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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#1
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131357/zika-virus-what-we-need-to-know
#2
REVIEW
Farakh Javed, Khanzadi N Manzoor, Mubashar Ali, Irshad U Haq, Abid A Khan, Assad Zaib, Sobia Manzoor
Zika virus is one of the emerging viruses and is of significant threat to human health globally. It is a mosquito borne flavivirus similar to dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. It was reported about 5 decades ago and then it spreads to different parts of the world. Large outbreaks were reported on Yap Islands in 2007. Now it has gained wide attention globally by health communities. Major vector for virus transmission is Aedes aegypti mosquito. ZIKV infection is mostly asymptomatic but it is also responsible to cause mild influenza like illness to serious manifestations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119349/southern-california-neuroinvasive-west-nile-virus-case-series
#3
Chirag B Patel, Bhavesh V Trikamji, Glenn E Mathisen, Shrikant K Mishra
Approximately 80% of individuals infected with West Nile virus (WNV) are asymptomatic, and less than 1% suffer from neuroinvasion that can result in permanent neurological deficits or mortality. Our institution's location in southern California predisposes it to a sizable case volume of neuroinvasive WNV. A 2-year retrospective study was performed at the Olive View-UCLA Medical Center to identify patients with confirmed WNV infection with neuroinvasion. Patient demographics, neurological exam findings, and laboratory diagnostics were reviewed...
November 8, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109710/aedes-aegypti-molecular-responses-to-zika-virus-modulation-of-infection-by-the-toll-and-jak-stat-immune-pathways-and-virus-host-factors
#4
Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Hannah J MacLeod, Seokyoung Kang, Jenny S Carlson, Natapong Jupatanakul, George Dimopoulos
Zika (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. However, the molecular interactions between the vector and ZIKV remain largely unexplored. In this work, we further investigated the tropism of ZIKV in two different Aedes aegypti strains and show that the virus infection kinetics, tissue migration, and susceptibility to infection differ between mosquito strains. We also compare the vector transcriptome changes upon ZIKV or DENV infection demonstrating that 40% of the mosquito's midgut infection-responsive transcriptome is virus-specific at 7 days after virus ingestion...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084217/wolbachia-effects-on-rift-valley-fever-virus-infection-in-culex-tarsalis-mosquitoes
#5
Brittany L Dodson, Elizabeth S Andrews, Michael J Turell, Jason L Rasgon
Innovative tools are needed to alleviate the burden of mosquito-borne diseases, and strategies that target the pathogen are being considered. A possible tactic is the use of Wolbachia, a maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacterium that can (but does not always) suppress diverse pathogens when introduced to naive mosquito species. We investigated effects of somatic Wolbachia (strain wAlbB) infection on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. When compared to Wolbachia-uninfected mosquitoes, there was no significant effect of Wolbachia infection on RVFV infection, dissemination, or transmission frequencies, nor on viral body or saliva titers...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075656/rearing-of-culex-spp-and-aedes-spp-mosquitoes
#6
Elizabeth Kauffman, Anne Payne, Mary A Franke, Michael A Schmid, Eva Harris, Laura D Kramer
Mosquito-transmitted pathogens cause major public health problems and contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Aedes mosquitoes transmit dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and Chikungunya viruses; Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses, among others. Experiments utilizing laboratory-reared colonized mosquitoes can address many issues such as vector biology, vector competence, vector-pathogen interaction, and vector control. The establishment of healthy and standardized mosquito colonies requires generation and implementation of protocols, attention to detail, and an understanding of the factors that affect mosquito fitness, such as temperature and humidity, nutrient quality and availability, population density, blood feeding and mating behavior, and egg-laying requirements...
