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West nile fever

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638845/detection-of-the-northeastern-african-rift-valley-fever-virus-lineage-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-mauritania
#1
Ndeye Sakha Bob, Hampâté Bâ, Gamou Fall, Elkhalil Ishagh, Mamadou Y Diallo, Abdourahmane Sow, Pape Mbacké Sembene, Ousmane Faye, Brahim El Kouri, Mohamed Lemine Sidi, Amadou Alpha Sall
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. METHODS: An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628400/west-nile-virus-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-palestine-and-israel
#2
Kifaya Azmi, Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Mu'taz Manasrah, Rotem Mizrahi, Abed Nasereddin, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Suheir Ereqat, Ziad Abdeen, Yaniv Lustig, Boris Gelman, Gili Schvartz, Amir Steinman
West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622360/the-seroprevalence-of-west-nile-virus-in-israel-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#3
Ravit Bassal, Tamy Shohat, Zalman Kaufman, Batya Mannasse, Eilat Shinar, Doron Amichay, Mira Barak, Anat Ben-Dor, Adina Bar Haim, Daniel Cohen, Ella Mendelson, Yaniv Lustig
West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel, affecting yearly 40-160 individuals. Israel is located on a central migratory path between Africa and Eurasia and most West Nile Fever (WNF) cases reported in recent years were among residents of the coastal plain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of WNV among the Israeli population and to assess correlates for WNV infection. A cross-sectional nationwide serologic survey was conducted using 3,145 serum samples collected by the national Israeli serum bank during 2011-2014, representing all age and population groups in Israel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583207/knockdown-resistance-kdr-of-the-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-of-aedes-aegypti-population-in-denpasar-bali-indonesia
#4
Penny Humaidah Hamid, Joko Prastowo, Anis Widyasari, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of several arthropod-borne viral infections in the tropics profoundly affecting humans, such as dengue fever (DF), West Nile (WN), chikungunya and more recently Zika. Eradication of Aedes still largely depends on insecticides, which is the most cost-effective strategy, and often inefficient due to resistance development in exposed Aedes populations. We here conducted a study of Ae. aegypti resistance towards several insecticides regularly used in the city of Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia...
June 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577343/de-novo-rna-synthesis-catalyzed-by-the-zika-virus-rna-polymerase-domain
#5
Christina Calmels, Michel Ventura, Cindy Aknin, Mathieu Métifiot, Marie-Line Andreola
Mosquito- and tick-borne pathogens including Chikungunya, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow fever and Zika virus, represent a new economic and public health challenge. In the absence of effective vaccines and specific therapies, only supportive regimens are administrated for most of these infections. Thus, the development of a targeted therapy is mandatory to stop the rapid progression of these pathogens and preoccupant associated burdens such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, microcephaly. For this, it is essential to develop biochemical tools to help study and target key viral enzymes involved in replication such as helicase complexes, methyl-transferases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570620/viral-etiologies-in-adult-patients-with-encephalitis-in-poland-a-prospective-single-center-study
#6
Marta Popiel, Karol Perlejewski, Agnieszka Bednarska, Tomasz Dzieciątkowski, Marcin Paciorek, Dariusz Lipowski, Monika Jabłonowska, Hanna Czeszko-Paprocka, Iwona Bukowska-Ośko, Kamila Caraballo Cortes, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Maria Fic, Andrzej Horban, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
Encephalitis is a severe neurological syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as long-term neurological sequelae. Despite being an important public health problem, very few extensive population-based studies were conducted so far in the world and none in Central Europe. Altogether 114 consecutive patients meeting the initial criteria for encephalitis were enrolled at the Warsaw Hospital for Infectious Diseases between June 2012 and July 2015. Eighteen patients were secondarily excluded from the analysis due to incomplete data or noinfectious cause...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562637/identification-of-diagnostic-peptide-regions-that-distinguish-zika-virus-from-related-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses
#7
Alexandra J Lee, Roshni Bhattacharya, Richard H Scheuermann, Brett E Pickett
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flavivirus genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and other mosquito-borne arboviruses. Infection by ZIKV can be difficult to distinguish from infection by other mosquito-borne Flaviviruses due to high sequence similarity, serum antibody cross-reactivity, and virus co-circulation in endemic areas. Indeed, existing serological methods are not able to consistently differentiate ZIKV from other Flaviviruses, which makes it extremely difficult to accurately calculate the incidence rate of Zika-associated Guillain-Barre in adults, microcephaly in newborns, or asymptomatic infections within a geographical area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562600/effects-of-flood-irrigation-on-the-risk-of-selected-zoonotic-pathogens-in-an-arid-and-semi-arid-area-in-the-eastern-kenya
#8
Bernard Bett, Mohammed Y Said, Rosemary Sang, Salome Bukachi, Salome Wanyoike, Shem C Kifugo, Fredrick Otieno, Enoch Ontiri, Ian Njeru, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace
To investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern Kenya. Activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (LULC) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological surveys in people to determine the risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), dengue fever virus (DFV), Leptospira spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560654/newer-vaccines-against-mosquito-borne-diseases
#9
Anju Aggarwal, Neha Garg
Mosquitos are responsible for a number of protozoal and viral diseases. Malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya epidemics occur commonly all over the world, leading to marked mortality and morbidity in children. Zika, Yellow fever and West Nile fever are others requiring prevention. Environmental control and mosquito bite prevention are useful in decreasing the burden of disease but vaccination has been found to be most cost-effective and is the need of the hour. RTS,S/AS01 vaccine is the first malaria vaccine being licensed for use against P...
