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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454188/modified-two-step-emulsion-solvent-evaporation-technique-for-fabricating-biodegradable-rod-shaped-particles-in-the-submicron-size-range
#1
Hanieh Safari, Reheman Adili, Michael Holinstat, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
HYPOTHESIS: Though the emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique has been previously modified to produce rod-shaped particles, it cannot generate small-sized rods for drug delivery applications due to the inherent coupling and contradicting requirements for the formation versus stretching of droplets. The separation of the droplet formation from the stretching step should enable the creation of submicron droplets that are then stretched in the second stage by manipulation of the system viscosity along with the surface-active molecule and oil-phase solvent...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453347/reversing-coffee-ring-effect-by-laser-induced-differential-evaporation
#2
Tony M Yen, Xin Fu, Tao Wei, Roshan U Nayak, Yuesong Shi, Yu-Hwa Lo
The coffee-ring effect, ubiquitously present in the drying process of aqueous droplets, impedes the performance of a myriad of applications involving precipitation of particle suspensions in evaporating liquids on solid surfaces, such as liquid biopsy combinational analysis, microarray fabrication, and ink-jet printing, to name a few. We invented the methodology of laser-induced differential evaporation to remove the coffee-ring effect. Without any additives to the liquid or any morphology modifications of the solid surface the liquid rests on, we have eliminated the coffee-ring effect by engineering the liquid evaporation profile with a CO 2 laser irradiating the apex of the droplets...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452994/transmission-routes-of-respiratory-viruses-among-humans
#3
REVIEW
Jasmin S Kutter, Monique I Spronken, Pieter L Fraaij, Ron Am Fouchier, Sander Herfst
Respiratory tract infections can be caused by a wide variety of viruses. Airborne transmission via droplets and aerosols enables some of these viruses to spread efficiently among humans, causing outbreaks that are difficult to control. Many outbreaks have been investigated retrospectively to study the possible routes of inter-human virus transmission. The results of these studies are often inconclusive and at the same time data from controlled experiments is sparse. Therefore, fundamental knowledge on transmission routes that could be used to improve intervention strategies is still missing...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452028/meningococcal-disease-and-vaccination-knowledge-and-acceptability-among-adolescents-in-italy
#4
Concetta Paola Pelullo, Francesco Napolitano, Gabriella Di Giuseppe
This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice about invasive meningococcal disease and the relative vaccine for adolescent in Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2017 among a sample of 771 adolescents in the geographic area of Naples (Italy). A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect demographics, knowledge about meningitis and preventive measures, perceived risk for contracting meningitis, attitude towards the utility of meningococcal vaccine, and adolescents' willingness to receive a meningococcal vaccine...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451774/organic-semiconducting-photoacoustic-nanodroplets-for-laser-activatable-ultrasound-imaging-and-combinational-cancer-therapy
#5
Wei Tang, Zhen Yang, Sheng Wang, Zhantong Wang, Jibin Song, Guocan Yu, Wenpei Fan, Yunlu Dai, Jingjing Wang, Lingling Shan, Gang Niu, Quli Fan, Xiaoyuan Chen
Combination of photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) imaging offers high spatial resolution images with deep tissue penetration, which shows great potentials in applications in medical imaging. Development of PA/US dual-contrast agents with high contrast and excellent biocompatible is of great interest. Herein, an organic semiconducting photoacoustic nanodroplet, PS-PDI-PAnD, is developed by stabilizing low-boiling-point perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplet with a photoabsorber and photoacoustic agent of perylene diimide (PDI) molecules and co-encapsulating the droplet with photosensitizers of ZnF16Pc molecules...
