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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918411/combining-cd4-recovery-and-cd4-cd8-ratio-restoration-as-an-indicator-for-evaluating-the-outcome-of-continued-antiretroviral-therapy-an-observational-cohort-study
#1
Shui Shan Lee, Ngai Sze Wong, Bonnie Chun Kwan Wong, Ka Hing Wong, Kenny Chi Wai Chan
OBJECTIVES: Immune recovery following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is commonly assessed by the degree of CD4 reconstitution alone. In this study, we aimed to assess immune recovery by incorporating both CD4 count and CD4:CD8 ratio. DESIGN: Observational cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Clinical data from Chinese HIV-positive patients attending the largest HIV service in Hong Kong and who had been on HAART for ≥4 years were accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Optimal immune outcome was defined as a combination of a CD4 count ≥500/μL and a CD4:CD8 ratio ≥0...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917624/small-heat-shock-protein-27-an-effective-adjuvant-for-enhancement-of-hiv-1-nef-antigen-specific-immunity
#2
Alireza Milani, Azam Bolhassani, Sepideh Shahbazi, Fatemeh Motevalli, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Sepehr Soleymani
Novel vaccine modalities have been designed to improve the efficiency of vaccines against HIV infections. In this way, the HIV-1 Nef protein has been known as an attractive antigenic candidate in therapeutic vaccine development. Moreover, the endogenous adjuvants such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been suggested effectively to induce antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, different Nef DNA and protein constructs were produced in eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems, and their immunostimulatory properties were evaluated using small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and the HMGB1-derived peptide (Hp91) in a mouse model...
September 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906278/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-a-long-term-nonprogressor-due-to-nivolumab-therapy
#3
Adam C Lake
: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been documented in association with multiple immunotherapy regimens . These reactivations can be life-threatening and result in fulminant hepatic failure. There are currently no reports of HBV reactivation on nivolumab treatment. This is a case of a patient with known HIV infection and previous HBV workup that revealed him to be anti-hepatitis B core antibody positive, hepatitis B surface antigen negative, and HBV DNA negative. He experienced a HBV reactivation while on therapy with nivolumab for stage IIIa poorly differentiated carcinoma of the lung, which was a recurrence from a prior surgically resected stage Ia well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung...
September 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905466/adherence-to-pi-based-2-nd-line-regimens-in-cambodia-is-not-simply-a-question-of-individual-behaviour-the-anrs-12276-2picam-study
#4
Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Bakridine Mmadi Mrenda, Vohith Khol, Laurent Ferradini, Sovatha Mam, Sopheak Ngin, Marion Mora, Gwenaëlle Maradan, Chhi Vun Mean, Olivier Ségéral, Eric Nerrienet, Vonthanak Saphonn, Bruno Spire
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) can be explained not only by individual factors but also by healthcare facilities' characteristics, among a sample of people living with HIV (PLWH) treated with PI-based regimens in Cambodia. METHODS: The ANRS 12276 2PICAM cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2013 and April 2014 among PLWH followed up in 13 healthcare facilities. The 1316 patients in this analysis corresponded to 90% of the total number of adult patients treated with 2(nd) line PI-based regimens in Cambodia in the study period...
September 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905173/pharmacokinetic-and-tissue-distribution-profile-of-long-acting-tenofovir-alafenamide-and-elvitegravir-loaded-nanoparticles-in-humanized-mice-model
#5
Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Subhra Mandal, Gregory Pon, Renuga Vivekanandan, Christopher J Destache
PURPOSE: Non-adherence to the antiretroviral (ARV) regimen is a critical factor in determining efficacy of ARV drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). A long-acting parenteral formulation may be an effective alternative to daily oral dosing. A pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution study of drug-loaded nanoparticle (NP) was performed in female humanized CD34(+)-NSG mice. METHODS: Mice received 200 mg/kg each of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and elvitegravir (EVG) as free drugs (TAF + EVG solution) or as drug loaded NP (TAF + EVG NP) formulation by subcutaneous (SubQ) administration...
