryl content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were evaluated in the blood and liver of rats...
October 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035521/direct-assembly-of-magnetic-janus-particles-at-a-droplet-interface
#4
Qingguang Xie, Gary B Davies, Jens Harting
Self-assembly of nanoparticles at fluid-fluid interfaces is a promising route to fabricate functional materials from the bottom-up. However, directing and controlling particles into highly tunable and predictable structures -- while essential -- is a challenge. We present a liquid interface assisted approach to fabricate nanoparticle structures with tunable properties. To demonstrate its feasibility, we study magnetic Janus particles adsorbed at the interface of a spherical droplet placed on a substrate. With an external magnetic field turned on, a single particle moves to the location where its position vector relative to the droplet centre is parallel to the direction of the applied field...
October 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035355/sequential-bottom-up-assembly-of-mechanically-stabilized-synthetic-cells-by-microfluidics
#5
Marian Weiss, Johannes Patrick Frohnmayer, Lucia Theresa Benk, Barbara Haller, Jan-Willi Janiesch, Thomas Heitkamp, Michael Börsch, Rafael B Lira, Rumiana Dimova, Reinhard Lipowsky, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Jean-Christophe Baret, Tanja Vidakovic-Koch, Kai Sundmacher, Ilia Platzman, Joachim P Spatz
Compartments for the spatially and temporally controlled assembly of biological processes are essential towards cellular life. Synthetic mimics of cellular compartments based on lipid-based protocells lack the mechanical and chemical stability to allow their manipulation into a complex and fully functional synthetic cell. Here, we present a high-throughput microfluidic method to generate stable, defined sized liposomes termed 'droplet-stabilized giant unilamellar vesicles (dsGUVs)'. The enhanced stability of dsGUVs enables the sequential loading of these compartments with biomolecules, namely purified transmembrane and cytoskeleton proteins by microfluidic pico-injection technology...
October 16, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034362/lipid-droplets-potential-biomarker-and-metabolic-target-in-glioblastoma
#6
Feng Geng, Deliang Guo
Lipid droplets (LDs) are subcellular organelles that store large amounts of the neutral lipids, triglycerides (TG) and/or cholesteryl esters (CE). LDs are commonly formed in adipocytes, liver cells and macrophages, and their formation has been shown to be associated with the progression of metabolic diseases, i.e., obesity, fatty liver and atherosclerosis. Interestingly, LDs are also found in some tumor tissues. We recently showed that LDs are prevalent in glioblastoma (GBM), the most deadly brain tumor, but are not detectable in low-grade gliomas and normal brain tissues, suggesting that LDs may serve as a novel diagnostic biomarker for GBM...
May 2017: Internal Medicine Review (Washington, D.C.: Online)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032678/marangoni-effect-driven-motion-of-miniature-robots-and-generation-of-electricity-on-water
#7
Lidong Zhang, YIhui Yuan, Xiaxin Qiu, Ting Zhang, Qing Chen, Xinhua Huang
The well-known Marangoni effect perfectly supports dynamic mechanism of organic solvent-swollen gels on water. Based on this, we report a series of energy conversion processes of concentrated droplets of polyvinylidene fluoride/dimethyl formamide (PVDF/DMF) that can transfer chemical-free energy to kinetic energy, to rapidly rotate itself on water. 22.2 mg of this droplet is capable to offer kinetic energy of 0.099 μJ to propel an artificial paper rocket of 31.8 mg to move over 560 cm on water at an initial velocity of 7...