February 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450198/parvovirus-b19-what-is-the-relevance-in-transfusion-medicine
#6
REVIEW
David Juhl, Holger Hennig
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been discovered in 1975. The association with a disease was unclear in the first time after the discovery of B19V, but meanwhile, the usually droplet transmitted B19V is known as the infectious agent of the "fifth disease," a rather harmless children's illness. But B19V infects erythrocyte progenitor cells and thus, acute B19V infection in patients with a high erythrocyte turnover may lead to a life-threatening aplastic crisis, and acutely infected pregnant women can transmit B19V to their unborn child, resulting in a hydrops fetalis and fetal death...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449624/a-water-droplet-pinning-and-heat-transfer-characteristics-on-an-inclined-hydrophobic-surface
#7
Abdullah Al-Sharafi, Bekir Sami Yilbas, Haider Ali, N AlAqeeli
A water droplet pinning on inclined hydrophobic surface is considered and the droplet heat transfer characteristics are examined. Solution crystallization of polycarbonate is carried out to create hydrophobic characteristics on the surface. The pinning state of the water droplet on the extreme inclined hydrophobic surface (0° ≤ δ ≤ 180°, δ being the inclination angle) is assessed. Heat transfer from inclined hydrophobic surface to droplet is simulated for various droplet volumes and inclination angles in line with the experimental conditions...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449590/lateral-force-microscopy-of-interfacial-nanobubbles-friction-reduction-and-novel-frictional-behavior
#8
Chih-Wen Yang, Kwan-Tai Leung, Ren-Feng Ding, Hsien-Chen Ko, Yi-Hsien Lu, Chung-Kai Fang, Ing-Shouh Hwang
Atomic force microscopy is used to conduct single-asperity friction measurements at a water-graphite interface. Local mapping of the frictional force, which is based on the degree of the cantilever twisting, shows nearly friction-free when a tip scans over a nanobubble. Surprisingly, apart from being gapless, the associated friction loop exhibits a tilt in the cantilever twisting versus the tip's lateral displacement with the slope depending on the loading force. The sign of the slope reverses at around zero loading force...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449487/wrapping-with-a-splash-high-speed-encapsulation-with-ultrathin-sheets
#9
Deepak Kumar, Joseph D Paulsen, Thomas P Russell, Narayanan Menon
Many complex fluids rely on surfactants to contain, protect, or isolate liquid drops in an immiscible continuous phase. Thin elastic sheets can wrap liquid drops in a spontaneous process driven by capillary forces. For encapsulation by sheets to be practically viable, a rapid, continuous, and scalable process is essential. We exploit the fast dynamics of droplet impact to achieve wrapping of oil droplets by ultrathin polymer films in a water phase. Despite the violence of splashing events, the process robustly yields wrappings that are optimally shaped to maximize the enclosed fluid volume and have near-perfect seams...
February 16, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448587/droplet-based-microfluidic-reactor-for-synthesis-of-size-controlled-cdse-quantum-dots
#10
Cheol Hwan Kwak, Joong Pill Park, Sung Sil Lee, Rethinasabapathy Muruganantham, Soonjo Kwon, Changhyun Roh, Sang-Wook Kim, Yun Suk Huh
CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a uniform size distribution were synthesized using a droplet-based microfluidic reactor. The droplet-based microfluidic reactor enabled continuous production of CdSe QDs at a temperature of less than 250 °C in an extremely shorter reaction time (less than 30 s) when compared with the batch reactor. The photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectra of the CdSe QDs were recorded at different reaction times and the size and optical properties of the QDs were discussed...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448586/new-yellow-synergist-for-stable-pigment-dispersion-of-inkjet-ink
#11
Gihyun Song, Hayoon Lee, Hyocheol Jung, Seokwoo Kang, Jongwook Park
Minimizing ink droplet and self-dispersed pigment mixture are becoming hot issues for high resolution of inkjet printing. New synergist including sulfonic acid group of PY-74 was suggested and synthesized. Pigment itself did not show water solubility but new synergist, SY-11 exhibited good solubility in water and organic solvents such as DMSO and DMF. When aqueous pigment ink was prepared with SY-11, storage stability of the ink has been remained for 7 days under periodically repeated heating and cooling conditions...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448380/theoretical-model-of-chirality-induced-helical-self-propulsion
#12
Takaki Yamamoto, Masaki Sano
We recently reported the experimental realization of a chiral artificial microswimmer exhibiting helical self-propulsion [T. Yamamoto and M. Sano, Soft Matter 13, 3328 (2017)1744-683X10.1039/C7SM00337D]. In the experiment, cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) droplets dispersed in surfactant solutions swam spontaneously, driven by the Marangoni flow, in helical paths whose handedness is determined by the chirality of the component molecules of CLC. To study the mechanism of the emergence of the helical self-propelled motion, we propose a phenomenological model of the self-propelled helical motion of the CLC droplets...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448333/absolute-and-convective-instabilities-of-a-film-flow-down-a-vertical-fiber-subjected-to-a-radial-electric-field
#13
Rong Liu, Xue Chen, Zijing Ding
We consider the motion of a gravity-driven flow down a vertical fiber subjected to a radial electric field. This flow exhibits rich dynamics including the formation of droplets, or beads, driven by a Rayleigh-Plateau mechanism modified by the presence of gravity as well as the Maxwell stress at the interface. A spatiotemporal stability analysis is performed to investigate the effect of electric field on the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI) characteristics. We performed a numerical simulation on the nonlinear evolution of the film to examine the transition from CI to AI regime...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448228/enhanced-demulsification-from-aqueous-media-by-using-magnetic-chitosan-based-flocculant
