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Non celiac gluten sensitivity

Julia König, Jerry Wells, Patrice D Cani, Clara L García-Ródenas, Tom MacDonald, Annick Mercenier, Jacqueline Whyte, Freddy Troost, Robert-Jan Brummer
The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Anastasia V Balakireva, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Theterm gluten intolerance may refer to three types of human disorders: autoimmune celiac disease (CD), allergy to wheat and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Gluten is a mixture of prolamin proteins present mostly in wheat, but also in barley, rye and oat. Gluten can be subdivided into three major groups: S-rich, S-poor and high molecular weight proteins. Prolamins within the groups possess similar structures and properties. All gluten proteins are evolutionarily connected and share the same ancestral origin...
October 18, 2016: Nutrients
Maria Teresa Bardella, Luca Elli, Francesca Ferretti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A new syndrome responding to gluten-free diet and defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity entered the spectrum of gluten-related disorders, together with celiac disease and wheat allergy. However, its definition, prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and follow up are still controversial. The purpose of the review is to summarize the evidence and problems emerging from the current literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct implication of gluten in the onset of symptoms is often unproved as a low fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols diet or other components of cereals as wheat amylase trypsin inhibitor could be similarly involved...
December 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Pravin M Rathi, Vinay G Zanwar
There has been increasing interest in the entity "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity" in recent years which was first of its in 1980s. This "re-discovered" disorder is characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms which occur after ingestion of gluten containing food. The number of such patients who neither have celiac disease nor wheat allergy, but appear to benefit from gluten withdrawal is increasing substantially. However it still remains a controversial and its pathogenesis is not well understood...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Christian Barmeyer, Michael Schumann, Tim Meyer, Christina Zielinski, Torsten Zuberbier, Britta Siegmund, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Severin Daum, Reiner Ullrich
PURPOSE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common but therapies are unsatisfactory. Food is often suspected as cause by patients, but diagnostic procedures, apart from allergy testing, are limited. Based on the hypothesis of non-celiac wheat sensitivity (WS) in a subgroup of IBS patients, we tested the long-term response to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and investigated HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 expression as a diagnostic marker for WS in diarrhea-dominant (IBS-D) and mixed-type IBS (IBS-M). METHODS: The response to a GFD served as reference test for WS and HLA-DQ2/8 expression was determined as index test...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Fabiana Zingone, Chiara Bartalini, Monica Siniscalchi, Monica Ruotolo, Cristina Bucci, Ivonne Morra, Paola Iovino, Carolina Ciacci
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is evidence that food components beyond gluten cause symptoms in patients with gluten sensitivity without celiac disease (nonceliac gluten sensitivity [NCGS]). We investigated the diets and nutritional characteristics of patients with NCGS. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of 29 patients with NCGS seen at the outpatient clinic for celiac disease and other food intolerances of the University of Salerno in Italy from September 2015 through April 2016...
August 21, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Oana Mocan, Dan L Dumitraşcu
The celiac disease is an immune chronic condition with genetic transmission, caused by the intolerance to gluten. Gluten is a protein from cereals containing the following soluble proteins: gliadine, which is the most toxic, and the prolamins. The average prevalence is about 1% in USA and Europe, but high in Africa: 5.6% in West Sahara. In the pathogenesis several factors are involved: gluten as external trigger, genetic predisposition (HLA, MYO9B), viral infections, abnormal immune reaction to gluten. Severity is correlated with the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes, cryptic hyperplasia and villous atrophy, as well as with the length of intestinal involvement...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
Javier Molina-Infante, Antonio Carroccio
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, gluten challenge has been proposed to confirm a diagnosis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) in patients without celiac disease who respond to a gluten-free diet. To determine the accuracy of this approach, we analyzed data from 10 double-blind, placebo-controlled, gluten challenge trials, comprising 1312 adults. The studies varied in the duration of the challenge (ranging from 1 day to 6 weeks), daily doses for the gluten challenge (ranging from 2 g to 52 g; 3 studies administered less than 8 g/day), and composition of the placebo (gluten-free products, xylose, whey protein, rice, or corn starch containing fermentable carbohydrates)...