September 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070887/new-reverse-genetics-and-transfection-methods-to-rescue-arboviruses-in-mosquito-cells
#7
Thérèse Atieh, Antoine Nougairède, Raphaëlle Klitting, Fabien Aubry, Anna-Bella Failloux, Xavier de Lamballerie, Stéphane Priet
Reverse genetics is a critical tool to decrypt the biological properties of arboviruses. However, whilst reverse genetics methods have been usually applied to vertebrate cells, their use in insect cells remains uncommon due to the conjunction of laborious molecular biology techniques and of specific difficulties surrounding the transfection of such cells. To leverage reverse genetics studies in both vertebrate and mosquito cells, we designed an improved DNA transfection protocol for insect cells and then demonstrated that the simple and flexible ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) reverse-genetics method can be efficiently applied to both mammalian and mosquito cells to generate in days recombinant infectious positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to genera Flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, Yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya virus)...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053401/are-we-prepared-for-emerging-flaviviruses-in-europe-challenges-for-vaccination
#8
Patricia Kaaijk, Willem Luytjes
Tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile fever are endemic flavivirus diseases in Europe. Climate change, virus evolution, and social factors may increase the risk of these flavivirus infections and may lead to the emergence of other flaviviruses in Europe that are endemic in (sub)tropical regions of the world. Control of the spread of flaviviruses is very difficult considering the cycling of flaviviruses between arthropod vectors and animal reservoir hosts. The increasing threat of flavivirus infections emphasizes the necessity of a sustainable vector surveillance system, an active animal health surveillance system and an adequate human surveillance system for early detection of flavivirus infections...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044082/rickettsial-retinitis-direct-bacterial-infection-or-an-immune-mediated-response
#9
Rohan Chawla, Gadkar Amit Pundlik, Rama Chaudhry, Chandan Thakur
Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc. Rickettsia is Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropods vectors. Ocular involvement is common including conjunctivitis, keratitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis, retinitis, retinal vascular changes, and optic nerve involvement. Retinitis lesions in rickettsia can occur because of an immunological response to the bacteria or because of direct invasion and proliferation of bacteria in the inner retina...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991176/innate-immune-evasion-mediated-by-flaviviridae-non-structural-proteins
#10
REVIEW
Shun Chen, Zhen Wu, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Flaviviridae-caused diseases are a critical, emerging public health problem worldwide. Flaviviridae infections usually cause severe, acute or chronic diseases, such as liver damage and liver cancer resulting from a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and high fever and shock caused by yellow fever. Many researchers worldwide are investigating the mechanisms by which Flaviviridae cause severe diseases. Flaviviridae can interfere with the host's innate immunity to achieve their purpose of proliferation. For instance, dengue virus (DENV) NS2A, NS2B3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5; HCV NS2, NS3, NS3/4A, NS4B and NS5A; and West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 and NS4B proteins are involved in immune evasion...
October 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986827/sampling-design-and-mosquito-trapping-for-surveillance-of-arboviral-activity
#11
Luís E Paternina, Juan David Rodas
Mosquitoes are the most important vectors for arboviral human diseases across the world. Diseases such as Dengue Fever (DF), West Nile Virus (WNV), Yellow Fever (YF), Japanese Encephalitis (JE), Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE), and St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE), among others, have a deep impact in public health. Usually mosquitoes acquire the arboviral infection when they feed on viremic animals (birds or mammals), so their infection can be detected along the year or in short periods of time (seasons). All of this depends on the frequency and seasonality of the encounters between viremic animals and vectors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986822/global-spread-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-predicting-pandemics
#12
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959858/-progress-in-zika-virus-and-its-vaccines
#13
Deqiao Tian, Wei Chen
Like Yellow fever virus, Dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, Zika virus is also a mosquito-borne flavivirus. Since it was isolated in 1947, there has been little concern over Zika virus due to its limited distribution and mild symptoms. In recent years, especially since 2015, Zika virus has become a global concern because of its outbreak in Brazil and associated microcephaly. Vaccines against Zika virus, regarded as the effective measures to control Zika fever epidemic, are being developed in nearly thirty institutions worldwide...
