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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329151/caloric-restriction-and-rapamycin-differentially-alter-energy-metabolism-in-yeast
#1
Kyung-Mi Choi, Seok-Jin Hong, Jan M van Deursen, Sooah Kim, Kyoung Heon Kim, Cheol-Koo Lee
Rapamycin (RM), a drug that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and responds to nutrient availability, seemingly mimics the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on healthy life span. However, the extent of the mechanistic overlap between RM and CR remains incompletely understood. Here, we compared the impact of CR and RM on cellular metabolic status. Both regimens maintained intracellular ATP through the chronological aging process and showed enhanced mitochondrial capacity. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that CR had a stronger impact on global gene expression than RM...
March 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328996/diaphragmatic-function-is-enhanced-in-fatty-and-diabetic-fatty-rats
#2
Audrey De Jong, Serge Carreira, Na Na, Aude Carillion, Cheng Jiang, Maud Beuvin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Bruno Riou, Catherine Coirault
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. METHODS: Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328134/somatic-pik3ca-mutations-in-seven-patients-with-pik3ca-related-overgrowth-spectrum
#3
Kit San Yeung, Janice Jing Kun Ip, Chin Pang Chow, Evelyn Yue Ling Kuong, Paul Kwong-Hang Tam, Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan, Brian Hon-Yin Chung
Somatic mutations in PIK3CA cause many overgrowth syndromes that have been recently coined the "PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum." Here, we present seven molecularly confirmed patients with PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, including patients with Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, lymphatic malformation and two with atypical phenotypes that cannot be classified into existing disease categories. The literature on PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum, suggests that PIK3CA c...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328044/characterization-of-dissolved-and-particulate-phases-of-water-accommodated-fractions-used-to-conduct-aquatic-toxicity-testing-in-support-of-the-deepwater-horizon-natural-resource-damage-assessment
#4
Heather P Forth, Carys L Mitchelmore, Jeffrey M Morris, Claire R Lay, Joshua Lipton
In response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the Natural Resource Trustees implemented a toxicity testing program that included four different DWH oils that ranged from fresh to weathered, and three different oil-in-water preparation methods (including one that used the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500) to prepare a total of 12 chemically unique water accommodated fractions (WAFs). We determined how the different WAF preparation methods, WAF concentrations, and oil types influenced the chemical composition and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the dissolved and particulate phases over time periods used in standard toxicity tests...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328034/extraction-efficiency-and-implications-for-absolute-quantitation-of-propranolol-in-mouse-brain-liver-and-kidney-tissue-sections-using-droplet-based-liquid-microjunction-surface-sampling-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass
#5
Vilmos Kertesz, Taylor M Weiskittel, Marissa Vavrek, Carol Freddo, Gary J Van Berkel
RATIONALE: Currently, the absolute quantitation aspects of droplet-based surface sampling for tissue analysis using a fully automated autosampler/high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) system have not been fully evaluated. Knowledge of extraction efficiency and its reproducibility is required to judge the potential of the method for absolute quantitation of analytes from tissue sections. METHODS: Adjacent tissue sections of propranolol-dosed mouse brain (10-μm-thick), kidney (10-μm-thick) and liver (8-, 10-, 16- and 24-μm-thick) were obtained...
July 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327747/thermally-induced-breakup-of-metallic-nanowires-experiment-and-theory
#6
Martin Schnedlitz, Maximilian Lasserus, Daniel Knez, Andreas W Hauser, Ferdinand Hofer, Wolfgang E Ernst
We present time-resolved transmission electron microscopy studies of the degradation of Au, Ag, Cu and Ni nanowires deposited on a heated support. The wires are grown under fully inert conditions in superfluid helium droplets and deposited onto amorphous carbon. The inherent stability of these pristine metal nanowires with diameters below 10 nm is investigated in the absence of any stabilizers, templates or solvents. The phenomenon of Rayleigh-breakup, a consequence of diffusion processes along the wire surfaces, is analysed in situ via scans over time and support temperature...
March 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326784/drop-impact-on-oblique-superhydrophobic-surfaces-with-two-tier-roughness
#7
Rui Zhang, Pengfei Hao, Feng He
This paper investigates the complex physical phenomenon of oblique drop impact on superhydrophobic substrates with two-tier roughness (patterned with varied submillimeter-scale posts and coated with nano-particles). Experimental results show that the impact Weber number of drops and the solid fraction of the submillimeter-scale post structures are crucial for the outcomes of oblique drop collisions. Water droplets with 10<Wen<245 are found to rebound on all the test substrates. As the surface solid fraction decreases, four possible bouncing patterns occur in sequence, sliding rebound, stretched rebound, penetration rebound and breakup rebound...
