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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445881/absence-of-decline-of-kidney-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-under-routine-clinical-management
#1
Julie Boucquemont, Sylvie Lawson-Ayayi, Claire Rigothier, Fabrice Bonnet, Cécile Proust-Lima, Didier Neau, Carine Greib, Ghada Miremont-Salamé, François Dabis, Michel Dupon, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a drastically improved prognosis but at the same time they are also more affected by non-HIV related complications, such as chronic kidney disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of proteinuria and tenofovir (TDF)-containing ART regimens on the temporal evolution of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: Between April 2008 and October 2012, we enrolled 395 patients with a complete renal evaluation among patients from the ANRS C03 Aquitaine cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients under routine clinical management in southwestern France...
April 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445088/predicting-the-need-for-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-by-identifying-patients-at-high-risk-for-failing-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#2
Dorina Onoya, Cornelius Nattey, Eric Budgell, Liudmyla van den Berg, Mhairi Maskew, Denise Evans, Kamban Hirasen, Lawrence C Long, Matthew P Fox
Although third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is available in South Africa's public sector, its cost is substantially higher than first and second line. Identifying risk factors for failure on second-line treatment remains crucial to reduce the need for third-line drugs. We conducted a case-control study including 194 adult patients (≥18 years; 70 cases and 124 controls) who initiated second-line ART in Johannesburg, South Africa. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess predictors of virologic failure (defined as 2 consecutive viral load measures ≥1000 copies/mL, ≥3 months after switching to second line)...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444867/urine-assay-for-tenofovir-to-monitor-adherence-in-real-time-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-as-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#3
H C Koenig, K Mounzer, G W Daughtridge, C E Sloan, L Lalley-Chareczko, G S Moorthy, S C Conyngham, A F Zuppa, L J Montaner, P Tebas
OBJECTIVES: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV infection. Adherence is critical for the success of PrEP, but current adherence measurements are inadequate for real-time adherence monitoring. We developed and validated a urine assay to measure tenofovir (TFV) to objectively monitor adherence to PrEP. METHODS: We developed a urine assay using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with high sensitivity/specificity for TFV that allowed us to determine TFV concentrations in log10 categories between 0 and 10 000 ng/mL...
April 26, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443391/atazanavir-sulfate-cobicistat-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#4
Francisco Antunes
The life expectancy of patients living with HIV has increased significantly in the last two decades, as a result of the great progress in treatment of HIV infection. During this time, several drugs were developed to offer long-term benefits in terms of virologic efficacy, favourable tolerability and toxicity profiles. Pharmacokinetic boosting of protease inhibitors allows a higher genetic barrier, as few or no drug-resistant mutations are detected in patients with virologic failure. Areas covered: Atazanavir sulfate + cobicistat (ATV/c) was recently approved in the United States of America and in the European Union for the treatment of HIV-1 infection...
April 26, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441147/can-the-generic-antiretroviral-industry-support-access-to-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#5
Carolyn D Amole, Caroline Middlecote, Vineet R Prabhu, N Kumarasamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The generic antiretroviral (ARV) industry played a critical role in the massive scale-up of HIV treatment in low-income and middle-income countries since 2000. As the global community looks ahead to a universal antiretroviral regimen, this article considers the industry's role in supporting universal access to affordable, simpler, more durable, and tolerable HIV treatment regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Generic manufacturers made treatment scale-up in low-income and middle-income countries possible through reducing prices, combining molecules from different originator companies to develop optimal fixed-dose combinations, and investing in production capacity to meet escalating demand...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440692/both-hepatitis-c-virus-specific-t-cell-responses-and-il28b-rs12979860-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-genotype-influence-antihepatitis-c-virus-treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#6
José M Benito, Javier García-Samaniego, Marcial García, Antonio Madejón, Luz Martín-Carbonero, Alfonso Cabello, Beatriz Álvarez, Miguel Górgolas, Norma Rallón
Despite new treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, IFNα-based regimens still have clinical relevance in special populations of patients and remain the only therapeutic option for many patients. We sought to elucidate the interplay between two relevant factors (IL28B polymorphism and T cell immune responses) involved in the outcome of this therapy in HCV-infected patients. We evaluated 38 patients infected with HCV genotype 1-17 coinfected with HIV-who were undergoing a full course of pegIFNα/RBV therapy...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438932/evaluation-of-a-multi-drug-assay-for-monitoring-adherence-to-a-regimen-for-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-a-clinical-study-hiv-prevention-trials-network-073
#7
