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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441386/graft-derived-cell-free-dna-a-noninvasive-early-rejection-and-graft-damage-marker-in-liver-transplantation-a-prospective-observational-multicenter-cohort-study
#1
Ekkehard Schütz, Anna Fischer, Julia Beck, Markus Harden, Martina Koch, Tilo Wuensch, Martin Stockmann, Björn Nashan, Otto Kollmar, Johannes Matthaei, Philipp Kanzow, Philip D Walson, Jürgen Brockmöller, Michael Oellerich
BACKGROUND: Graft-derived cell-free DNA (GcfDNA), which is released into the blood stream by necrotic and apoptotic cells, is a promising noninvasive organ integrity biomarker. In liver transplantation (LTx), neither conventional liver function tests (LTFs) nor immunosuppressive drug monitoring are very effective for rejection monitoring. We therefore hypothesized that the quantitative measurement of donor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) would have independent value for the assessment of graft integrity, including damage from acute rejection...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441109/meningococcal-serogroup-b-vaccine-knowledge-and-acceptability-among-parents-in-italy
#2
Teresa Morrone, Francesco Napolitano, Luciana Albano, Gabriella Di Giuseppe
This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes about Meningococcal meningitis B and the relative vaccine for children among a sample of parents in Italy. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted from October to December 2015 among a sample of 910 parents in the geographic area of Naples and Salerno (Italy). In total, 543 of 910 parents returned a completed questionnaire for a response rate of 59.7%. Almost all parents had heard about meningitis (95.8%), 79.8% of these knew the mode of transmission (through respiratory droplets) and 62...
April 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440646/aqueous-reaction-of-dicarbonyls-with-ammonia-as-a-potential-source-of-organic-nitrogen-in-airborne-nanoparticles
#3
Christopher M Stangl, Murray V Johnston
Nitrogen-containing organic species such as imines and imidazoles can be formed by aqueous reactions of carbonyl-containing compounds in the presence of ammonia. In the work described here, these reactions are studied in airborne aqueous nanodroplets containing ammonium sulfate and glyoxal, methylglyoxal, or glycolaldehyde using a combination of online and offline mass spectrometry. N/C ratios attributed to the organic fraction of the particles (N/Corg) produced from glyoxal and methylglyoxal were quantified across a wide relative humidity range...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440456/tetrahydropalmatine-inhibits-lipid-accumulation-through-ampk-signaling-pathway-in-3t3%C3%A2-l1-adipocytes
#4
Guang-Chun Piao, Guan-Cheng Liu, Xue-Jun Jin, Dan Jin, Hai-Dan Yuan
Tetrahydropalmatine (THP), one of the active components of Rhizoma corydalis, has been reported to exert several pharmacological effects, including anti‑inflammatory, anti‑tumor and analgesic activities. However, its effect on obesity and the underlying molecular mechanisms that may be involved have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of THP on the adipogenesis in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes was examined using hstology, western blotting and RT‑qPCR. THP was identified to significantly suppress lipid accumulation in 3T3‑L1 cells and it inhibited pre‑adipocyte differentiation in a concentration‑dependent manner, as evidenced by the reduced formation of lipid droplets and decreased triglyceride levels and glycerol‑3‑phosphate dehydrogenase activity...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440371/role-of-uncrosslinked-chains-in-droplets-dynamics-on-silicone-elastomers
#5
Aurélie Hourlier-Fargette, Arnaud Antkowiak, Antoine Chateauminois, Sébastien Neukirch
We report an unexpected behavior in wetting dynamics on soft silicone substrates: the dynamics of aqueous droplets deposited on vertical plates of such elastomers exhibits two successive speed regimes. This macroscopic observation is found to be closely related to microscopic phenomena occurring at the scale of the polymer network: we show that uncrosslinked chains found in most widely used commercial silicone elastomers are responsible for this surprising behavior. A direct visualization of the uncrosslinked oligomers collected by water droplets is performed, evidencing that a capillarity-induced phase separation occurs: uncrosslinked oligomers are extracted from the silicone elastomer network by the water-glycerol mixture droplet...