October 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031100/discovery-of-a-new-mechanism-for-regulation-of-plant-triacylglycerol-metabolism-the-peanut-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-gene-family-transcriptome-is-highly-enriched-in-alternative-splicing-variants
#8
Ling Zheng, Jay Shockey, Feng Guo, Lingmin Shi, Xinguo Li, Lei Shan, Shubo Wan, Zhenying Peng
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most important energy storage form in oilseed crops. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the Kennedy pathway of TAG biosynthesis. To date, little is known about the regulation of DGAT activity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), an agronomically important oilseed crop that is cultivated in many parts of the world. In this study, seven distinct forms of type 1 DGAT (AhDGAT1.1-AhDGAT1.7) were identified, cloned, and characterized. Comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and gene structures revealed many different splicing variants of AhDGAT1, some of which displayed different organ-specific expression patterns...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031052/dispersibility-and-biotransformation-of-oils-with-different-properties-in-seawater
#9
Odd G Brakstad, Umer Farooq, Deni Ribicic, Roman Netzer
Dispersants are used to remove oils slicks from sea surfaces and to generate small oil-droplet dispersions, which may result in enhanced biodegradation of the oil. In this study, dispersibility and biodegradation of chemically dispersed oils with different physical-chemical properties (paraffinic, naphthenic and asphaltenic oils) were compared in natural temperate SW at 13 °C. All selected oils were chemically dispersible when well-known commercial dispersants were used. However, interfacial tension (IFT) studies of the dispersed oils showed different IFT properties of the oils at 13 °C, and also different leaching of the dispersants from oil droplet surfaces...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031005/quantitative-high-content-high-throughput-microscopy-analysis-of-lipid-droplets-in-subject-specific-adipogenesis-models
#10
Maxime Bombrun, Hui Gao, Petter Ranefall, Niklas Mejhert, Peter Arner, Carolina Wählby
Neutral lipids packed in lipid droplets (LDs) are essential as a source of fuel for organisms, and specialized storing cells, the adipocytes, provide a buffer for energy variations. Many modern-society-disorders are connected with excess accumulation or deficiency of LDs in adipose tissue. Intracellular LD number and size distribution reflect the tissue conditions, while the associated mechanisms and genes rs are still poorly understood. Large-scale genetic screens using human in vitro differentiated primary adipocytes require cell samples donated from many patients...
October 14, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030616/maternal-consumption-of-fish-oil-programs-reduced-adiposity-in-broiler-chicks
#11
Ronique C Beckford, Sarah J Howard, Suchita Das, Abigail T Farmer, Shawn R Campagna, Jiali Yu, Robert L Hettich, Jeanna L Wilson, Brynn H Voy
Maternal intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) has been associated with reduced adiposity in children, suggesting the possibility to program adipose development through dietary fatty acids before birth. This study determined if enriching the maternal diet in fish oil, the primary source of EPA and DHA, affected adipose development in offspring. Broiler chickens were used because they are obesity-prone, and because fatty acids provided to the embryo can be manipulated through the hen diet...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030246/interaction-of-a-model-apolipoprotein-apolp-iii-with-an-oil-phospholipid-interface
#12
Mona Mirheydari, Elizabeth K Mann, Edgar E Kooijman
Lipid droplets are "small" organelles that play an important role in de novo synthesis of new membrane, and steroid hormones, as well as in energy storage. The way proteins interact specifically with the oil-(phospho-)lipid monolayer interface of lipid droplets is a relatively unexplored but crucial question. Here, we use our home built liquid droplet tensiometer to mimic intracellular lipid droplets and study protein-lipid interactions at this interface. As model neutral lipid binding protein, we use apoLp-III, an amphipathic α-helix bundle protein...