Yinfeng Zhang, William Clarke, Mark A Marzinke, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Geetha Beauchamp, Autumn Breaud, Craig W Hendrix, Gavin A Cloherty, Lynda Emel, Scott Rose, Lisa Hightow-Weidman, Marc Siegel, Steven Shoptaw, Sheldon D Fields, Darrell Wheeler, Susan H Eshleman
Daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is a safe and effective intervention for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We evaluated the performance of a qualitative assay that detects 20 antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for assessing recent PrEP exposure (multi-drug assay; detection limit: 2-20 ng/mL). Samples were obtained from 216 Black men who have sex with men in the United States who were enrolled in a study evaluating acceptability of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) PrEP (208 HIV-uninfected men and eight seroconverters; 165 of the uninfected men and five of the seroconverters accepted PrEP)...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438118/predictors-of-delayed-culture-conversion-among-ugandan-patients
#8
Daniel Atwine, Patrick Orikiriza, Ivan Taremwa, Arnold Ayebare, Suzan Logoose, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Amina Jindani, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: Estimates of month-2 culture conversion, a proxy indicator of tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy in phase-2 trials can vary by culture-type and geographically with lower rates reported among African sites. The sub-study aimed at comparing TB detection rates of different culture media, within and across rifampicin-based regimens (R10, 15 and 20 mg/Kg) over a 6-month treatment follow-up period, and to establish predictors of month-2 culture non-conversion among HIV-negative TB patients enrolled at RIFATOX trial site in Uganda...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435692/a-cd3-cd28-microbead-based-hiv-1-viral-outgrowth-assay
#9
EDITORIAL
Yury V Kuzmichev, Rebecca T Veenhuis, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Caroline C Garliss, Victoria Ek Walker-Sperling, Joel N Blankson
AIMS: Latently infected resting CD4 T cells represent a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication efforts. The standard assays used for measuring this reservoir induce activation of resting CD4 T cells with either phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) with irradiated feeder cells, or with anti-CD3 antibodies. We designed a study to compare the sensitivity of a new assay (based on the stimulation of CD4 T cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 coated microbeads) with that of the traditional PHA- and feeder-based viral outgrowth assay...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435676/understanding-cd8-t-cell-responses-toward-the-native-and-alternate-hla-a-02-01-restricted-wt1-epitope
#10
Thi Ho Nguyen, Amabel Cl Tan, Sue D Xiang, Anne Goubier, Kim L Harland, E Bridie Clemens, Magdalena Plebanski, Katherine Kedzierska
The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen is expressed in solid and hematological malignancies, but not healthy tissues, making it a promising target for cancer immunotherapies. Immunodominant WT1 epitopes, the native HLA-A2/WT1126-134 (RMFPNAPYL) (HLA-A2/RMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1A)) and its modified variant YMFPNAPYL (HLA-A2/YMFPNAPYL epitope (WT1B)), can induce WT1-specific CD8(+) T cells, although WT1B is more stably bound to HLA-A*02:01. Here, to further determine the benefits of those two targets, we assessed the naive precursor frequencies; immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of CD8(+) T cells directed toward these two WT1 epitopes...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435232/self-reported-adherence-and-associated-factors-to-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-at-health-centers-in-gondar-town-north-west-ethiopia
#11
Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Seyfe Asrade Atnafie, Demis Driba Balcha, Asegedech Tsegaw Weredekal, Birhanu Alemayehu Woldegiorgis, Mulgeta Melaku Wotte, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillasie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An institution-based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 10 to June 11, 2016. A total of 154 eligible participants were included in the study, using the simple random sampling method, from the available four health centers and one teaching referral hospital that provided antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS patients...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434406/efavirenz-based-simplification-after-successful-early-lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-in-burkina-faso-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-the-monod-anrs-12206-non-inferiority-randomised-trial
#12
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Karen Malateste, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Malik Coulibaly, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Thomas Toni, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Caroline Yonaba, François Eboua, Philippe Lepage, Divine Avit, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Philippe Van de Perre, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Angèle Kalmogho, Roger Salamon, Nicolas Meda, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines recommend all children <3 years start antiretroviral therapy (ART) on protease inhibitor-based regimens. But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires refrigeration, interactions with anti-tuberculous drugs, twice-daily dosing, poor palatability in young children, and higher cost than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. Successfully initiating LPV/r-based ART in HIV-infected children aged <2 years raises operational challenges that could be simplified by switching to a protease inhibitor-sparing therapy based on efavirenz (EFV), although, to date, EFV is not recommended in children <3 years...