#14
Ting Lü, Shuang Zhang, Dongming Qi, Dong Zhang, Hongting Zhao
A series of quaternized chitosan (QC)-grafted magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were successfully synthesized for demulsification from aqueous environments. Fe 3 O 4 MNPs were synthesized by using a coprecipitation method, followed by surface coating with silica and aminopropyl to form a surface for further grafting of QC molecular chains. The synthetic magnetic flocculants were characterized by various technologies and their demulsification performances were evaluated in detail as a function of dosage, QC grafting ratio (G q ), pH and magnetic field...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448200/influence-of-ore-processing-activity-on-hg-as-and-sb-contamination-and-fractionation-in-soils-in-a-former-mining-site-of-monte-amiata-ore-district-italy
#15
Giuseppe Protano, Francesco Nannoni
A geochemical study was carried out at the former Abbadia San Salvatore (ASS) mining site of the Monte Amiata ore district (Italy). Hg, As and Sb total contents and fractionation using a sequential extraction procedure were determined in soil and mining waste samples. Ore processing activities provided a different contribution to Hg contamination and concentration in soil fractions, influencing its behaviour as volatility and availability. Soils of roasting zone showed the highest Hg contamination levels mainly due to the deposition of Hg released as Hg 0 by furnaces during cinnabar roasting...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446627/ultrabright-and-fluorogenic-probes-for-multicolor-imaging-and-tracking-of-lipid-droplets-in-cells-and-tissues
#16
Mayeul Collot, Tkhe-Kyong Fam, Pichandi Ashokkumar, Orestis Faklaris, Thierry Galli, Lydia Danglot, Andrey S Klymchenko
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular lipid-rich organelles that regulate the storage of neutral lipids and were recently found to be involved in many physiological processes, metabolic disorders as well as diseases including obesity, diabetes and cancers. Herein we present a family of new fluorogenic merocyanine fluorophores based on an indolenine moiety and a dioxaborine barbiturate derivative. These so-called StatoMerocyanines (SMCy) span their fluorescence from yellow to the near infrared (NIR) in oil with an impressive fluorescence enhancement compared to aqueous media...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446047/epigallocatechin-gallate-suppresses-hepatic-cholesterol-synthesis-by-targeting-srebp-2-through-sirt1-foxo1-signaling-pathway
#17
Yongnan Li, Shuodong Wu
This study aims to explore the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on blood lipids, liver lipids, and cholesterol synthesis in hyperlipidemic rats. SREBP-2 transgenic rats were used to investigate the transcriptional level of SREBP-2 regulated by SIRT-1/FOXO1 and the molecular mechanism of rate-limiting enzyme HMGCR that affects cholesterol synthesis. Rat models of hyperlipidemia were established and administered EGCG. Cholesterol synthesis was observed. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and T-AOC contents...
February 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445252/implications-of-measurement-assay-type-in-design-of-hiv-experiments
#18
LaMont Cannon, Aditya Jagarapu, Cesar A Vargas-Garcia, Michael J Piovoso, Ryan Zurakowski
Time series measurements of circular viral episome (2-LTR) concentrations enable indirect quantification of persistent low-level Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) replication in patients on Integrase-Inhibitor intensified Combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART). In order to determine the magnitude of these low level infection events, blood has to be drawn from a patients at a frequency and volume that is strictly regulated by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Once the blood is drawn, the 2-LTR concentration is determined by quantifying the amount of HIV DNA present in the sample via a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) assay...
December 2017: Proceedings of the ... IEEE Conference on Decision & Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445222/water-droplet-dynamics-on-a-hydrophobic-surface-in-relation-to-the-self-cleaning-of-environmental-dust
#19
Bekir Sami Yilbas, Ghassan Hassan, Abdullah Al-Sharafi, Haider Ali, Nasser Al-Aqeeli, Abdelsalam Al-Sarkhi
The dynamic motion of a water droplet on an inclined hydrophobic surface is analyzed with and without environmental dust particles on the surface. Solution crystallization of a polycarbonate surface is carried out to generate a hydrophobic surface with hierarchical texture composed of micro/nanosize spheroids and fibrils. Functionalized nanosize silica particles are deposited on the textured surface to reduce contact angle hysteresis. Environmental dust particles are collected and characterized using analytical tools prior to the experiments...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443108/preparation-of-hollow-polystyrene-particles-and-microcapsules-by-radical-polymerization-of-janus-droplets-consisting-of-hydrocarbon-and-fluorocarbon-oils
#20
Yutaka Takahashi, Mari Kano, Natsu Yanagisawa, Yukishige Kondo
In this article, we have demonstrated a method for producing hollow particles and microcapsules using oil droplets consisting of hydrocarbon oil (styrene) and fluorocarbon oil (perfluoro-n-octane, PFO) in aqueous surfactant (sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS) solutions. Since fluorocarbon oils are immiscible with hydrocarbon oils, the two oils are separated. Emulsions are prepared by stirring styrene/PFO/aqueous SDS solution mixtures at 80 °C. The type of emulsions and the morphology of droplets in the emulsions are observed by light microscope and scanning confocal fluorescence microscope...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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