October 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029576/marine-aerosols-and-clouds
#13
Sarah D Brooks, Daniel C O Thornton
The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gasphase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029307/droplet-digital-pcr-diagnosis-of-human-schistosomiasis-parasite-cell-free-dna-detection-in-diverse-clinical-samples
#14
Kosala G Weerakoon, Catherine A Gordon, Gail M Williams, Pengfei Cai, Geoffrey N Gobert, Remigio M Olveda, Allen G Ross, David U Olveda, Donald P McManus
Background: Schistosomiasis japonica remains a major public health and socio-economic concern in Southeast-Asia. Sensitive and accurate diagnostics can play a pivotal role in achieving disease elimination goals. Methods: We previously reported a novel droplet digital-PCR (ddPCR) assay targeting the mitochondrial gene nad1 to diagnose schistosomiasis japonica. The tool identified both pre-patent and patent infections using Schistosoma japonicum DNA isolated from serum, urine, salivary glands and faeces in a murine model...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029251/effects-of-the-botanical-compound-p-anisaldehyde-on-horn-fly-diptera-muscidae-repellency-mortality-and-reproduction
#15
Allan T Showler, Jessica L Harlien
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is an economically important obligate blood feeder that mainly attacks cattle in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. As horn fly resistance to conventional insecticides becomes more common, alternative control tactics, such as application of bioactive botanical natural products are being investigated. p-Anisaldehyde has been found in many plant species, and it has shown effects that include mortality, attractancy, and interference with host seeking...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029146/a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-separation-of-autographa-gamma-noctuidae-plusiinae-from-morphologically-similar-species-in-north-america
#16
Luke R Tembrock, Roxanne E Farris, Lisa Ledezma, Norman B Barr, Todd M Gilligan
The silver Y moth, Autographa gamma L. (Noctuidae: Plusiinae), is a pest of major economic importance in its native range of Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Although not present in North America, larvae of A. gamma are commonly intercepted in commodity shipments at U.S. ports, and adult surveys are conducted each year in more than 20 states. Because of the similarity of A. gamma to several native North American species that are attracted to the same pheromone lure, morphological identification of adults is difficult and requires dissection...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028574/gravity-directed-separation-of-both-immiscible-and-emulsified-oil-water-mixtures-utilizing-coconut-shell-layer
#17
Jian Li, Changcheng Xu, Yan Zhang, Xiaohua Tang, Wei Qi, Qiong Wang
Pressure-driven and lower flux of superwetting ultrafiltration membranes in various emulsions separation are long-standing issues and major barriers for their large-scale utilization. Even though currently reported membranes have achieved great success in emulsions separeation, they still suffer from low flux and complex fabrication process resulting from their smaller nanoscale pore size. Herein, utilizition of coconut shell as a novel biomaterial for developing into a layer through the simple smashing, cleaning and stacking procedures, which not only could avoid the complexity of film making process, but also could realize efficient gravity-directed separation of both immiscible oil/water mixtures and water-in-oil emulsions with high flux...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028113/the-role-of-plin-protein-in-healthy-lipid-storage-and-lipid-droplet-expansion
#18
G C Hayward, R K Fenech, A J Yang, B J Baranowski
In skeletal muscle, fatty acids are stored in vesicle-like organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs). The importance of how lipids are stored in skeletal muscle has emerged from studies demonstrating a strong association between muscle lipids and insulin sensitivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028027/fabrication-of-disk-droplets-and-evaluation-of-their-lasing-action
#19
Mitsunori Saito, Takuya Hashimoto, Jumpei Taniguchi
Disk resonators are difficult to create with droplets, since they self-form spheres due to the surface tension. In this study, disk (cylindrical) droplets were created by enclosing a dye (rhodamine 6G) solution in silicone rubber. Lasing actions of these droplets were examined by pulsed green laser excitation. In a large droplet (2 mm diameter), the whispering gallery mode emission was difficult to attain, since it competed with the radial or axial modes that made a round trip in the droplet. A disk droplet of 150 μm diameter exhibited a comb-like spectrum of the whispering gallery mode resonant emission...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026202/loss-of-abhd5-promotes-the-aggressiveness-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#20
Guohua Chen, Guoli Zhou, Siddhesh Aras, Zhenhui He, Stephanie Lucas, Izabela Podgorski, Wael Skar, James G Granneman, Jian Wang
The accumulation of neutral lipids in intracellular lipid droplets has been associated with the formation and progression of many cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Alpha-beta Hydrolase Domain Containing 5 (ABHD5) is a key regulator of intracellular neutral lipids that has been recently identified as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, yet its potential role in PCa has not been investigated. Through mining publicly accessible PCa gene expression datasets, we found that ABHD5 gene expression is markedly decreased in metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) samples...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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