April 25, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440292/visible-light-guided-manipulation-of-liquid-wettability-on-photoresponsive-surfaces
#6
Gibum Kwon, Divya Panchanathan, Seyed Reza Mahmoudi, Mohammed A Gondal, Gareth H McKinley, Kripa K Varanasi
Photoresponsive titania surfaces are of great interest due to their unique wettability change upon ultraviolet light illumination. However, their applications are often limited either by the inability to respond to visible light or the need for special treatment to recover the original wettability. Sensitizing TiO2 surfaces with visible light-absorbing materials has been utilized in photovoltaic applications. Here we demonstrate that a dye-sensitized TiO2 surface can selectively change the wettability towards contacting liquids upon visible light illumination due to a photo-induced voltage across the liquid and the underlying surface...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440003/advanced-sers-sensor-based-on-capillarity-assisted-preconcentration-through-gold-nanoparticle-decorated-porous-nanorods
#7
Longjian Xue, Wei Xie, Leonie Driessen, Katrin F Domke, Yong Wang, Sebastian Schlücker, Stanislav N Gorb, Martin Steinhart
A preconcentrating surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor for the analysis of liquid-soaked tissue, tiny liquid droplets and thin liquid films without the necessity to collect the analyte is reported. The SERS sensor is based on a block-copolymer membrane containing a spongy-continuous pore system. The sensor's upper side is an array of porous nanorods having tips functionalized with Au nanoparticles. Capillarity in combination with directional evaporation drives the analyte solution in contact with the flat yet nanoporous underside of the SERS sensor through the continuous nanopore system toward the nanorod tips where non-volatile components of the analyte solution precipitate at the Au nanoparticles...
April 25, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439827/droplet-microfluidic-device-fabrication-and-use-for-isothermal-amplification-and-detection-of-microrna
#8
Maria Chiara Giuffrida, Roberta D'Agata, Giuseppe Spoto
Droplet microfluidics combined with the isothermal circular strand displacement polymerization (ICSDP) represents a powerful new technique to detect both single-stranded DNA and microRNA sequences. The method here described helps in overcoming some drawbacks of the lately introduced droplet polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when implemented in microfluidic devices. The method also allows the detection of nanoliter droplets of nucleic acids sequences solutions, with a particular attention to microRNA sequences that are detected at the picomolar level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439258/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Paras K Mishra, Wei Ying, Shyam Sundar Nandi, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik K Patel, Sushil K Mahata
The heart possesses a remarkable inherent capability to adapt itself to a wide array of genetic and extrinsic factors to maintain contractile function. Failure to sustain its compensatory responses results in cardiac dysfunction, leading to cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced diastolic function, with or without concurrent systolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Changes in substrate metabolism, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, and advanced glycation end products constitute the early stage in DCM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439069/drying-mediated-patterns-in-colloid-polymer-suspensions
#10
Seul-A Ryu, Jin Young Kim, So Youn Kim, Byung Mook Weon
Drying-mediated patterning of colloidal particles is a physical phenomenon that must be understood in inkjet printing technology to obtain crack-free uniform colloidal films. Here we experimentally study the drying-mediated patterns of a model colloid-polymer suspension and specifically observe how the deposit pattern appears after droplet evaporation by varying particle size and polymer concentration. We find that at a high polymer concentration, the ring-like pattern appears in suspensions with large colloids, contrary to suppression of ring formation in suspensions with small colloids thanks to colloid-polymer interactions...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438000/development-of-limited-view-and-three-dimensional-reconstruction-method-for-analysis-of-electrohydrodynamic-jetting-behavior
#11
Yeonghyeon Gim, Dong Ho Shin, Do Yoon Moh, Han Seo Ko
For an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet, variables such as the direction of the meniscus and the ejection stability need to be analyzed. Thus, the EHD jet should be observed three-dimensionally (3D) because the variables can only be obtained in the 3D field, especially in unstable modes. However, if the 3D field is reconstructed from multi-directional binary images, eliminating reconstruction errors caused by invisible areas is almost impossible, even when using a tomographic technique. To solve this problem, a new 3D reconstruction method including an ellipse estimation was developed in this study...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437684/fibrillar-disruption-by-ac-electric-field-induced-oscillation-a-case-study-with-human-serum-albumin
#12
Shubhatam Sen, Monojit Chakraborty, Snigdha Goley, Swagata Dasgupta, Sunando DasGupta
The effect of oscillation induced by a frequency-dependent alternating current (AC) electric field to dissociate preformed amyloid fibrils has been investigated. An electrowetting-on-dielectric type setup has been used to apply the AC field of varying frequencies on preformed fibrils of human serum albumin (HSA). The disintegration potency has been monitored by a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The experimental results suggest that the frequency of the applied AC field plays a crucial role in the disruption of preformed HSA fibrils...