May 31, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542603/a-conformational-switch-high-throughput-screening-assay-and-allosteric-inhibition-of-the-flavivirus-ns2b-ns3-protease
#10
Matthew Brecher, Zhong Li, Binbin Liu, Jing Zhang, Cheri A Koetzner, Adham Alifarag, Susan A Jones, Qishan Lin, Laura D Kramer, Hongmin Li
The flavivirus genome encodes a single polyprotein precursor requiring multiple cleavages by host and viral proteases in order to produce the individual proteins that constitute an infectious virion. Previous studies have revealed that the NS2B cofactor of the viral NS2B-NS3 heterocomplex protease displays a conformational dynamic between active and inactive states. Here, we developed a conformational switch assay based on split luciferase complementation (SLC) to monitor the conformational change of NS2B and to characterize candidate allosteric inhibitors...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509947/-arboviruses-also-have-an-american-dream
#11
F Rodhain
Some arboviruses that originated in the Old World have been introduced by humans into the American continent. The first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the West African coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the Americas. Next was theWest Nile virus, introduced in New York in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. Then, Chikungunya virus arrived on Saint Martin Island in 2013 after its outbreak in Polynesia; it is now widespread in the Caribbean Islands and on the American continent from the United States to Brazil...
May 16, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506240/inhibitors-compounds-of-the-flavivirus-replication-process
#12
REVIEW
Leidy L García, Leonardo Padilla, Jhon C Castaño
Flaviviruses are small viruses with single-stranded RNA, which include the yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Zika virus; and are causal agents of the most important emerging diseases that have no available treatment to date. In recent years, the strategy has focused on the development of replication inhibitors of these viruses designed to act mainly by affecting the activity of enzyme proteins, such as NS3 and NS5, which perform important functions in the viral replication process...
May 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504449/a-decade-of-colonization-the-spread-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-in-pennsylvania-and-implications-for-disease-risk
#13
Eric D Taber, Michael L Hutchinson, Erica A H Smithwick, Justine I Blanford
In recent decades, the Asian tiger mosquito expanded its geographic range throughout the northeastern United States, including Pennsylvania. The establishment of Aedes albopictus in novel areas raises significant public health concerns, since this species is a highly competent vector of several arboviruses, including chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue. In this study, we used geographic information systems (GIS) to examine a decade of colonization by Ae. albopictus throughout Pennsylvania between 2001 and 2010...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499872/interaction-of-flavivirus-with-their-mosquito-vectors-and-their-impact-on-the-human-health-in-the-americas
#14
Anayansi Valderrama, Yamilka Diaz, Sandra López-Vergès
Some of the major arboviruses with public health importance, such as dengue, yellow fever, Zika and West Nile virus are mosquito-borne or mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus. Their principal vectors are from the family Culicidae, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus being responsible of the urban cycles of dengue, Zika and yellow fever virus. These vectors are highly competent for transmission of many arboviruses. The genetic variability of the vectors, the environment and the viral diversity modulate the vector competence, in this context, it is important to determine which vector species is responsible of an outbreak in areas where many vectors coexist...
