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Hideki Kakutani, Tomohiro Yuzuriha, Ema Akiyama, Teruyuki Nakao, Souichi Ohta
People are frequently and unintentionally exposed to many chemical compounds, such as environmental pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in food and from the atmosphere. In particular, endocrine-disrupting TBBPA and dioxins are found in human breast milk and in the body. Conventional studies evaluate toxicity by administering a single substance to cells or animals, but evaluation of the toxicity of mixtures of these ingested compounds is essential for "true" toxicological assessment...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Michael Wiebrands, Chris J Malajczuk, Andrew J Woods, Andrew L Rohl, Ricardo L Mancera
Molecular graphics systems are visualization tools which, upon integration into a 3D immersive environment, provide a unique virtual reality experience for research and teaching of biomolecular structure, function and interactions. We have developed a molecular structure and dynamics application, the Molecular Dynamics Visualization tool, that uses the Unity game engine combined with large scale, multi-user, stereoscopic visualization systems to deliver an immersive display experience, particularly with a large cylindrical projection display...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Henrik Svensson, Daniel Olausson, Agneta Holmäng, Eva Jennische, Staffan Edén, Malin Lönn
The size distribution of adipocytes in a suspension, after collagenase digestion of adipose tissue, can be determined by computerized image analysis. Free lipid, forming droplets, in such suspensions implicates a bias since droplets present in the images may be identified as adipocytes. This problem is not always adjusted for and some reports state that distinguishing droplets and cells is a considerable problem. In addition, if the droplets originate mainly from rupture of large adipocytes, as often described, this will also bias size analysis...
June 21, 2018: Adipocyte
Jasmine O Castro, Shwathy Ramesan, Amgad R Rezk, Leslie Y Yeo
Correction for 'Continuous tuneable droplet ejection via pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting' by Jasmine O. Castro et al., Soft Matter, 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c7sm02534c.
June 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Clément Regnault, Dharmendra S Dheeman, Axel Hochstetter
In this review, we give an overview of the current state of microfluidic-based high-throughput drug assays. In this highly interdisciplinary research field, various approaches have been applied to high-throughput drug screening, including microtiter plate, droplets microfluidics as well as continuous flow, diffusion and concentration gradients-based microfluidic drug assays. Therefore, we reviewed over 100 recent publications in the field and sorted them according to their microfluidic approach. As a result, we are showcasing, comparing and discussing broadly applied approaches as well as singular promising ones that might contribute to shaping the future of this field...
June 20, 2018: High-throughput
Lu Sun, Sarah Talarico, Lena Yao, Lihua He, Steve Self, Yuanhai You, Huifang Zhang, Yiyao Zhang, Yongjun Guo, Guodong Liu, Nina R Salama, Jianzhong Zhang
Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcers and stomach cancer in a subset of those infected. While standard eradication therapy includes multiple antibiotics, treatment failure due to resistance is an increasing clinical problem. Accurate assessment of H. pylori antimicrobial resistance has been limited by slow growth and sampling of few isolates per subject. We established a method to simultaneously quantify H. pylori clarithromycin resistance (mutant) and susceptible (wild-type) 23S rRNA gene alleles in both stomach and stool samples using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Brandon Brooks, Matthew R Olm, Brian A Firek, Robyn Baker, David Geller-McGrath, Sophia R Reimer, Karina R Soenjoyo, Jennifer S Yip, Dylan Dahan, Brian C Thomas, Michael J Morowitz, Jillian F Banfield
BACKGROUND: The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) contains a unique cohort of patients with underdeveloped immune systems and nascent microbiome communities. Patients often spend several months in the same room, and it has been previously shown that the gut microbiomes of these infants often resemble the microbes found in the NICU. Little is known, however, about the identity, persistence, and absolute abundance of NICU room-associated bacteria over long stretches of time. Here, we couple droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), 16S rRNA gene surveys, and recently published metagenomics data from infant gut samples to infer the extent to which the NICU microbiome is shaped by its room occupants...