March 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325224/number-of-succussion-strokes-affects-effectiveness-of-ultra-high-diluted-arsenic-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-wheat-germination-and-polycrystalline-structures-obtained-by-droplet-evaporation-method
#8
Lucietta Betti, Grazia Trebbi, Maria Olga Kokornaczyk, Daniele Nani, Maurizio Peruzzi, Giovanni Dinelli, Paolo Bellavite, Maurizio Brizzi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the number of succussion strokes applied after each dilution step when preparing the homeopathic treatments influences the effectiveness of ultra-high-diluted (UHD) arsenic trioxide at the 45th decimal dilution/dynamization (As2O3 45x). DESIGN: Wheat seeds, previously stressed with ponderal As2O3, were treated with: As2O3 45x, H2O 45x (dynamized control), or pure water (negative control). The succussion was done manually, and various succussion durations (numbers of strokes) were tested for each treatment...
February 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325141/effect-of-intranasal-administration-of-galanin-like-peptide-galp-on-body-weight-and-hepatic-lipids-accumulation-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Satoshi Hirako, Nobuhiro Wada, Haruaki Kageyama, Fumiko Takenoya, Hyounju Kim, Yuzuru Iizuka, Akiyo Matsumoto, Mai Okabe, Seiji Shioda
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide involved in the regulation of food intake behavior, body weight and energy metabolism. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the intranasal administration of GALP has weight loss effects, although the mechanism of this action was not clarified. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the functional significance of GALP on lipid metabolism in the liver. Mice were fed a high fat diet to cause diet-induced obesity (DIO) and then administered GALP intranasally for 2 weeks (experimental), or vehicle (control)...
March 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325081/lipid-deposition-in-kidney-diseases-interplay-among-redox-lipid-mediators-and-renal-impairment
#10
Hua Su, Cheng Wan, Chun-Tao Lei, Chun-Yun Zhang, Chen Ye, Hui Tang, Yue Qiu, Chun Zhang
Lipids encompass a large variety of molecules representing a highly efficient energy resource and forming structural components of membranes or signaling molecules that regulate diverse cellular events underlying not only physiological homeostatic processes but also undesirable pathogenic outcomes. The relationship between lipid disturbances and renal diseases has been studied for several decades, and it is well-recognized that when the balance of renal lipid uptake, synthesis, oxidation and outflow is disrupted, lipids will undergo oxidation, be sequestrated as lipid droplets, generate toxic metabolites and cause nephrotoxicity in diverse renal diseases...
March 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324641/preparation-of-a-non-woven-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-fabric-with-partially-embedded-apatite-surface-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications-by-partial-surface-melting-of-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-fibers
#11
In Ae Kim, Sang-Hoon Rhee
This paper describes a novel method for the preparation of a biodegradable non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with a partially-embedded apatite surface designed for application as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. The non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric was generated by the electro-spinning technique and then apatite was coated in simulated body fluid after coating the PVA solution containing CaCl2 ·2H2 O. The apatite crystals were partially- or fully-embedded into the thermoplastic poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers by controlling the degree of poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber surface melting in a convection oven...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324241/numerical-simulation-and-scaling-of-droplet-deformation-in-a-hyperbolic-flow
#12
Erfan Kadivar, Atefeh Alizadeh
Motivated by a recent experiment (C. Ulloa et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 033004 (2014)), droplet deformation in a flat microfluidic channel having a cross intersection with two inlet channels and two outlet channels, i.e. hyperbolic flow, is numerically investigated. Employing the boundary element method (BEM), we numerically solve the Darcy equation in the two dimensions and investigate droplet motion and droplet deformation as the droplet enters the cross intersection. We numerically find that the maximum deformation of droplet depends on droplet size, capillary number, viscosity ratio and flow rate ratio of the two inlets...
March 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324208/the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-%C3%AE-conglycinin-and-various-glycinin-subunits-of-soy-are-not-required-to-modulate-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#13
Cynthia Chatterjee, Jiajie Liu, Carla Wood, Christine Gagnon, Elroy R Cober, Judith A Frégeau-Reid, Stephen Gleddie, Chao-Wu Xiao
PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of soy proteins with depletion of different subunits of the two major storage proteins, β-conglycinin and glycinin, on hepatic lipids and proteins involved in lipid metabolism in rats, since the bioactive component of soy responsible for lipid-lowering is unclear. METHODS: Weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 20% casein protein in the absence (casein) or presence (casein + ISF) of isoflavones or 20% alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (SPI) or 20% soy protein concentrates derived from a conventional (Haro) or 2 soybean lines lacking the α' subunit of β-conglycinin and the A1-3 (1TF) or A1-5 (1a) subunits of glycinin...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323980/hypoxia-inducible-lipid-droplet-associated-hilpda-is-not-a-direct-physiological-regulator-of-lipolysis-in-adipose-tissue
#14
Wieneke Dijk, Frits Mattijssen, Montserrat de la Rosa Rodriguez, Angel Loza Valdes, Anne Loft, Susanne Mandrup, Eric Kalkhoven, Ling Qi, Jan Willem Borst, Sander Kersten
Triglycerides are stored in specialized organelles called lipid droplets. Numerous proteins have been shown to be physically associated with lipid droplets and govern their function. Previously, hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet-associated (HILPDA) was localized to lipid droplets and was suggested to inhibit triglyceride lipolysis in hepatocytes. We confirm the partial localization of HILPDA to lipid droplets and show that HILPDA is highly abundant in adipose tissue, where its expression is controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and by β-adrenergic stimulation...