September 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904798/patterns-of-residual-hiv-1-rna-shedding-in-the-seminal-plasma-of-patients-on-effective-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Christophe Pasquier, Marie Walschaerts, Stéphanie Raymond, Nathalie Moinard, Karine Saune, Myriam Daudin, Jacques Izopet, Louis Bujan
BACKGROUND: More and more HIV-1-infected men on effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) have unprotected sex in order to procreate. The main factor influencing transmission is seminal HIV shedding. While the risk of HIV transmission is very low, it is difficult to assess in individuals. Nevertheless, it should be quantified. RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed seminal plasma HIV-1 shedding by 362 treated HIV-infected men attending a medically assisted reproduction centre (1998-2013) in order to determine its frequency, the impact of the antiretroviral regimen on HIV shedding, and to identify shedding patterns...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904329/latest-advances-in-the-efficacy-tolerability-and-monotherapy-of-integrase-inhibitors
#7
Qi Tang, Hongzhou Lu
More than 30 drugs for antiretroviral therapy (ART), including integrase inhibitors (INIs), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as of 2017. Integrase is the third essential enzyme in the cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. INIs can effectively inhibit the replication of HIV and HIV is less prone to develop resistance to INIs clinically. Previous studies based on 7 phase III clinic trials indicate that INIs have satisfactory efficacy and tolerability in patients infected with HIV...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903800/predicting-treatment-failure-death-and-drug-resistance-using-a-computed-risk-score-among-newly-diagnosed-tb-patients-in-tamaulipas-mexico
#8
B E Abdelbary, M Garcia-Viveros, H Ramirez-Oropesa, M H Rahbar, B I Restrepo
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903508/effect-of-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-dasabuvir-and-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-regimens-on-survival-compared-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-persons-results-from-erchives
#10
Adeel Ajwad Butt, Peng Yan, Tracey G Simon, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra
Background: Interferon-based regimens are associated with a substantial survival benefit for persons infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Survival data with direct-acting antiviral agents are not available. We conducted this study to quantify the effect of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir (PrOD) and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) regimens upon mortality. Methods: In the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), a well-established national cohort of HCV-infected Veterans, we identified HCV-infected persons initiated on PrOD or LDV/SOF, excluding those with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, hepatocellular carcinoma, or missing HCV RNA or FIB-4 scores...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902412/interventions-for-treating-tuberculous-pericarditis
#11
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Lehana Thabane, Jimmy Volmink, Dumisani Majombozi, Freedom Gumedze, Shaheen Pandie, Bongani M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pericarditis can impair the heart's function and cause death; long term, it can cause the membrane to fibrose and constrict causing heart failure. In addition to antituberculous chemotherapy, treatments include corticosteroids, drainage, and surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of treatments for tuberculous pericarditis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 March 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2017, Issue 2); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 March 2017); Embase (1974 to 27 March 2017); and LILACS (1982 to 27 March 2017)...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902004/antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-with-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#12
Giorgia Sulis, Silvia Amadasi, Anna Odone, Martina Penazzato, Alberto Matteelli
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the major cause of mortality in HIV-infected children globally. Current guidelines about the management of antiretroviral therapy in children with tuberculosis are based on a limited number of non-randomized studies involving small numbers of participants. The aim of the study was to systematically retrieve and critically appraise available evidence on the efficacy and safety of different antiretroviral regimens in children with HIV infection who are receiving treatment for active tuberculosis...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901212/a-retrospective-clinical-audit-of-general-practices-in-australia-to-determine-the-motivation-for-switch-to-dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-and-clinical-outcomes
#13
Pedro E Ferrer, Mark Bloch, Norman Roth, Robert Finlayson, David Baker, Ken Koh, David Orth, Rimgaile Urbaityte, Dannae Brown, Fraser Drummond
The most common reasons for switching HIV-1 therapy in patients with virologic suppression are treatment regimen simplification and resolving tolerability issues. Single-pill regimens that include an integrase inhibitor are recommended options. A retrospective clinical audit was performed to determine the motivations for switching to dolutegravir (DTG)/abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) at high HIV-caseload general practice clinics in Australia. The most common reasons for switching from a prior suppressive therapy to DTG/ABC/3TC were simplification of regimen, resolving toxicity/intolerance and patient preference (73%, 13% and 12%, respectively)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899102/community-based-antiretroviral-treatment-in-rural-zimbabwe
#14
Benjamin Chimukangara, Justen Manasa, Rebecca Mitchell, Georgina Nyabadza, David Katzenstein, Collen Masimirembwa