April 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434169/inflammation-immune-activation-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv
#13
REVIEW
Corrilynn O Hileman, Nicholas T Funderburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the differential effects of contemporary antiretrovirals on systemic inflammation as heightened immune activation is linked to important co-morbidities and mortality with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces dramatically systemic inflammation and immune activation, but not to levels synchronous with HIV-uninfected populations. In one ART initiation trial, integrase inhibitors appear to reduce inflammation to a greater degree than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); however, it is not clear that there are beneficial effects on inflammation resulting from treatment with integrase inhibitors compared to PIs, between PIs and NNRTIs, between specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or with maraviroc in ART-naïve patients...
April 22, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430385/significant-reductions-in-alcohol-use-after-hepatitis-c-treatment-results-from-the-french-anrs-co13-hepavih-cohort
#14
Rod Knight, Perrine Roux, Antoine Vilotitch, Fabienne Marcellin, Eric Rosenthal, Laure Esterle, François Boué, David Rey, Lionel Piroth, Stéphanie Dominguez, Philippe Sogni, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few data exist on changes to substance use patterns before and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We used longitudinal data of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to examine whether receiving Peg-interferon (Peg-IFN)-based therapy irrespective of HCV clearance could modify tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals was enrolled from 2006. Participants' clinical data were retrieved from medical records and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected by yearly self-administered questionnaires...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#15
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428210/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-study-of-the-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-impact-on-neurometabolic-parameters-in-chronic-hiv-infection
#16
J Boban, D Kozic, V Turkulov, D Lendak, M Bjelan, M Semnic, S Brkic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has failed to reduce the high prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to test the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on brain metabolite ratios in chronic HIV infection by using proton chemical shift imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 2D chemical shift imaging in 91 subjects (31 HIV+ patients with chronic infection on combination antiretroviral therapy, 19 combination antiretroviral therapy-na|fkve HIV+ subjects with chronic infection, and 41 healthy controls), covering frontal and parietal subcortical white and cingulate gyrus gray matter, analyzing ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr on long-TE and mIns/Cr on short-TE MR spectroscopy...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426519/toward-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-special-considerations-of-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding
#18
Amy L Slogrove, Polly Clayden, Elaine J Abrams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are prepared for introduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), we consider the current evidence related to dosing, efficacy and safety during pregnancy and breastfeeding of next-generation first-line and second-line ART regimens proposed for imminent introduction in the global marketplace. RECENT FINDINGS: Pregnancy pharmacokinetic considerations include potentially insufficient efavirenz exposure if dosed at 400 mg/day, the need for twice daily darunavir dosing and the paucity of data related to tenofovir alafenamide and dolutegravir dosing, safety and efficacy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422961/characterization-of-the-mechanism-of-drug-drug-interactions-from-pubmed-using-mesh-terms
#19
Yin Lu, Bryan Figler, Hong Huang, Yi-Cheng Tu, Ju Wang, Feng Cheng
Identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for the development of safe pharmaceutical drugs and for the optimization of multidrug regimens for complex diseases such as cancer and HIV. There have been about 150,000 publications on DDIs in PubMed, which is a great resource for DDI studies. In this paper, we introduced an automatic computational method for the systematic analysis of the mechanism of DDIs using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms from PubMed literature. MeSH term is a controlled vocabulary thesaurus developed by the National Library of Medicine for indexing and annotating articles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422787/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#20
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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