May 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494844/west-nile-virus-surveillance-in-europe-moving-towards-an-integrated-animal-human-vector-approach
#15
Céline M Gossner, Laurence Marrama, Marianne Carson, Franz Allerberger, Paolo Calistri, Dimitrios Dilaveris, Sylvie Lecollinet, Dilys Morgan, Norbert Nowotny, Marie-Claire Paty, Danai Pervanidou, Caterina Rizzo, Helen Roberts, Friedrich Schmoll, Wim Van Bortel, Andrea Gervelmeyer
This article uses the experience of five European countries to review the integrated approaches (human, animal and vector) for surveillance and monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) at national and European levels. The epidemiological situation of West Nile fever in Europe is heterogeneous. No model of surveillance and monitoring fits all, hence this article merely encourages countries to implement the integrated approach that meets their needs. Integration of surveillance and monitoring activities conducted by the public health authorities, the animal health authorities and the authorities in charge of vector surveillance and control should improve efficiency and save resources by implementing targeted measures...
May 4, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472971/larvicidal-activity-of-lignans-and-alkaloid-identified-in-zanthoxylum-piperitum-bark-toward-insecticide-susceptible-and-wild-culex-pipiens-pallens-and-aedes-aegypti
#16
Soon-Il Kim, Young-Joon Ahn
BACKGROUND: The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens, transmit dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the three lignans (-)-asarinin, sesamin and (+)-xanthoxylol-γ,γ-dimethylallylether (XDA), and the alkaloid pellitorine from Zanthoxylum piperitum (Rutaceae) bark to third-instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible C. pipiens pallens and Ae. aegypti as well as wild C...
May 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471403/pathogenesis-and-inhibition-of-flaviviruses-from-a-carbohydrate-perspective
#17
REVIEW
So Young Kim, Bing Li, Robert J Linhardt
Flaviviruses are enveloped, positive single stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses with various routes of transmission. While the type and severity of symptoms caused by pathogenic flaviviruses vary from hemorrhagic fever to fetal abnormalities, their general mechanism of host cell entry is similar. All pathogenic flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Zika virus, bind to glycosaminglycans (GAGs) through the putative GAG binding sites within their envelope proteins to gain access to the surface of host cells...
May 4, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469032/rapid-and-specific-detection-of-asian-and-african-lineage-zika-viruses
#18
Nunya Chotiwan, Connie D Brewster, Tereza Magalhaes, James Weger-Lucarelli, Nisha K Duggal, Claudia Rückert, Chilinh Nguyen, Selene M Garcia Luna, Joseph R Fauver, Barb Andre, Meg Gray, William C Black, Rebekah C Kading, Gregory D Ebel, Guillermina Kuan, Angel Balmaseda, Thomas Jaenisch, Ernesto T A Marques, Aaron C Brault, Eva Harris, Brian D Foy, Sandra L Quackenbush, Rushika Perera, Joel Rovnak
Understanding the dynamics of Zika virus transmission and formulating rational strategies for its control require precise diagnostic tools that are also appropriate for resource-poor environments. We have developed a rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that distinguishes Zika viruses of Asian and African lineages. The assay does not detect chikungunya virus or flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, or West Nile viruses. The assay conditions allowed direct detection of Zika virus RNA in cultured infected cells; in mosquitoes; in virus-spiked samples of human blood, plasma, saliva, urine, and semen; and in infected patient serum, plasma, and semen samples without the need for RNA isolation or reverse transcription...
May 3, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468299/historical-perspectives-on-flavivirus-research
#19
REVIEW
Michael R Holbrook
The flaviviruses are small single-stranded RNA viruses that are typically transmitted by mosquito or tick vectors. These "arboviruses" are found around the world and account for a significant number of cases of human disease. The flaviviruses cause diseases ranging from mild or sub-clinical infections to lethal hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis. In many cases, survivors of neurologic flavivirus infections suffer long-term debilitating sequelae. Much like the emergence of West Nile virus in the United States in 1999, the recent emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has significantly increased the awareness of mosquito-borne viruses...
April 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452107/neuroinvasive-st-louis-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#20
C A Hartmann, H R Vikram, M T Seville, R Orenstein, S Kusne, J E Blair, T E Grys, R L Patron
In summer 2015, three unrelated solid organ transplant recipients in Phoenix, Arizona, had meningoencephalitis suggestive of West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Testing was inconclusive but was later confirmed as St. Louis encephalitis (SLE). We retrospectively reviewed clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes of these transplant recipients. Common symptoms were fever, rigors, diarrhea, headache, and confusion. One patient died 3 days after hospitalization. Therapy for the other two patients was initiated with interferon α-2b (IFN) and intravenous IgG (IVIG; IFN plus IVIG in combination)...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
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