March 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323109/self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-design-of-a-novel-vaginal-delivery-system-for-curcumin
#15
S Köllner, I Nardin, R Markt, J Griesser, F Prüfert, A Bernkop-Schnürch
AIM: The aim of this study was to develop a vaginal self-emulsifying delivery system for curcumin being capable of spreading, of permeating the mucus gel layer and of protecting the drug being incorporated in oily nanodroplets towards mucus interactions and immobilization. METHODS: The emulsifying properties of curcumin loaded SEDDS containing 30% Cremophor RH40, 20% Capmul PG-8, 30% Captex 300, 10% DMSO and 10% tetraglycol (SEDD formulation A) as well as 25% PEG 200, 35% Cremophor RH40, 20% Captex 355, 10% Caprylic acid and 10% Tween 80 (SEDD formulation B) after diluting 1+2 with artificial vaginal fluid were characterized regarding droplet size and zeta potential...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322802/simple-quantitative-pcr-analysis-for-allelic-pten-loss-in-tumor-progression
#16
Xingping Wu, Ailin Zhu, Xiaowu Pang, Guiqin Xie, Xinbin Gu
We describe a simple method to accurately detect and quantify both Pten mutation and allele-specific loss using allele-specific PCR analysis. Our approach used a heterozygous genomic DNA with one wild-type and one mutant Pten allele as a reference at a single concentration to calculate the percent ratio of the wild-type Pten gene for the detection of allele-specific gene loss. With a standard curve, ratios from PCR data were used to quantitate the wild-type Pten allele copy number loss in tumor specimens. We demonstrate the utility of our approach to calculate allele-specific Pten loss during tumor progression and show that our approach generates quantitative data that are comparable to those obtained from digital droplet PCR...
March 17, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322402/open-channel-water-in-oil-emulsification-in-paper-based-microfluidic-devices
#17
C Li, M Boban, A Tuteja
Open-channel microfluidic devices have shown great potential in achieving a high degree of fluid control, at relatively low-cost, while enabling the opportunity for rapid fabrication. However, thus far, work in open channel microfluidics has largely focused on controlling the flow of water or other aqueous solutions. In this work we present new open channel microfluidic devices based on surfaces with patterned wettabilty that are capable of controlling the flow of virtually all high and low surface tension liquids...
March 21, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322247/tricyclic-antidepressants-promote-ceramide-accumulation-to-regulate-collagen-production-in-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#18
Jennifer Y Chen, Benjamin Newcomb, Chan Zhou, Joshua V Pondick, Sarani Ghoshal, Samuel R York, Daniel L Motola, Nicolas Coant, Jae Kyo Yi, Cungui Mao, Kenneth K Tanabe, Irina Bronova, Evgeny V Berdyshev, Bryan C Fuchs, Yusuf Hannun, Raymond T Chung, Alan C Mullen
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in response to injury is a key step in hepatic fibrosis, and is characterized by trans-differentiation of quiescent HSCs to HSC myofibroblasts, which secrete extracellular matrix proteins responsible for the fibrotic scar. There are currently no therapies to directly inhibit hepatic fibrosis. We developed a small molecule screen to identify compounds that inactivate human HSC myofibroblasts through the quantification of lipid droplets. We screened 1600 compounds and identified 21 small molecules that induce HSC inactivation...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320948/highly-oriented-photosynthetic-reaction-centers-generate-a-proton-gradient-in-synthetic-protocells
#19
Emiliano Altamura, Francesco Milano, Roberto R Tangorra, Massimo Trotta, Omar Hassan Omar, Pasquale Stano, Fabio Mavelli
Photosynthesis is responsible for the photochemical conversion of light into the chemical energy that fuels the planet Earth. The photochemical core of this process in all photosynthetic organisms is a transmembrane protein called the reaction center. In purple photosynthetic bacteria a simple version of this photoenzyme catalyzes the reduction of a quinone molecule, accompanied by the uptake of two protons from the cytoplasm. This results in the establishment of a proton concentration gradient across the lipid membrane, which can be ultimately harnessed to synthesize ATP...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320625/low-osmolality-and-shear-stress-during-liposuction-impair-cell-viability-in-autologous-fat-grafting
#20
T Ismail, J Bürgin, A Todorov, R Osinga, N Menzi, R D Largo, M Haug, I Martin, A Scherberich, D J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Liposuction and subsequent autologous fat grafting have become essential techniques for fat augmentation in plastic surgery. However, standard harvesting techniques that ensure the survival of adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells and thus preserve the transplanted fat volume are lacking. In particular, the effect of different parameters of the tumescent solution has not been studied in this context. We hypothesized that the osmolality of the tumescent solution could have a significant effect on the survival of adipocytes and SVF cells...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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