June 20, 2018: Microbiome
Hiroki Matsubara, Makoto Aratono
This review addresses a variety of unique macroscopic-scale and colloidal-scale interfacial phenomena, such as wetting transitions of oil droplets into molecularly thin films, spontaneous merging and splitting of oil droplets at air-water interfaces, solid monolayer and bilayer formation in mixed cationic surfactant/alkane adsorbed films, switching of foam-film thickness, and oil-in-water emulsion stability. All these phenomena can be observed using commercial cationic surfactants, liquid alkanes, and water...
June 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Dainius Martuzevicius, Tadas Prasauskas, Ari Setyan, Grant O'Connell, Xavier Cahours, Rémi Julien, Stéphane Colard
Introduction: There are fundamental differences between e-cigarettes and conventional cigarette product categories with regards to potential environmental exposures, notably that e-cigarettes do not contain tobacco or generate side-stream emissions. Here we assess the spatial and temporal patterns of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol at a bystander's position, and compare it with conventional cigarette smoke emissions. Methods: Smokers were asked to use e-cigarettes or smoke conventional cigarettes in a room-simulating chamber...
June 19, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Farshid Yekani, Mahnaz Azarnia, Fereshteh Esfandiari, Seyedeh-Nafiseh Hassani, Hossein Baharvand
Optimization of an in vitro culture that supports blastocyst (BL) development from single blastomeres (SBs) is essential to generate additional embryos for farm animals and humans and unravel the mechanisms that underlie totipotency. In this study, we have examined BL development from SBs that were derived from 2-cell and 4-cell mouse embryos in different media. Moreover, BLs were assessed for inner cell mass (ICM) by staining with Oct4. We found that BL development was improved in a lower volume of medium (1 µL) compared with a higher volume (5 µL)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Amin Hassanzadeh-Barforoushi, Andrew M K Law, Abbas Hejri, Mohsen Asadnia, Christopher J Ormandy, David Gallego-Ortega, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
We present here a new method to easily and reliably generate an array of hundreds of dispersed nanoliter-volume semi-droplets for single-cells culture and analysis. The liquid segmentation step occurs directly in indexed traps by a tweezer-like mechanism and is stabilized by spatial confinement. Unlike common droplet-based techniques, the semi-droplet wets its surrounding trap walls thus supporting the culturing of both adherent and non-adherent cells. To eliminate cross-droplet cell migration and chemical cross-talk each semi-droplet is separated from a nearby trap by an ∼80 pL air plug...
June 20, 2018: Lab on a Chip
William Connacher, Naiqing Zhang, An Huang, Jiyang Mei, Shuai Zhang, Tilvawala Gopesh, James Friend
Acoustic actuation of fluids at small scales may finally enable a comprehensive lab-on-a-chip revolution in microfluidics, overcoming long-standing difficulties in fluid and particle manipulation on-chip. In this comprehensive review, we examine the fundamentals of piezoelectricity, piezoelectric materials, and transducers; revisit the basics of acoustofluidics; and give the reader a detailed look at recent technological advances and current scientific discussions in the discipline. Recent achievements are placed in the context of classic reports for the actuation of fluid and particles via acoustic waves, both within sessile drops and closed channels...
June 20, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Tigst Demeke, Monika Eng
Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been used for absolute quantification of genetically engineered (GE) events. Absolute quantification of GE events by duplex ddPCR requires the use of appropriate primers and probes for target and reference gene sequences in order to accurately determine the amount of GE materials. Single copy reference genes are generally preferred for absolute quantification of GE events by ddPCR. Study has not been conducted on a comparison of reference genes for absolute quantification of GE canola events by ddPCR...