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of HIV has reduced HIV/AIDS-related mortality. Sustaining >90% virologic suppression in sub-Saharan Africa requires decentralized care and prevention services to rural communities. In Zimbabwe, the number of people receiving ART has increased rapidly. However, access to treatment monitoring tools such as viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. We assessed virologic treatment outcomes among ART recipients in Nyamutora, a rural community receiving bimonthly ART and prevention services...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898704/interpretation-of-indeterminate-hiv-1-pcr-results-are-influenced-by-changing-vertical-transmission-prevention-regimens
#15
Jean Maritz, Jayshree Narvin Maharaj, Mark Frederic Cotton, Wolfgang Preiser
BACKGROUND: Suppression of HIV by antiretroviral drugs may be one of the reasons that indeterminate HIV-1 PCR results are obtained from testing HIV-exposed infants. This complicates the early identification of infected infants, potentially delaying initiating treatment early. There is uncertainty as to how different vertical HIV transmission prevention regimens (VTP) affect the rate and predictive value of indeterminate PCR results. OBJECTIVES: To investigate rates of indeterminate PCR results, outcomes of subsequent samples and the predictive value of an indeterminate PCR for a later positive result in the setting of intensifying VTP in the Western Cape province of South Africa...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893787/efficacy-and-toxicity-of-low-dose-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-for-the-treatment-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-four-center-retrospective-study
#16
Makoto Kosaka, Atsuhito Ushiki, Yuichi Ikuyama, Kazuya Hirai, Akemi Matsuo, Tsutomu Hachiya, Masayuki Hanaoka
Background and objectives: The dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been verified. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of low-dose TMP-SMX regimen in such patients.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in four hospitals. We reviewed the medical records of patients with PCP but not HIV (non-HIV-PCP), who were treated with TMP-SMX between 2003 and 2016...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893759/values-and-preferences-of-women-living-with-hiv-who-are-pregnant-postpartum-or-considering-pregnancy-on-choice-of-antiretroviral-therapy-during-pregnancy
#17
Lyubov Lytvyn, Reed A Siemieniuk, Sophie Dilmitis, Allyson Ion, Yaping Chang, Malgorzata M Bala, Veena Manja, Reza Mirza, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Hassan Mir, Laura Banfield, Per Olav Vandvik, Susan Bewley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate women's values and preferences regarding antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy to inform a BMJ Rapid Recommendation. SETTING: Primary studies reporting patient-reported outcomes relevant to decision-making regarding ART in any clinical and geographical setting. PARTICIPANTS: Women living with HIV who are pregnant, postpartum or considering pregnancy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative measurements and qualitative descriptions of values and preferences in relation to ART during pregnancy...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893758/antiretroviral-therapy-for-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-or-hepatitis-b-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Reed A Siemieniuk, Farid Foroutan, Reza Mirza, Jinell Mah Ming, Paul E Alexander, Arnav Agarwal, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Arnaud Merglen, Yaping Chang, Yuan Zhang, Hassan Mir, Elliot Hepworth, Yung Lee, Dena Zeraatkar, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of various antiretroviral/antiviral regimens in pregnant women living with HIV or hepatitis B virus (HBV). DESIGN: We performed random effects meta-analysis for HIV-related outcomes and network meta-analysis for HBV outcomes, and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to assess quality separately for each outcome. DATA SOURCES: Embase and Medline to February 2017...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891813/no-evidence-of-hiv-replication-in-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Gert U Van Zyl, Mary Grace Katusiime, Ann Wiegand, William R McManus, Michael J Bale, Elias K Halvas, Brian Luke, Valerie F Boltz, Jonathan Spindler, Barbara Laughton, Susan Engelbrecht, John M Coffin, Mark F Cotton, Wei Shao, John W Mellors, Mary F Kearney
It remains controversial whether current antiretroviral therapy (ART) fully suppresses the cycles of HIV replication and viral evolution in vivo. If replication persists in sanctuary sites such as the lymph nodes, a high priority should be placed on improving ART regimes to target these sites. To investigate the question of ongoing viral replication on current ART regimens, we analyzed HIV populations in longitudinal samples from 10 HIV-1-infected children who initiated ART when viral diversity was low. Eight children started ART at less than ten months of age and showed suppression of plasma viremia for seven to nine years...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891717/longitudinal-viral-suppression-among-a-cohort-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-behaviorally-acquired-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#20
Sarah M Wood, Elizabeth Lowenthal, Susan Lee, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Nadia Dowshen
Youth living with HIV (YLWH) are less likely than older adults to achieve and sustain viral suppression. While treatment guidelines recommend decreased viral load (VL) monitoring in individuals with well-controlled HIV, the appropriateness of this strategy for adolescents is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to describe longitudinal viral suppression and identify incidence of, and risk factors for, virologic failure among YLWH at a US adolescent HIV clinic from 2002 to 2015. We utilized Cox proportional hazards modeling to compare hazard ratios (HRs) for virologic failure stratified by baseline characteristics...
September 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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