January 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934431/genetic-profiling-and-comorbidities-of-zika-infection
#14
Mohammad Ali Moni, Pietro Lio'
Background: The difficulty in distinguishing infection by Zika virus (ZIKV) from other flaviviruses is a global health concern, particularly given the high risk of neurologic complications (including Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS]) with ZIKV infection. Methods: We developed quantitative frameworks to compare and explore infectome, diseasome, and comorbidity of ZIKV infections. We analyzed gene expression microarray and RNA-Seq data from ZIKV, West Nile fever (WNF), chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, GBS, and control datasets...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915240/improved-reliability-of-serological-tools-for-the-diagnosis-of-west-nile-fever-in-horses-within-europe
#15
Cécile Beck, Steeve Lowenski, Benoit Durand, Céline Bahuon, Stéphan Zientara, Sylvie Lecollinet
West Nile Fever is a zoonotic disease caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus, WNV. By its clinical sensitivity to the disease, the horse is a useful sentinel of infection. Because of the virus' low-level, short-term viraemia in horses, the primary tools used to diagnose WNV are serological tests. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests (ILPTs) were held in 2010 and 2013 to evaluate WNV serological diagnostic tools suited for the European network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for equine diseases. These ILPTs were designed to evaluate the laboratories' and methods' performances in detecting WNV infection in horses through serology...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877682/epidemiologic-and-clinical-parameters-of-west-nile-virus-infections-in-humans-a-scoping-review
#16
Man Wah Yeung, Emily Shing, Mark Nelder, Beate Sander
BACKGROUND: Clinical syndromes associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infection range from fever to neuroinvasive disease. Understanding WNV epidemiology and disease history is important for guiding patient care and healthcare decision-making. The objective of this review was to characterize the existing body of peer-reviewed and surveillance literature on WNV syndromes and summarize epidemiologic and clinical parameters. METHODS: We followed scoping review methodology described by the Joanna Briggs Institute...
September 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869941/identifying-attenuating-mutations-tools-for-a-new-vaccine-design-against-flaviviruses
#17
Cécile Khou, Nathalie Pardigon
Emerging Flaviviruses pose an increasing threat to global human health. To date, human vaccines against yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) exist. However, there is no human vaccine against other Flaviviruses such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV). In order to restrict their spread and to protect populations against the diseases they induce, vaccines against these emerging viruses must be designed. Obtaining new live attenuated Flavivirus vaccines using molecular biology methods is now possible...
2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846489/zika-chikungunya-and-other-emerging-vector-borne-viral-diseases
#18
Scott C Weaver, Caroline Charlier, Nikos Vasilakis, Marc Lecuit
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of emerging to infect humans, but during recent decades, they have been spreading more widely and affecting larger populations. This is due to several factors, including increased air travel and uncontrolled mosquito vector populations. Emergence can involve simple spillover from enzootic (wildlife) cycles, as in the case of West Nile virus accompanying geographic expansion into the Americas; secondary amplification in domesticated animals, as seen with Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever viruses; and urbanization, in which humans become the amplification hosts and peridomestic mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, mediate human-to-human transmission...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815931/organization-of-the-flavivirus-rna-replicase-complex
#19
REVIEW
Carolin Brand, Martin Bisaillon, Brian J Geiss
Flaviviruses, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, are serious human pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality globally each year. Flaviviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses, and encode two multidomain proteins, NS3 and NS5, that possess all enzymatic activities required for genome replication and capping. NS3 and NS5 interact within virus-induced replication compartments to form the RNA genome replicase complex. Although the individual enzymatic activities of both proteins have been extensively studied and are well characterized, there are still gaps in our understanding of how they interact to efficiently coordinate their respective activities during positive-strand RNA synthesis and capping...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810044/swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-west-nile-virus-chorioretinitis-and-associated-occlusive-retinal-vasculitis
#20
Moncef Khairallah, Rim Kahloun, Salma Gargouri, Bechir Jelliti, Dorra Sellami, Salim Ben Yahia, Jamel Feki
A 65-year-old man with diabetes and a history of fever of unknown origin 2 weeks earlier complained of sudden decreased vision in the left eye. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral West Nile virus (WNV) chorioretinitis associated with occlusive retinal vasculitis in the left eye. Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) of the left eye showed extensive, well-delineated, hypointense non-perfusion areas and perifoveal capillary arcade disruption in the superficial capillary plexus, as well as larger non-perfusion areas, capillary rarefaction, and diffuse capillary network attenuation and disorganization in the deep capillary plexus...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
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