May 2018: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
Shahrazad M A Malek, Peter H Poole, Ivan Saika-Voivod
Liquid water nanodroplets are important in earth's climate, and are valuable for studying supercooled water because they resist crystallisation well below the bulk freezing temperature. Bulk liquid water has well-known thermodynamic anomalies, such as a density maximum, and when supercooled is hypothesised to exhibit a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) at elevated pressure. However, it is not known how these bulk anomalies might manifest themselves in nanodroplets. Here we show, using simulations of the TIP4P/2005 water model, that bulk anomalies occur in nanodroplets as small as 360 molecules...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Thomas Beneyton, Dorothee Krafft, Claudia Bednarz, Christin Kleineberg, Christian Woelfer, Ivan Ivanov, Tanja Vidaković-Koch, Kai Sundmacher, Jean-Christophe Baret
Self-sustained metabolic pathways in microcompartments are the corner-stone for living systems. From a technological viewpoint, such pathways are a mandatory prerequisite for the reliable design of artificial cells functioning out-of-equilibrium. Here we develop a microfluidic platform for the miniaturization and analysis of metabolic pathways in man-made microcompartments formed of water-in-oil droplets. In a modular approach, we integrate in the microcompartments a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent enzymatic reaction and a NAD-regeneration module as a minimal metabolism...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Paula Nunes-Hasler
In a recent publication in Nature Communications the group of Dr. Dmitry Gabrilovich takes us one step closer to understanding why lipid accumulation impairs the function of tumour-associated dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, the authors present two surprising and significant findings. First, they show that in mouse DCs oxidized lipids function as a sink that traps the heat shock chaperone HSP70, a molecular target of emerging anti-cancer strategies. Secondly, they find that HSP70 in turn regulates the trafficking of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex class I (pMHC-I) molecules, a complex that triggers the proliferation of cancer-killing T cells...
June 20, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Viktor Petukhov, Jimin Guo, Ninib Baryawno, Nicolas Severe, David T Scadden, Maria G Samsonova, Peter V Kharchenko
Recent single-cell RNA-seq protocols based on droplet microfluidics use massively multiplexed barcoding to enable simultaneous measurements of transcriptomes for thousands of individual cells. The increasing complexity of such data creates challenges for subsequent computational processing and troubleshooting of these experiments, with few software options currently available. Here, we describe a flexible pipeline for processing droplet-based transcriptome data that implements barcode corrections, classification of cell quality, and diagnostic information about the droplet libraries...
June 19, 2018: Genome Biology
Paolo Balsari, Marco Grella, Paolo Marucco, Fabio Matta, Antonio Miranda-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of treatments in vineyards largely depends on the necessary balance between leaf coverage and spray drift and, therefore, knowledge about droplet size is of major importance, but scarce scientific information is available on pneumatic spraying, often adopted in this crop. The objective of this work was to obtain the relationships between the droplet size spectra characterization parameters and the main affecting factors in pneumatic nozzles. RESULTS: Three liquid flow rates (LFR) and four air speeds (AS) were combined in laboratory conditions to assess their influence on the droplet size spectra (D10, D50 and D90), homogeneity (Relative Span Factor, RSF) and driftability (V100 ) in two different air shear nozzles (cannon-type and hand-type nozzles)...
June 19, 2018: Pest Management Science
Shauni Keller, Serena P Teora, Guo Xun Hu, Marlies Nijemeisland, Daniela Apreutesei Wilson
Micro- and nanomotors and their use for biomedical applications have received recently increased attention. However, most designs use top-down methods to construct inorganic motors, which are labour-intensive and not suitable for biomedical use. Herein, we report a high throughput design of asymmetric hydrogel microparticle with autonomous movement using a microfluidic chip generating asymmetric aqueous two-phase separating droplets consisting of PEGDA and dextran with the biocatalyst placed in the PEGDA phase...
June 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Wógenes N Oliveira, Lucas Amaral-Machado, Everton N Alencar, Henrique R Marcelino, Julieta Genre, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Amanda D Gondim, Guilherme M Chaves, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa, Eryvaldo Socrates T Egito
Amphotericin B (AmB), a potent antifungal drug, presents physicochemical characteristics that impair the development of suitable dosage forms. In order to overcome the AmB insolubility, several lipid carriers such as microemulsions have been developed. In this context, the bullfrog oil stands out as an eligible oily phase component, since its cholesterol composition may favor the AmB incorporation. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a microemulsion based on bullfrog oil containing AmB. Moreover, its thermal stability, antifungal activity, and cytotoxicity in vitro were evaluated...
June 18, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
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