April 13, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437468/role-of-cleavage-at-the-core-e1-junction-of-hepatitis-c-virus-polyprotein-in-viral-morphogenesis
#13
Véronique Pène, Matthieu Lemasson, Francis Harper, Gérard Pierron, Arielle R Rosenberg
In hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein sequence, core protein terminates with E1 envelope signal peptide. Cleavage by signal peptidase (SP) separates E1 from the complete form of core protein, anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the signal peptide. Subsequent cleavage of the signal peptide by signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly begins at the surface of lipid droplets, yet SPP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for initiation of budding in the ER...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437435/infective-respiratory-syncytial-virus-is-present-in-human-cord-blood-samples-and-most-prevalent-during-winter-months
#14
Angela Mary Fonceca, Abha Chopra, Avram Levy, Paul Stanton Noakes, Matthew Wee-Peng Poh, Natasha Leanne Bear, Susan Prescott, Mark Lloyd Everard
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. Demonstrating placental transmission of viable RSV in human samples is a major paradigm shift in respiratory routes considered likely for RSV transmission. METHODS: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify RSV present in cord blood mononucleocytes (CBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437026/analyzing-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-status-changes-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-at-different-sampling-time-points-of-blood-within-one%C3%A2-day
#15
Jin Wang, Hua Bai, Chaoyu Hong, Jie Wang, Tong-Hua Mei
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether different sampling time-points within one day would influence epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFRm) status in plasma and evaluated the clinical outcomes according to the quantity analysis of EGFRm in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor naïve advanced NSCLC patients who carried EGFRm in both tissues and ctDNA were enrolled in this study. Plasma samples were collected at three time-points within one day (at 8 am, 11 am and 2 pm) for EGFRm analysis by droplet digital PCR...
April 24, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436513/self-inverted-reciprocation-of-an-oil-droplet-on-a-surfactant-solution
#16
Yusuke Satoh, Yoshimi Sogabe, Katsuhiko Kayahara, Shinpei Tanaka, Masaharu Nagayama, Satoshi Nakata
Self-motion of an oil droplet was investigated on a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous phase. With an increase in the concentration of SDS, the nature of self-motion of a butyl salicylate (BS) droplet as the oil droplet was changed, i.e., no motion, reciprocation with a small amplitude, and reciprocation with a large amplitude, which was a value close to the half-length of the chamber. The interfacial tension, contact angle, and convective flow around the droplet were measured to clarify the driving force of reciprocation...
April 24, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436473/volumetric-chemical-imaging-by-stimulated-raman-projection-microscopy-and-tomography
#17
Xueli Chen, Chi Zhang, Peng Lin, Kai-Chih Huang, Jimin Liang, Jie Tian, Ji-Xin Cheng
Volumetric imaging allows global understanding of three-dimensional (3D) complex systems. Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and optical projection tomography have been reported to image 3D volumes with high resolutions and at high speeds. Such methods, however, usually rely on fluorescent labels for chemical targeting, which could perturb the biological functionality in living systems. We demonstrate Bessel-beam-based stimulated Raman projection (SRP) microscopy and tomography for label-free volumetric chemical imaging...
April 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436421/abnormal-gas-liquid-solid-phase-transition-behaviour-of-water-observed-with-in-situ-environmental-sem
#18
Xin Chen, Jiapei Shu, Qing Chen
Gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water is studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Abnormal phenomena are observed. At a fixed pressure of 450 Pa, with the temperature set to -7 °C, direct desublimation happens, and ice grows continuously along the substrate surface. At 550 Pa, although ice is the stable phase according to the phase diagram, metastable liquid droplets first nucleate and grow to ~100-200 μm sizes. Ice crystals nucleate within the large sized droplets, grow up and fill up the droplets...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435443/occurrence-of-plastidial-triacylglycerol-synthesis-and-the-potential-regulatory-role-of-agpat-in-the-model-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#19
Srinivasan Balamurugan, Xiang Wang, Hong-Lei Wang, Chun-Jing An, Hui Li, Da-Wei Li, Wei-Dong Yang, Jie-Sheng Liu, Hong-Ye Li
BACKGROUND: Microalgae have emerged as a potential feedstock for biofuels and bioactive components. However, lack of microalgal strains with promising triacylglycerol (TAG) content and desirable fatty acid composition have hindered its commercial feasibility. Attempts on lipid overproduction by metabolic engineering remain largely challenging in microalgae. RESULTS: In this study, a microalgal 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase designated AGPAT1 was identified in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434863/spatiotemporally-controlled-mechanical-cues-drive-progenitor-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-enabling-proper-heart-formation-and-function
#20
Timothy R Jackson, Hye Young Kim, Uma L Balakrishnan, Carsten Stuckenholz, Lance A Davidson
During early cardiogenesis, bilateral fields of mesenchymal heart progenitor cells (HPCs) move from the anterior lateral plate mesoderm to the ventral midline, undergoing a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) en route to forming a single epithelial sheet. Through tracking of tissue-level deformations in the heart-forming region (HFR) as well as movement trajectories and traction generation of individual HPCs, we find that the onset of MET correlates with a peak in mechanical stress within the HFR and changes in HPC migratory behaviors...
April 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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