August 11, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Laura Gazza, Gloria Gazzelloni, Federica Taddei, Arianna Latini, Vera Muccilli, Michela Alfieri, Salvatore Conti, Rita Redaelli, Norberto E Pogna
Oat kernels exhibit an extra-soft texture, a trait recently demonstrated to be largely modulated by starch-bound tryptophan-rich 2S proteins, the vromindolines. In this study, fractionation by two-dimensional electrophoresis of starch-bound proteins in 25 oat (Avena sativa) cultivars and 11 diploid or tetraploid Avena species revealed novel 2S proteins called Avena α-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (AATI) because of their sequence similarity with wheat α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Thirty-seven AATI polypeptides, about 14 kDa in size, were split into three families named AATI-1, AATI-2, and AATI-3 with different primary structures and isoelectric points...
August 5, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Giovanni Casella, Davide Viganò, Carlo Romano Settanni, Olivia Morelli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
Celiac disease is characterized by a gluten-induced damage of the small bowel in sensitive individuals that may cause malabsorption. Non-intestinal inflammatory diseases may trigger immunologic gluten intolerance in susceptible people and the HCV virus may be considered as a suitable candidate. Interferon therapy could precipitate symptom onset in subjects with silent celiac disease. In fact, symptoms such as diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss may occur during interferon therapy and are associated with serological positivity of anti-tranglutaminase antibodies...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Umberto Volta, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Elisa Boschetti, Giacomo Caio, Roberto De Giorgio, Elena F Verdu
A tight link exists between dietary factors and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most common functional syndromes, characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and alternating bowel habits. Amongst the variety of foods potentially evoking "food sensitivity", gluten and other wheat proteins including amylase trypsin inhibitors represent the culprits that recently have drawn the attention of the scientific community. Therefore, a newly emerging condition termed non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or nonceliac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is now well established in the clinical practice...
October 30, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Mercè Rosinach, Fernando Fernández-Bañares, Anna Carrasco, Montserrat Ibarra, Rocío Temiño, Antonio Salas, Maria Esteve
BACKGROUND: The role of gluten as a trigger of symptoms in non-coeliac gluten sensitivity has been questioned. AIM: To demonstrate that gluten is the trigger of symptoms in a subgroup of patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), which presented with lymphocytic enteritis, positive celiac genetics and negative celiac serology. METHODS: Double-blind randomized clinical trial of gluten vs placebo rechallenge...
2016: PloS One
Karol Sestak, Hazel Thwin, Jason Dufour, David X Liu, Xavier Alvarez, David Laine, Adam Clarke, Anthony Doyle, Pyone P Aye, James Blanchard, Charles P Moehs
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies...
2016: Nutrients
Fotini Tania Mitsinikos, Michelle Pietzak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
Sylvia Cruchet, Yalda Lucero, Verónica Cornejo
Different dietary approaches have been attempted for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism, but only three of them have been subjected to clinical trials: education in healthy nutritional habits, supplementation and elimination diets. On the other hand, for multiple reasons, the number of people who adopt vegetarian and gluten-free diets (GFD) increases daily. More recently, a new entity, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), with a still evolving definition and clinical spectrum, has been described...
2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Martin Raithel, Anna Katharina Kluger, Birgit Dietz, Urban Hetterich
The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet...
July 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Hilary Jericho, Asaad Assiri, Stefano Guandalini
Since the first description of celiac disease (CeD) by Samuel Gee in 1888 and the later "miraculous discovery" that bread was responsible for this condition following World War II in Europe there has been an exponential growth of knowledge regarding CeD. However, just when we thought that we knew everything there was to know about it, the disease is offering new challenges, with its presentaton having significantly morphed over the years from cases of overt gastrointestinal symptoms, malnutrition, and atrophic villi on duodenal biopsies to that of largely extra-intestinal, subtle or mild symptoms...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Celia Escudero-Hernández, Amado Salvador Peña, David Bernardo
Celiac disease is the most common oral intolerance in Western countries. It results from an immune response towards gluten proteins from certain cereals in genetically predisposed individuals (HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8). Its pathogenesis involves the adaptive (HLA molecules, transglutaminase 2, dendritic cells, and CD4(+) T-cells) and the innate immunity with an IL-15-mediated response elicited in the intraepithelial compartment. At present, the only treatment is a permanent strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Multidisciplinary studies have provided a deeper insight of the genetic and immunological factors and their interaction with the microbiota in the pathogenesis of the disease...
July 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
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